Publications by authors named "Marek Trneny"

127 Publications

Total metabolic tumor volume as a survival predictor for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the GOYA study.

Haematologica 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

First Department of Medicine, Charles University General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

This retrospective analysis of the phase III GOYA study investigated the prognostic value of baseline metabolic tumor volume parameters and maximum standardized uptake values for overall and progression-free survival in treatment-naïve diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Baseline total metabolic tumor volume (determined for tumors >1 mL using a threshold of 1.5 times the mean liver standardized uptake value +2 standard deviations), total lesion glycolysis, and maximum standardized uptake value positron emission tomography data were dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic analysis and divided into quartiles by baseline population distribution. Of 1,418 enrolled patients, 1,305 had a baseline positron emission tomography scan with detectable lesions. Optimal cut-offs were 366 cm3 for total metabolic tumor volume and 3,004g for total lesion glycolysis. High total metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis predicted poorer progression-free survival, with associations retained after adjustment for baseline and disease characteristics (high total metabolic tumor volume hazard ratio: 1.71 [95% CI, 1.35-2.18]; total lesion glycolysis hazard ratio: 1.46 [95% CI, 1.15-1.86]). Total metabolic tumor volume was prognostic for progression-free survival in subgroups with International Prognostic Index scores 0-2 and 3-5, and those with different cell-of-origin subtypes. Maximum standardized uptake value had no prognostic value in this setting. High total metabolic tumor volume associated with high International Prognostic Index or non-germinal center B-cell classification identified the highest-risk cohort for unfavorable prognosis. In conclusion, baseline total metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis are independent predictors of progression-free survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after first-line immunochemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2021.278663DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic significance of FCGR2B expression for the response of DLBCL patients to rituximab or obinutuzumab treatment.

Blood Adv 2021 08;5(15):2945-2957

School of Cancer Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Fc γ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) is an inhibitory molecule capable of reducing antibody immunotherapy efficacy. We hypothesized its expression could confer resistance in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) chemoimmunotherapy, with outcomes varying depending on mAb (rituximab [R]/obinutuzumab [G]) because of different mechanisms of action. We evaluated correlates between FCGR2B messenger RNA and/or FcγRIIB protein expression and outcomes in 3 de novo DLBCL discovery cohorts treated with R plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) reported by Arthur, Schmitz, and Reddy, and R-CHOP/G-CHOP-treated patients in the GOYA trial (NCT01287741). In the discovery cohorts, higher FCGR2B expression was associated with significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS; Arthur: hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.19; P = .0360; Schmitz: HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26; P = .0243). Similar results were observed in GOYA with R-CHOP (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00-1.58; P = .0455), but not G-CHOP (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.69-1.20; P = .50). A nonsignificant trend that high FCGR2B expression favored G-CHOP over R-CHOP was observed (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P = .0622); however, low FCGR2B expression favored R-CHOP (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.00-2.50; P = .0503). In Arthur and GOYA, FCGR2B expression was associated with tumor FcγRIIB expression; correlating with shorter PFS for R-CHOP (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.04-4.50; P = .0378), but not G-CHOP (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.66-2.87; P = .3997). This effect was independent of established prognostic biomarkers. High FcγRIIB/FCGR2B expression has prognostic value in R-treated patients with DLBCL and may confer differential responsiveness to R-CHOP/G-CHOP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361458PMC
August 2021

Single-nucleotide Fcγ receptor polymorphisms do not impact obinutuzumab/rituximab outcome in patients with lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 08;5(15):2935-2944

School of Cancer Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to influence Fcγ receptor (FcγR) affinity and activity, but their effect on treatment response is unclear. We assessed their importance in the efficacy of obinutuzumab or rituximab combined with chemotherapy in untreated advanced follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the GALLIUM (www.clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01332968) and GOYA (#NCT01287741) trials, respectively. Genomic DNA was extracted from patients enrolled in GALLIUM (n = 1202) and GOYA (n = 1418). Key germline SNPs, FCGR2A R131H (rs1801274), FCGR3A F158V (rs396991), and FCGR2B I232T (rs1050501), were genotyped and assessed for their impact on investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). In both cohorts there was no prognostic effect of FCGR2A or FCGR3A. In FL, FCGR2B was associated with favorable PFS in univariate and multivariate analyses comparing I232T with I232I, with a more modest association for rituximab-treated (univariate: hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-1.14; P = .21) vs obinutuzumab-treated patients (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.91; P = .02). Comparing T232T with I232I, an association was found for obinutuzumab (univariate: HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.02-7.5; P = .0459). Neither observation retained significance after multiple-test adjustment. FCGR2B was associated with poorer PFS in multivariate analyses comparing T232T with I232I in rituximab- but not obinutuzumab-treated patients with DLBCL (HR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.71-11.32; P = .002; multiple-test-adjusted P = .03); however, this genotype was rare (n = 13). This study shows that FcγR genotype is not associated with response to rituximab/obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy in treatment-naive patients with advanced FL or DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361457PMC
August 2021

Autologous stem cell transplantation for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders after solid organ transplantation: a retrospective analysis from the Lymphoma Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 09 16;56(9):2118-2124. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Lymphoma Working Party EBMT, Paris, France.

