Publications by authors named "Marek Matras"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phylogenetic characterization of Polish isolates of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in salmonid fish.

J Fish Dis 2020 Nov 26;43(11):1443-1451. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy, Poland.

Introduction: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus belongs to the genus Aquabirnavirus and family Birnaviridae. By VP2 gene similarity, aquatic birnavirus is clustered into seven genogroups. The aim of this study was to genetically analyse IPN viruses occurring on Polish fish farms.

Materials And Methods: Samples from freshwater fish mostly from 2012 to 2013 and from northern Poland were examined for the presence of IPN virus using isolation on cell cultures, real-time RT-PCR and RT-PCR. Fragments of 1,377 and 1,079 bp of the VP2 and VP5 genes, respectively, were sequenced, and the results were assembled into one consensus and analysed by Geneious software. The same VP2 gene region was compared and a phylogenetic tree generated by the neighbour-joining method and MEGA6 software.

Results: All tested Polish isolates belonged to genogroup 5, like other European Spajurup isolates.

Conclusion: Our findings prove that there is only one IPN virus genogroup in Poland. Polish isolates show close relationships with each other. There is a close relationship between Polish isolates and isolates from Turkey, Spain and Iran. Isolate 57 is a separate branch related to isolates from the United States and Taiwan. This points to the likelihood of past virus introduction via import of stock from those countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13249DOI Listing
November 2020

Viral infection-induced changes in the expression profile of non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases (DDX1, DDX3, DHX9, DDX21 and DHX36) in zebrafish and common carp.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Sep 8;104:62-73. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Evolutionary Immunology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

In mammals, several non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases are involve in sensing of viral nucleic acids and activation of antiviral immune response, however their role in the immune defense of fish is much less known. In this study, the expression profile of non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes: ddx1, ddx3, dhx9, ddx21 and dhx36, was studied in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during infection with two RNA viruses: spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and Chum salmon reovirus (CSV). Bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid sequences of the core helicase of DDX1, DDX3, DHX9, DDX21 and DHX36 in zebrafish and common carp revealed presence of all conserved motifs found amongst all other species, with the exception of common carp DHX9 which do not possess motif V. The transcripts of studied DExD/H-box RNA helicases were found in zebrafish ZF4 cell line as well as in all studied organs from zebrafish and common carp. The expression study demonstrated the up-regulation of the expression of selected non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases during viral infections in ZF4 cell line (in vitro study) and in zebrafish and common carp organs (in vivo study). DDX1 was the only DExD/H-box RNA helicase which expression was repetitively up-regulated during in vivo infections with SVCV and CSV in zebrafish and SVCV in common carp. In ZF4 cells and kidney of common carp, viral infection-induced up-regulation of DExD/H-box RNA helicases preceded the up-regulation of type I IFN gene. Our results suggest that studied non-RLR DExD/H-box RNA helicases might be involved in antiviral immune response in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.010DOI Listing
September 2020

Potential Role of Different Fish Species as Vectors of Koi Herpesvirus (CyHV-3) Infection.

J Vet Res 2019 Dec 16;63(4):507-511. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Introduction: Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has infected farmed common carp in Poland clinically and asymptomatically since 2004. The role of non-carp species as vectors of virus transmission is well known except for in the case of KHV. The aim was to better understand this virus' infection and transmission pathways in common carp, looking at the potential vector role of fishes kept with them.

Material And Methods: Eight species were experimentally infected with KHV by immersion in a suspension at 20°C ±1 and transferred to a tank after 45 minutes. Specimens were euthanised at intervals up to 56 days post infection (dpi) and tissue was examined for KHV DNA. Surviving infected fishes were introduced at intervals, each time into a separate tank, to naïve common carp for experimental infection. These were observed daily for symptoms, sacrificed along with controls after three months, and dissected to provide tissue samples. Also fish from 14 species collected from a farm with a history of KHV were sampled from 3 to 22 months after disease was confirmed. Organ sections from single fish were collected in a single tube.

Results: Viral DNA was detected in tench and roach samples up to 49 dpi, but in three-spined stickleback and stone maroko samples only up to 14 dpi. Transmission of KHV to naïve carp occurred after cohabitation. KHV DNA was detected in three fish species three months after the farm outbreak.