Published data describing the efficacy and safety of autologous stem-cell transplantation (autoSCT) in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is limited to case reports. This is a retrospective analysis of 21 patients reported to the EBMT registry who received an autoSCT for PTLD post solid organ transplant (SOT). Median age at autoSCT was 47 (range: 22-71) years. The commonest SOTs were kidney (48%) and liver (24%). Commonest histologies included DLBCL-type PTLD (14/21) and plasmacytoma-like PTLD (3/21). Patients received a median of two lines of therapy (range: 1-4) pre-autoSCT. ECOG performance status pre-autoSCT was 0 in 14% and 1 in 86%. Remission status pre-autoSCT was CR 47% and PR 38%. BEAM conditioning was used in 57% and high-dose melphalan in 10%. The median follow-up post-autoSCT was 64 months for alive patients. 3-year PFS was 62% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44-87%] and 3-year OS was 61% [95% CI:43-86]. There were 12 deaths, including four related to autoSCT. 100-day non-relapse-mortality (NRM) was 14% and 1-year NRM was 24%. This study suggests that autoSCT, although feasible and with potential therapeutic activity, is associated with a high NRM, primarily driven by infectious toxicity. A multi-disciplinary approach, expert microbiological input and stringent patient selection are required to optimise outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01270-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410594PMC
September 2021

End-of-treatment PET/CT predicts PFS and OS in DLBCL after first-line treatment: results from GOYA.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1283-1290

1st Department of Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

GOYA was a randomized phase 3 study comparing obinutuzumab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) vs standard-of-care rituximab plus CHOP in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective analysis of GOYA aimed to assess the association between progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with positron emission tomography (PET)-based complete response (CR) status. Overall, 1418 patients were randomly assigned to receive 8 21-day cycles of obinutuzumab (n = 706) or rituximab (n = 712) plus 6 or 8 cycles of CHOP. Patients received a mandatory fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-PET/computed tomography scan at baseline and end of treatment. After a median follow-up of 29 months, the numbers of independent review committee-assessed PFS and OS events in the entire cohort were 416 (29.3%) and 252 (17.8%), respectively. End-of-treatment PET CR was highly prognostic for PFS and OS according to Lugano 2014 criteria (PFS: hazard ratio [HR], 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.38; P < .0001; OS: HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.08-0.17; P < .0001), irrespective of international prognostic index score and cell of origin. In conclusion, the results from this prospectively acquired large cohort corroborated previously published data from smaller sample sizes showing that end-of-treatment PET CR is an independent predictor of PFS and OS and a promising prognostic marker in DLBCL. Long-term survival analysis confirmed the robustness of these data over time. Additional meta-analyses including other prospective studies are necessary to support the substitution of PET CR for PFS as an effective and practical surrogate end point. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287741.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948296PMC
March 2021

Prognostic impact of early-versus-late responses to different induction regimens in patients with myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: Results from the CALM study by the CMWP of the EBMT.

Eur J Haematol 2021 May 27;106(5):708-715. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

University Hospital of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, INSERM, Infinite, Lille, France.

Background: In autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)-eligible myeloma patients, prolonged induction does not necessarily improve the depth of response.

Method: We analyzed 1222 ASCT patients who were classified based on (a) the interval between induction and stem cell collection, (b) the type of induction regimen: BID (Bortezomib, IMiDs, and Dexamethasone), Bortezomib-based, or CTD (Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide, and Dexamethasone), and (c) the time to best response (Early ie, best response within 4 or 5 months, depending on the regimen vs Late; Good ie, VGPR or better vs Poor).

Results: The length of induction treatment required to achieve a Good response did not affect PFS (P = .65) or OS (P = .61) post-ASCT. The three types of regimen resulted in similar outcomes: median PFS 31, 27.7 and 30.8 months (P = .31), and median OS 81.7, 92.7, and 77.4 months, respectively (P = .83). On multivariate analysis, neither the type nor the duration of the induction regimen affected OS and PFS, except for Early Good Responders who had a better PFS compared to Early Poor Responders (HR = 1.21, P-value = .02). However, achieving a Good response at induction was associated with a better response (≥VGPR) post-transplant.

Conclusion: The kinetics of response did not affect outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13602DOI Listing
May 2021

A phase 2 study of venetoclax plus R-CHOP as first-line treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood 2021 02;137(5):600-609

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The phase 2 CAVALLI (NCT02055820) study assessed efficacy and safety of venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) inhibitor, with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in first-line (1L) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), including patients demonstrating Bcl-2 protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry (Bcl-2 IHC+). Eligible patients were ≥18 years of age and had previously untreated DLBCL, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2, and International Prognostic Index 2 to 5. Venetoclax 800 mg (days 4-10, cycle 1; days 1-10, cycles 2-8) was administered with rituximab (8 cycles) and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (6-8 cycles) in 21-day cycles. Primary end points were safety, tolerability, and research_plete response (CR) at end of treatment (EOT). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Comparative analyses used covariate-adjusted R-CHOP controls from the GOYA/BO21005 study, an appropriate contemporary benchmark for safety and efficacy. Safety and efficacy analyses included 206 patients. CR rate at EOT was 69% in the overall population and was maintained across Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups. With a median follow-up of 32.2 months, trends were observed for improved investigator-assessed PFS for venetoclax plus R-CHOP in the overall population (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.87) and Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89) vs R-CHOP. Despite a higher incidence of grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events (86%), related mortality was not increased (2%). Chemotherapy dose intensity was similar in CAVALLI vs GOYA. The addition of venetoclax to R-CHOP in 1L DLBCL demonstrates increased, but manageable, myelosuppression and the potential of improved efficacy, particularly in high-risk Bcl-2 IHC+ patient subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869186PMC
February 2021

BCL2 Expression in First-Line Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Identifies a Patient Population With Poor Prognosis.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 04 10;21(4):267-278.e10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Multidisciplinary Oncology Outpatient Clinic, Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO-IRCCS, Candiolo, Turin, Italy.

Introduction: The prognostic value of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy is of interest to define a target patient population for clinical development of BCL2 inhibitors. We aimed to develop a reproducible immunohistochemistry algorithm and assay to determine BCL2 protein expression and assess the prognostic value of BCL2 in newly diagnosed DLBCL cohorts.

Patients And Methods: The prospectively defined algorithm incorporated BCL2 staining intensity and percentage of BCL2-positive cells. Functionally relevant cutoffs were based on the sensitivity of lymphoma cell lines to venetoclax. This assay was highly reproducible across laboratories. The prognostic impact of BCL2 expression was assessed in DLBCL patients from the phase 3 MAIN (n = 230) and GOYA (n = 366) trials, and a population-based registry (n = 310).

Results: Approximately 50% of tumors were BCL2 positive, with a higher frequency in high International Prognostic Index (IPI) and activated B-cell-like DLBCL subgroups. BCL2 expression was associated with poorer progression-free survival in the MAIN study (hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-3.40; multivariate Cox regression adjusted for IPI and cell of origin). This trend was confirmed in the GOYA and registry cohorts in adjusted multivariate analyses (GOYA: HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.05-2.82; registry: HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.29-2.78). Patients with BCL2 immunohistochemistry-positive and IPI-high disease had the poorest prognosis: 3-year progression-free survival rates were 51% (GOYA) and 37% (registry).

Conclusion: Findings support use of our BCL2 immunohistochemistry scoring system and assay to select patients with BCL2-positive tumors for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.11.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Zanubrutinib for the treatment of MYD88 wild-type Waldenström macroglobulinemia: a substudy of the phase 3 ASPEN trial.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6009-6018

BeiGene USA, Inc., San Mateo, CA.

Patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) lacking activating mutations in the MYD88 gene (MYD88WT) have demonstrated relatively poor outcomes to ibrutinib monotherapy, with no major responses reported in a phase 2 pivotal study. Zanubrutinib is a novel, selective Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor designed to maximize BTK occupancy and minimize off-target activity. The ASPEN study consisted of a randomized comparison of zanubrutinib and ibrutinib efficacy and safety in patients with WM who have the MYD88 mutation, as well as a separate cohort of patients without MYD88 mutation (MYD88WT) or with unknown mutational status who received zanubrutinib. Results from the latter single-arm cohort are reported herein. Efficacy endpoints included overall, major and complete (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR) rates, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DOR), and overall survival (OS). Twenty-eight patients (23 relapsed/refractory; 5 treatment-naïve) were enrolled, including 26 with centrally confirmed MYD88WT disease and 2 with unknown MYD88 mutational status. At a median follow-up of 17.9 months, 7 of 26 MYD88WT patients (27%) had achieved a VGPR and 50% a major response (partial response or better); there were no CRs. At 18 months, the estimated PFS and OS rates were 68% and 88%, respectively, while the median DOR had not been reached. Two patients discontinued zanubrutinib due to adverse events. Treatment-emergent hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and major hemorrhages were reported in 3, 1 and 2 patients (including 1 concurrent with enoxaparin therapy), respectively. Results of this substudy demonstrate that zanubrutinib monotherapy can induce high quality responses in patients with MYD88WT WM. This trial is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT #03053440.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724905PMC
December 2020

CD31/PECAM-1 impacts engraftment, growth and spread of mantle cell lymphoma cells and positively correlates with extramedullary involvement.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 04 25;62(4):861-867. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Institute of Pathological Physiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1, CD31) is an immunoglobulin superfamily member expressed on the surface of platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells. The role of CD31 in biology of lymphomas has not yet been systemically studied. Expression of cell surface CD31 was analyzed by flow cytometry on primary MCL cells isolated from peripheral blood, bone marrow or malignant effusions obtained from 29 newly diagnosed MCL patients. CD31 was significantly more expressed in patients with documented extranodal involvement. Knock-down of CD31 expression in JEKO1 and MINO MCL cell lines hampered their subcutaneous engraftment in immunodeficient mice and prolonged overall survival of intravenously-xenografted animals. In contrast, transgenic overexpression of CD31 accelerated growth of subcutaneous JEKO1 and MINO tumors, shortened overall survival of intravenously-xenografted mice, and resulted in significantly increased frequency of extramedullary murine tissue infiltration Our observations suggest that CD31 facilitate survival and regulate extranodal spread of MCL cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1849678DOI Listing
April 2021

Cytarabine nanotherapeutics with increased stability and enhanced lymphoma uptake for tailored highly effective therapy of mantle cell lymphoma.

Acta Biomater 2021 01 11;119:349-359. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Institute of Pathological Physiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, U Nemocnice 5, 128 53 Prague 2, Czech Republic; First Department of Internal Medicine- Department of Hematology, University General Hospital in Prague and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, U Nemocnice 2, 128 08 Prague 2, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) with chronically relapsing clinical course. Implementation of cytarabine (araC) into induction and salvage regimen became standard of care for majority of MCL patients. In this study, tailored N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymer nanotherapeutics containing covalently bound araC (araC co-polymers) were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-lymphoma efficacy in vivo using a panel of six patient-derived lymphoma xenografts (PDX) derived from newly diagnosed and relapsed / refractory (R/R) MCL. While free araC led to temporary inhibition of growth of MCL tumors, araC co-polymers induced long-term disappearance of the engrafted lymphomas with no observed toxicity even in the case of PDX models derived from patients, who relapsed after high-dose araC-based treatments. The results provide sound preclinical rationale for the use of HPMA-based araC co-polymers in induction, salvage or palliative therapy of MCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.11.014DOI Listing
January 2021

Zanubrutinib monotherapy for patients with treatment naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 17p deletion.