Conclusion: We confirmed that grass and Prussian carp, tench, roach, and brown bullhead can transfer the virus to naïve common carp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2019-0069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950436PMC
December 2019

Potential vector species of carp edema virus (CEV).

J Fish Dis 2019 Jul 23;42(7):959-964. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy, Poland.

During a PCR-based CEV survey in Poland in 2015-2017, the virus was detected in many farms both in clinical and asymptomatic cases and in common as well as in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). In order to evaluate the potential carrier role of fish species that share the same habitats with carp, an experimental trial was performed. Investigations carried out on specimens of bleak (Alburnus alburnus), crucian carp (Carassius carassius), European perch (Perca fluviatilis), Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and tench (Tinca tinca) cohabited with CEV-infected carp yielded positive results. These species of fish were experimentally cohabited with CEV-infected common carp at a temperature of 16°C ± 1. Material from the brain, gills, spleen, kidneys, intestine and skin was investigated for the presence of CEV DNA. Similar investigations were performed with uninfected fish designated controls. Samples were tested for CEV by qPCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849590PMC
July 2019

Type I interferon responses of common carp strains with different levels of resistance to koi herpesvirus disease during infection with CyHV-3 or SVCV.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Apr 15;87:809-819. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Carp from breeding strains with different genetic background present diverse levels of resistance to viral pathogens. Carp strains of Asian origin, currently being treated as Cyprinus rubrofuscus L., especially Amur wild carp (AS), were proven to be more resistant to koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD; caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3, CyHV-3) than strains originating from Europe and belonging to Cyprinus carpio L., like the Prerov scale carp (PS) or koi carp from a breed in the Czech Republic. We hypothesised that it can be associated with a higher magnitude of type I interferon (IFN) response as a first line of innate defence mechanisms against viral infections. To evaluate this hypothesis, four strains of common carp (AS, Rop, PS and koi) were challenged using two viral infection models: Rhabdovirus SVCV (spring viremia of carp virus) and alloherpesvirus CyHV-3. The infection with SVCV induced a low mortality rates and the most resistant was the Rop strain (no mortalities), whereas the PS strain was the most susceptible (survival rate of 78%). During CyHV-3 infection, Rop and AS strains performed better (survival rates of 78% and 53%, respectively) than PS and koi strains (survival rates of 35% and 10%, respectively). The evaluation of virus loads and virus replication showed significant differences between the carp strains, which correlated with the mortality rate. The evaluation of type I IFN responses showed that there were fundamental differences between the virus infection models. While responses to the SVCV were high, the CyHV-3 generally induced low responses. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the magnitude of type I IFN responses did not correlate with a higher resistance in infected carp. In the case of a CyHV-3 infection, reduced type I IFN responses could be related to the potential ability of the virus to interfere with cellular sensing of foreign nucleic acids. Taken together, the results broaden our understanding of how common carp from different genetic strains interact with various viral pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.02.022DOI Listing
April 2019

Host microRNA analysis in cyprinid Herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) infected common carp.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jan 16;20(1):46. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 57 Partyzantow Avenue, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland.

Background: The mechanism of latency and the ability of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) to establish life-long infections in carp remains poorly understood. To explain the role of miRNAs in this process we applied a range of molecular tools including high-throughput sequencing of RNA libraries constructed from the blood samples of infected fish followed by bioinformatic and functional analyses which show that CyHV-3 profoundly influences the expression of host miRNAs in vivo.

Results: We demonstrated the changed expression of 27 miRNAs in the clinical phase and 5 in the latent phase of infection. We also identified 23 novel, not previously reported sequences, from which 8 showed altered expressions in control phase, 10 in clinical phase and 5 in latent phase of infection.