Haematologica 2020 10 13;106(9):2354-2363. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma whose tumors carry deletion of chromosome 17p13.1 [del(17p)] have an unfavorable prognosis and respond poorly to standard chemoimmunotherapy. Zanubrutinib is a selective next-generation Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of zanubrutinib 160 mg twice daily in treatment-naïve patients with del(17p) disease enrolled in a dedicated, nonrandomized cohort (Arm C) of the phase 3 SEQUOIA trial. A total of 109 patients (median age, 70 years; range, 42 - 86) with centrally confirmed del(17p) were enrolled and treated. After a median of 18.2 months (range, 5.0 - 26.3), seven patients had discontinued study treatment due to progressive disease, four due to an adverse event, and one due to withdrawal of consent. The overall response rate was 94.5% with 3.7% of patients achieving complete response with or without incomplete hematologic recovery. The estimated 18-month progression-free survival rate was 88.6% (95% CI, 79.0 - 94.0) and the estimated 18-month overall survival rate was 95.1% (95% CI, 88.4 - 98.0). Most common all-grade adverse events included contusion (20.2%), upper respiratory tract infection (19.3%), neutropenia/neutrophil count decreased (17.4%), and diarrhea (16.5%). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were reported in 53 patients (48.6%), most commonly neutropenia (12.9%) and pneumonia (3.7%). An adverse event of atrial fibrillation was reported in three patients (2.8%). Zanubrutinib was active and well tolerated in this large, prospectively enrolled treatment cohort of previously untreated patients with del(17p) chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT03336333.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.259432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409041PMC
October 2020

Prognostic impact of somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and relationship to cell-of-origin: data from the phase III GOYA study.

Haematologica 2020 09 1;105(9):2298-2307. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Oncology Biomarker Development, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma represents a biologically and clinically heterogeneous diagnostic category with well-defined cell-of-origin subtypes. Using data from the GOYA study (NCT01287741), we characterized the mutational profile of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and evaluated the prognostic impact of somatic mutations in relation to cell-of-origin. Targeted DNA next-generation sequencing was performed in 499 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue biopsies from previously untreated patients. Prevalence of genetic alterations/mutations was examined. Multivariate Cox regression was used to evaluate the prognostic effect of individual genomic alterations. Of 465 genes analyzed, 59 were identified with mutations occurring in at least 10 of 499 patients (≥2% prevalence); 334 additional genes had mutations occurring in ≥1 patient. Single nucleotide variants were the most common mutation type. On multivariate analysis, BCL2 alterations were most strongly associated with shorter progression-free survival (multivariate hazard ratio: 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.6 to 4.2). BCL2 alterations were detected in 102 of 499 patients; 92 had BCL2 translocations, 90% of whom had germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. BCL2 alterations were also significantly correlated with BCL2 gene and protein expression levels. Validation of published mutational subsets revealed consistent patterns of co-occurrence, but no consistent prognostic differences between subsets. Our data confirm the molecular heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with potential treatment targets occurring in distinct cell-of-origin subtypes. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01287741.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.227892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556630PMC
September 2020

Long-term outcomes of older patients with relapsed/refractory NHL referred to ASCT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 03 3;56(3):709-712. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

1st Department of Medicine - hematology, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01045-4DOI Listing
March 2021

A high TP53 mutation burden is a strong predictor of primary refractory mantle cell lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2020 12 30;191(5):e103-e106. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

First Department of Medicine - Hematology, General University Hospital in Prague and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17063DOI Listing
December 2020

Concurrent and Gene Aberrations in Newly Diagnosed Mantle Cell Lymphoma Correlate with Chemoresistance and Call for Innovative Upfront Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 31;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

First Department of Internal Medicine-Hematology, General University Hospital and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, 12808 Prague, Czech Republic.

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma with a large number of recurrent cytogenetic/molecular aberrations. Approximately 5-10% of patients do not respond to frontline immunochemotherapy. Despite many useful prognostic indexes, a reliable marker of chemoresistance is not available. We evaluated the prognostic impact of seven recurrent gene aberrations including tumor suppressor protein P53 () and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A () in the cohort of 126 newly diagnosed consecutive MCL patients with bone marrow involvement ≥5% using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). In contrast to , no pathologic mutations of were detected by NGS. deletions were found exclusively in the context of other gene aberrations suggesting it represents a later event (after translocation t(11;14) and aberrations of or ataxia telangiectasia mutated ()). Concurrent deletion of and aberration of (deletion and/or mutation) represented the most significant predictor of short EFS (median 3 months) and OS (median 10 months). Concurrent aberration of and is a new, simple, and relevant index of chemoresistance in MCL. Patients with concurrent aberration of and should be offered innovative anti-lymphoma therapy and upfront consolidation with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466084PMC
July 2020

A randomized phase 3 trial of zanubrutinib vs ibrutinib in symptomatic Waldenström macroglobulinemia: the ASPEN study.

Blood 2020 10;136(18):2038-2050

BeiGene USA, Inc, San Mateo, CA; and.

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition is an effective treatment approach for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM). The phase 3 ASPEN study compared the efficacy and safety of ibrutinib, a first-generation BTK inhibitor, with zanubrutinib, a novel highly selective BTK inhibitor, in patients with WM. Patients with MYD88L265P disease were randomly assigned 1:1 to treatment with ibrutinib or zanubrutinib. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response (CR) or a very good partial response (VGPR) by independent review. Key secondary end points included major response rate (MRR), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DOR), disease burden, and safety. A total of 201 patients were randomized, and 199 received ≥1 dose of study treatment. No patient achieved a CR. Twenty-nine (28%) zanubrutinib patients and 19 (19%) ibrutinib patients achieved a VGPR, a nonstatistically significant difference (P = .09). MRRs were 77% and 78%, respectively. Median DOR and PFS were not reached; 84% and 85% of ibrutinib and zanubrutinib patients were progression free at 18 months. Atrial fibrillation, contusion, diarrhea, peripheral edema, hemorrhage, muscle spasms, and pneumonia, as well as adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation, were less common among zanubrutinib recipients. Incidence of neutropenia was higher with zanubrutinib, although grade ≥3 infection rates were similar in both arms (1.2 and 1.1 events per 100 person-months). These results demonstrate that zanubrutinib and ibrutinib are highly effective in the treatment of WM, but zanubrutinib treatment was associated with a trend toward better response quality and less toxicity, particularly cardiovascular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596850PMC
October 2020

The interval between progression and therapy initiation is the key prognostic parameter in relapsing diffuse large B cell lymphoma: analysis from the Czech Lymphoma Study Group database (NIHIL).

Ann Hematol 2020 Jul 6;99(7):1583-1594. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

1st Department of Medicine, First Medical Faculty, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Relapsing diffuse large B cell lymphomas (rDLBCL) represent a heterogeneous disease. This heterogeneity should be recognized and reflected, because it can deform the interpretation of clinical trial results. DLBCL patients with the first relapse and without CNS involvement were identified in the Czech Lymphoma Study Group (CLSG) database. Interval-to-therapy (ITT) was defined as the time between the first manifestation of rDLBCL and the start of any treatment. The overall survival (OS) of different ITT cohorts (< 7 vs. 7-21 vs. > 21 days) was compared. In total, 587 rDLBCLs (51.8% males) progressed with a median of 12.8 months (range 1.6 to 152.3) since the initial diagnosis (2000-2017). At the time of relapse, the median age was 67 years (range 22-95). First-line therapy was administered in 99.3% of the patients; CHOP and anti-CD20 were given to 69.2% and 84.7% of the patients, respectively. The salvage immune/chemotherapy was administered in 88.1% of the patients (39.2% platinum-based regimen). The median ITT was 20 days (range 1-851), but 23.2% of patients initiated therapy within 7 days. The 5-year OS was 17.4% (range 10-24.5%) vs. 20.5% (range 13.5-27.4%) vs. 42.2% (range 35.5-48.8%) for ITT < 7 vs. 7-21 vs. > 21 days (p < 0.001). ITT was associated with B symptoms (p 0.004), ECOG (p < 0.001), stage (p 0.002), bulky disease (p 0.005), elevated LDH (p < 0.001), and IPI (p < 0.001). The ITT mirrors the real clinical behavior of rDLBCL. There are patients (ITT < 7 days) with aggressive disease and a poor outcome. Conversely, there are rDLBCLs with ITT ≥ 21 days who survive for a long time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04099-yDOI Listing
July 2020

A randomized, open-label, Phase III study of obinutuzumab or rituximab plus CHOP in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma: final analysis of GOYA.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 06 6;13(1):71. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO-IRCCS, (Turin), Candiolo, Italy.

Background: Rituximab (R) plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) is the current standard therapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Obinutuzumab (G), a glycoengineered, type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, has shown activity and an acceptable safety profile when combined with CHOP (G-CHOP) in patients with advanced DLBCL. We present the final analysis results of the Phase III GOYA study (NCT01287741), which compared the efficacy and safety of G-CHOP versus R-CHOP in patients with previously untreated DLBCL.

Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with previously untreated advanced DLBCL were randomly assigned to receive eight 21-day cycles of R or G, plus six or eight cycles of CHOP. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included overall survival, other time-to-event endpoints, and safety; investigator-assessed PFS by cell of origin subgroup was an exploratory endpoint.

Results: A total of 1418 patients were randomized, with 1414 included in this final analysis (G-CHOP, N = 704; R-CHOP, N = 710). Five-year PFS rates were 63.8% and 62.6% for G-CHOP and R-CHOP, respectively (stratified hazard ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.78-1.12; p = 0.48). The results of the secondary efficacy endpoints did not show a benefit of G-CHOP over R-CHOP. In the exploratory analysis, a trend towards benefit with G-CHOP over R-CHOP was apparent in the patients with germinal center B cell DLBCL. The safety profile of G-CHOP was as expected, and no new safety signals were observed. More grade 3-5 (75.1% vs 65.8%), serious (44.4% vs 38.4%), and fatal (6.1% vs 4.4%) adverse events (AEs) were observed in the G-CHOP arm compared with the R-CHOP arm, respectively, with the most common fatal AEs being infections. A higher incidence of late-onset neutropenia occurred in the G-CHOP arm (8.7%) versus the R-CHOP arm (4.9%).

Conclusions: The final analysis, similar to the primary analysis, did not show a PFS benefit of G-CHOP over R-CHOP in previously untreated patients with DLBCL. The results of the secondary endpoints were consistent with the primary endpoint. Further exploratory analyses and investigation of biomarkers are ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00900-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276080PMC
June 2020

Impact of bone marrow biopsy on response assessment in immunochemotherapy-treated lymphoma patients in GALLIUM and GOYA.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(8):1589-1593

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

The utility of posttreatment bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histology to confirm complete response (CR) in lymphoma clinical trials is in question. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of BMB on response assessment in immunochemotherapy-treated patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the phase 3 Study of Obinutuzumab (RO5072759) Plus Chemotherapy in Comparison With Rituximab Plus Chemotherapy Followed by Obinutuzumab or Rituximab Maintenance in Patients With Untreated Advanced Indolent Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (GALLIUM; NCT01332968) and A Study of Obinutuzumab in Combination With CHOP Chemotherapy Versus Rituximab With CHOP in Participants With CD20-Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (GOYA; NCT01287741) trials, respectively. Baseline BMB was performed in all patients, with repeat BMBs in patients with a CR by computed tomography (CT) at end of induction (EOI) and a positive BMB at baseline, to confirm response. Positron emission tomography imaging was also used in some patients to assess EOI response (Lugano 2014 criteria). Among patients with an EOI CR by CT in GALLIUM and GOYA, 2.8% and 4.1%, respectively, had a BMB-altered response. These results suggest that postinduction BMB histology has minimal impact on radiographically (CT)-defined responses in both FL and DLBCL patients. In GALLIUM and GOYA, respectively, 4.7% of FL patients and 7.1% of DLBCL patients had a repeat BMB result that altered response assessment when applying Lugano 2014 criteria, indicating that bone marrow evaluation appears to add little value to response assessment in FL; however, its evaluation may still have merit in DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189300PMC
April 2020

Treatment of Older Patients With Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL): Long-Term Follow-Up of the Randomized European MCL Elderly Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 01 5;38(3):248-256. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

University Hospital Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: In an update of the randomized, open-label, phase III European Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) Elderly trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00209209), published in 2012, we aimed to confirm results on long-term outcome focusing on efficacy and safety of long-term use of rituximab maintenance.

Patients And Methods: Five hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed MCL underwent a first random assignment between rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) induction, followed by a second random assignment in 316 responders between rituximab and interferon alfa maintenance, to be continued until progression. We compared progression-free survival from the second randomization and overall survival (OS) from the first or second randomizations.

Results: After a median follow-up time of 7.6 years, the previously described difference in OS between the induction arms persisted (median, 6.4 years after R-CHOP [n = 280] 3.9 years after R-FC [n = 280]; = .0054). Patients responding to R-CHOP had median progression-free survival and OS times of 5.4 and 9.8 years, respectively, when randomly assigned to rituximab (n = 87), compared with 1.9 years ( < .001) and 7.1 years ( = .0026), respectively, when randomly assigned to interferon alfa (n = 97). In 58% and 32% of patients treated with R-CHOP, rituximab maintenance was still ongoing 2 and 5 years from start of maintenance, respectively. After R-FC, rituximab maintenance was associated with an unexpectedly high cumulative incidence of death in remission (22% at 5 years). Toxicity of rituximab maintenance was low after R-CHOP (grade 3-4 leukopenia or infection < 5%) but more prominent in patients on rituximab maintenance after R-FC, in whom grade 3-4 leukopenia (up to 40%) and infections were frequent (up to 15%).

Conclusion: The excellent results of R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance until progression for older patients with MCL persisted in a mature follow-up. Prolongation of rituximab maintenance beyond 2 years is effective and safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01294DOI Listing
January 2020

Tandem Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Improves Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma with Extramedullary Disease and High-Risk Cytogenetics: A Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 6;25(11):2134-2142. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Although high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant combined with novel agents continues to be the hallmark of first-line treatment in newly diagnosed transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients, the impact of tandem autologous or autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic transplant for patients with extramedullary disease (EMD) and high-risk cytogenetics is not yet defined. Here, we analyzed clinical and cytogenetic data from 488 adult myeloma patients with EMD undergoing single autologous (n = 373), tandem autologous (n = 84), or autologous-allogeneic transplant (n = 31) between 2003 and 2015. At least 1 high-risk abnormality was present in 41% (n = 202), with del(17p) (40%) and t(4;14) (45%) the most frequent. More than 1 high-risk abnormality was found in 54%. High-risk cytogenetics showed worse 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 54% and 29%, respectively, versus 78% and 49% for standard-risk cytogenetics (P < .001). Co-segregation of high-risk abnormalities did not seem to affect outcome. Regarding transplant regimen, OS and PFS were 70% and 43% for single autologous versus 83% and 52% for tandem autologous and 88% and 58% for autologous-allogeneic (P = .06 and P = .30). In multivariate analysis high-risk cytogenetics were associated with worse survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.00; P = .003), whereas tandem autologous significantly improved outcome versus single autologous transplant (HRs, .46 and .64; P = .02 and P = .03). Autologous-allogeneic transplant did not significantly differ in outcome but appeared to improve survival, but results were limited because of small population (HR, .31). In conclusion, high-risk cytogenetics is frequently observed in newly diagnosed myeloma with EMD and significantly worsens outcome after single autologous, whereas a tandem autologous transplant strategy may overcome onset poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.004DOI Listing
November 2019

Nivolumab for Newly Diagnosed Advanced-Stage Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma: Safety and Efficacy in the Phase II CheckMate 205 Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 08 21;37(23):1997-2007. Epub 2019 May 21.

17Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Purpose: Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated frequent and durable responses in relapsed/refractory classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We report results from Cohort D of the CheckMate 205 trial, which assessed nivolumab monotherapy followed by nivolumab plus doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (N-AVD) for newly diagnosed cHL.

Methods: Patients 18 years of age or older with untreated, advanced-stage (defined as III to IV and IIB with unfavorable risk factors) cHL were eligible for Cohort D of this multicenter, noncomparative, phase II trial. Patients received nivolumab monotherapy for four doses, followed by 12 doses of N-AVD; all doses were every 2 weeks, and nivolumab was administered at 240 mg intravenously. The primary end point was safety. Efficacy end points included objective response rate and modified progression-free survival, defined as time to disease progression/relapse, death, or next therapy. Chromosome 9p24.1 alterations and programmed death-ligand 1 expression were assessed in Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells in evaluable patients.

Results: A total of 51 patients were enrolled and treated. At diagnosis, 49% of patients had an International Prognostic Score of 3 or greater. Overall, 59% experienced a grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse event. Treatment-related febrile neutropenia was reported in 10% of patients. Endocrine immune-mediated adverse events were all grade 1 to 2 and did not require high-dose corticosteroids; all nonendocrine immune-mediated adverse events resolved (most commonly, rash; 5.9%). At the end of therapy, the objective response rate (95% CI) per independent radiology review committee was 84% (71% to 93%), with 67% (52% to 79%), achieving complete remission (five patients [10%] were nonevaluable and counted as nonresponders). With a minimum follow-up of 9.4 months, 9-month modified progression-free survival was 92%. Patients with higher-level Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg programmed death-ligand 1 expression had more favorable responses to N-AVD ( = .041).

Conclusion: Nivolumab followed by N-AVD was associated with promising efficacy and safety profiles for newly diagnosed, advanced-stage cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688776PMC
August 2019

First-line therapy for T cell lymphomas: a retrospective population-based analysis of 906 T cell lymphoma patients.

Ann Hematol 2019 Aug 8;98(8):1961-1972. Epub 2019 May 8.

1st Department of Medicine, First Medical Faculty, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTLs) have a globally poor prognosis. The CHOP regimen shows insufficient efficacy; first-line consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is a promising strategy but has never been confirmed by randomized data. We analyzed retrospectively 906 patients diagnosed with PTL between 1999 and 2015. Chemotherapy was given to 862 patients, and 412 of them were < 60 years. In this subset, we compared induction with CHOP (n = 113) vs. CHOEP (n = 68) and tested auto-SCT (n = 79) vs. no SCT (n = 73) in the intent-to-treat analysis. The median age of the whole cohort at diagnosis was 60 years (range; 18-91); the median follow-up was 4.3 years (range; 0.1-17.8). A shorter overall survival (OS) was associated with the male gender, age ≥ 60 years, stage III/IV, performance status ≥ 2, bulky tumor ≥ 10 cm, and elevated LDH. CHOEP induction showed a better 5-year PFS (25.0% vs. 32.9%; p.001), and 5-year OS (65.6% vs. 47.6%; p.008) than CHOP. Auto-SCT compared to no SCT brought a 5-year OS of 49.2% vs. 59.5% (p.187). Auto-SCT did not influence the OS in low-risk or low-intermediate risk PTLs. The high-intermediate and high-risk IPIs displayed a worse 5-year OS in auto-SCT arm (17.7% vs.46.2%; p.049); however, 73.9% of the patients never received planned auto-SCT. Our population-based analysis showed the superiority of CHOEP over CHOP in first-line treatment. We confirm the 5-year OS of around 50% in PTLs undergoing auto-SCT. However, the intended auto-SCT could not be given in 73.9% of the high-risk PTLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03694-yDOI Listing
August 2019

Prognostic Impact of Natural Killer Cell Count in Follicular Lymphoma and Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with Immunochemotherapy.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 08 3;25(15):4634-4643. Epub 2019 May 3.

F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: Natural killer (NK) cells are key effector cells for anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), such as obinutuzumab and rituximab. We assessed whether low pretreatment NK-cell count (NKCC) in peripheral blood or tumor tissue was associated with worse outcome in patients receiving antibody-based therapy.

Patients And Methods: Baseline peripheral blood NKCC was assessed by flow cytometry (CD3CD56 and/or CD16 cells) in 1,064 of 1,202 patients with follicular lymphoma treated with obinutuzumab or rituximab plus chemotherapy in the phase III GALLIUM trial (NCT01332968) and 1,287 of 1,418 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with obinutuzumab or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (G-CHOP or R-CHOP) in the phase III GOYA trial (NCT01287741). The prognostic value of tumor NK-cell gene expression, as assessed by whole-transcriptome gene expression using TruSeq RNA sequencing, was also analyzed. The association of baseline variables, such as treatment arm, was evaluated using multivariate Cox regression models using a stepwise approach.

Results: In this exploratory analysis, low baseline peripheral blood NKCC was associated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS) in both follicular lymphoma [hazard ratio (HR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-2.14; = 0.04] and DLBCL (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.83; = 0.04), and overall survival in follicular lymphoma (HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.26-3.86; = 0.0058). Low tumor NK-cell gene expression was associated with shorter PFS in G-CHOP-treated patients with DLBCL (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.22-3.15; < 0.01).

Conclusions: These findings indicate that the number of NK cells in peripheral blood may affect the outcome of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma receiving anti-CD20-based immunochemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3270DOI Listing
August 2019

First-line imatinib in elderly patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia from the CAMELIA registry: Age and dose still matter.

Leuk Res 2019 06 24;81:67-74. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Haemato- Oncology, Faculty Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

We retrospectively evaluated the role of age and dosage in 372 CML patients (170 women, 202 men) treated with first-line imatinib (IMA) from the records of the CAMELIA registry. The median follow-up of the patients was 82.3 (18.0-177.3) months. The treatment results of 80 elderly patients aged over 65 years at diagnosis were compared in analysis "A" with those of 292 younger patients and in analysis "B" with those of 90 patients younger than 40 and 202 patients aged 40-64. The elderly patients had statistically adverse values of the Sokal, ELTS, and ECOG scores and Charlson comorbidity index in both analyses (p from = 0.012 to ≤ 0.001). Despite a more frequent use of a daily dose lower than 400 mg - in 31 elderly patients (38.8%) than in 45 younger ones (15.4%) (p < 0.001), there were no statistically significant differences in the achievement of optimal haematological, cytogenetic, and molecular responses according to the ELN criteria in both the analyses, A and B. The comparisons of overall survival with CML-related death (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were insignificant inanalysis A (p = 0.07 and 0.396, respectively) but progression-free survival (PFS) differed significantly (p = 0.007). In analysis B OS and PFS differed significantly (p = 0.027 and 0.003) but EFS was similar (p = 0.351). Elderly patients with a sustained dose of IMA of 400 mg/day have insignificantly better OS, PFS, and EFS compared to patients treated with a lower dosage of IMA. The results in the treatment of the elderly CML patients were comparable with those of the younger ones in terms of the probabilities of the achievement of optimal ELN responses. However, the results for the survival probabilities were influenced by age and the IMA dosage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.04.011DOI Listing
June 2019

Cotargeting of BCL2 with Venetoclax and MCL1 with S63845 Is Synthetically Lethal in Relapsed Mantle Cell Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 07 19;25(14):4455-4465. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute of Pathological Physiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Purpose: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas characterized by (over)expression of BCL2. A BCL2-targeting drug, venetoclax, has promising anticancer activity in MCL. We analyzed molecular mechanisms of venetoclax resistance in MCL cells and tested strategies to overcome it.

Experimental Design: We confirmed key roles of proapoptotic proteins BIM and NOXA in mediating venetoclax-induced cell death in MCL. Both BIM and NOXA are, however, differentially expressed in cell lines compared with primary cells. First, NOXA protein is significantly overexpressed in most MCL cell lines. Second, deletions of gene harbored by three commonly used MCL cell lines (JEKO-1, MINO, and Z138) were not found by array comparative genomic hybridization using a validation set of 24 primary MCL samples.

Results: We demonstrated that MCL1 and NOXA play important roles in mediating resistance to venetoclax. Consequently, we tested an experimental treatment strategy based on cotargeting BCL2 with venetoclax and MCL1 with a highly specific small-molecule MCL1 inhibitor S63845. The combination of venetoclax and S63845 demonstrated synthetic lethality on a panel of five patient-derived xenografts established from patients with relapsed MCL with adverse cytogenetics.

Conclusions: Our data strongly support investigation of venetoclax in combination with S63845 as an innovative treatment strategy for chemoresistant MCL patients with adverse cytogenetics in the clinical grounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3275DOI Listing
July 2019

AUGMENT: A Phase III Study of Lenalidomide Plus Rituximab Versus Placebo Plus Rituximab in Relapsed or Refractory Indolent Lymphoma.

J Clin Oncol 2019 05 21;37(14):1188-1199. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

20 Barts Cancer Institute, London, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Patients with indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma typically respond well to first-line immunochemotherapy. At relapse, single-agent rituximab is commonly administered. Data suggest the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide could increase the activity of rituximab.

Methods: A phase III, multicenter, randomized trial of lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab was conducted in patients with relapsed and/or refractory follicular or marginal zone lymphoma. Patients received lenalidomide or placebo for 12 cycles plus rituximab once per week for 4 weeks in cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 2 through 5. The primary end point was progression-free survival per independent radiology review.

Results: A total of 358 patients were randomly assigned to lenalidomide plus rituximab (n = 178) or placebo plus rituximab (n = 180). Infections (63% 49%), neutropenia (58% 23%), and cutaneous reactions (32% 12%) were more common with lenalidomide plus rituximab. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (50% 13%) and leukopenia (7% 2%) were higher with lenalidomide plus rituximab; no other grade 3 or 4 adverse event differed by 5% or more between groups. Progression-free survival was significantly improved for lenalidomide plus rituximab versus placebo plus rituximab, with a hazard ratio of 0.46 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.62; < .001) and median duration of 39.4 months (95% CI, 22.9 months to not reached) versus 14.1 months (95% CI, 11.4 to 16.7 months), respectively.

Conclusion: Lenalidomide improved efficacy of rituximab in patients with recurrent indolent lymphoma, with an acceptable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7035866PMC
May 2019

Prospective observational study in comorbid patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia receiving first-line bendamustine with rituximab.

Leuk Res 2019 04 15;79:17-21. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Internal Medicine - Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Jihlavská 20, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic; CEITEC, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Chemoimmunotherapy with bendamustine and rituximab is an alternative treatment for elderly patients with CLL. The aim of this observational multicenter study was to prospectively assess efficacy and safety of bendamustine and rituximab in front-line therapy in patients with CLL and significant comorbidities in real hematological practice. Eighty-three consecutive patients with cumulative illness rating scale (CIRS) >6 who received at least one cycle of BR as first-line treatment were included in the study. The median age was 71 years (range, 53-83), the median CIRS was 8 (range, 7-17), and 60.2% of patients had a creatinine clearance ≤70 mL/min. FISH analysis, available for 78 cases, showed a del(17p) in 11.5% and del(11q) in 20.5% of patients. Overall response rate was 88.0% with a complete response rate of 20.5%. With median follow-up time of 22 months, the estimated median progression free survival was 35.9 months. Progression free survival and overall survival rates at 2 years were 69.9% and 96.2%, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia were documented in 40 (48.2%), 14 (16.9%), and 8 (9.6%) patients, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 infections occurred in 14.5% of patients. Chemoimmunotherapy with BR is an effective therapeutic option with manageable toxicity for the initial treatment of CLL patients with significant comorbidities. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02381899.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.02.002DOI Listing
April 2019

Integration of cell of origin into the clinical CNS International Prognostic Index improves CNS relapse prediction in DLBCL.

Blood 2019 02 7;133(9):919-926. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

1st Department of Medicine, Charles University General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Central nervous system (CNS) relapse carries a poor prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Integrating biomarkers into the CNS-International Prognostic Index (CNS-IPI) risk model may improve identification of patients at high risk for developing secondary CNS disease. CNS relapse was analyzed in 1418 DLBCL patients treated with obinutuzumab or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone chemotherapy in the phase 3 GOYA study. Cell of origin (COO) was assessed using gene-expression profiling. BCL2 and MYC protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The impact of CNS-IPI, COO, and BCL2/MYC dual-expression status on CNS relapse was assessed using a multivariate Cox regression model (data available in n = 1418, n = 933, and n = 688, respectively). High CNS-IPI score (hazard ratio [HR], 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-12.3; = .02) and activated B-cell‒like (ABC) (HR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.1-12.9; = .0004) or unclassified COO subtypes (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.5-11.7; = .006) were independently associated with CNS relapse. BCL2/MYC dual-expression status did not impact CNS relapse risk. Three risk subgroups were identified based on the presence of high CNS-IPI score and/or ABC/unclassified COO (CNS-IPI-C model): low risk (no risk factors, n = 450 [48.2%]), intermediate risk (1 factor, n = 408 [43.7%]), and high risk (both factors, n = 75 [8.0%]). Two-year CNS relapse rates were 0.5%, 4.4%, and 15.2% in the respective risk subgroups. Combining high CNS-IPI and ABC/unclassified COO improved CNS relapse prediction and identified a patient subgroup at high risk for developing CNS relapse. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01287741.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-07-862862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396175PMC
February 2019
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