Conclusions: The results of our analysis expand the knowledge of common carp microRNAs engaged during CyHV-3 infection and provide a useful basis for the further study of the mechanism of CyHV-3 induced pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-5266-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337785PMC
January 2019

Viral infections in common carp lead to a disturbance of mucin expression in mucosal tissues.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Dec 17;71:353-358. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

In response to the constant challenge by potential pathogens, external surfaces of fish, their skin, gills and intestinal tract, are coated with mucus, a gel like substance which largely prevents the entry of pathogens. This mucus gel consists mainly of water and mucins, large O-glycosylated proteins, which are responsible for forming a gel like mixture. A modulation of the mRNA expression of mucins, was described in viral diseases in mammals however there is a knowledge gap about the regulation of mucins during viral infection in fish. Therefore, novel sequences for common carp mucins were located in an early version of the common carp genome and their mRNA expression measured in carp under infection with three different viral pathogens: (i) the alloherpesvirus cyprinid herpesvirus 3, (ii) the rhabdovirus spring viremia of carp virus and (iii) the poxvirus carp edema virus. The results showed a downregulation of mucin mRNA expression in gills and gut of common carp under infection with these pathogenic viruses. This could be a sign of a severe distress to the mucosal tissues in carp which occurs under viral infection. The reduced expression of mucins could help explaining the increased susceptibility of virus-infected carp to secondary bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.10.029DOI Listing
December 2017

Comparison of PCR methods for the detection of genetic variants of carp edema virus.

Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Sep;126(1):75-81

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

The infection of common carp and its ornamental variety, koi, with the carp edema virus (CEV) is often associated with the occurrence of a clinical disease called 'koi sleepy disease'. The disease may lead to high mortality in both koi and common carp populations. To prevent further spread of the infection and the disease, a reliable detection method for this virus is required. However, the high genetic variability of the CEV p4a gene used for PCR-based diagnostics could be a serious obstacle for successful and reliable detection of virus infection in field samples. By analysing 39 field samples from different geographical origins obtained from koi and farmed carp and from all 3 genogroups of CEV, using several recently available PCR protocols, we investigated which of the protocols would allow the detection of CEV from all known genogroups present in samples from Central European carp or koi populations. The comparison of 5 different PCR protocols showed that the PCR assays (both end-point and quantitative) developed in the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science exhibited the highest analytical inclusivity and diagnostic sensitivity. Currently, this makes them the most suitable protocols for detecting viruses from all known CEV genogroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03152DOI Listing
September 2017

Genetic Variability of Koi Herpesvirus -A Natural Event?

Front Microbiol 2017 8;8:982. Epub 2017 Jun 8.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal HealthGreifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Worldwide koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes high mortalities in L. aquaculture. So far, it is unknown how the different variants of KHV have developed and how they spread in the fish, but also in the environmental water bodies. Therefore, a phylogenetic method based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) was improved to gain deeper insights into the phylogeny of KHV and its possible worldwide distribution. Moreover, a VNTR-3 qPCR was designed which allows fast virus typing. This study presents a useful method for molecular tracing of diverse KHV types, variants, and lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462989PMC
June 2017

Differential effects of alloherpesvirus CyHV-3 and rhabdovirus SVCV on apoptosis in fish cells.

Vet Microbiol 2015 Mar 23;176(1-2):19-31. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, ST5 5BG Keele, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Whilst Herpesviridae, which infect higher vertebrates, actively influence host immune responses to ensure viral replication, it is mostly unknown if Alloherpesviridae, which infect lower vertebrates, possess similar abilities. An important antiviral response is clearance of infected cells via apoptosis, which in mammals influences the outcome of infection. Here, we utilise common carp infected with CyHV-3 to determine the effect on the expression of genes encoding apoptosis-related proteins (p53, Caspase 9, Apaf-1, IAP, iNOS) in the pronephros, spleen and gills. The influence of CyHV-3 on CCB cells was also studied and compared to SVCV (a rhabdovirus) which induces apoptosis in carp cell lines. Although CyHV-3 induced iNOS expression in vivo, significant induction of the genetic apoptosis pathway was only seen in the pronephros. In vitro CyHV-3 did not induce apoptosis or apoptosis-related expression whilst SVCV did stimulate apoptosis. This suggests that CyHV-3 possesses mechanisms similar to herpesviruses of higher vertebrates to inhibit the antiviral apoptotic process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.12.012DOI Listing
March 2015

Interaction between type I interferon and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in two genetic lines of common carp Cyprinus carpio.

Dis Aquat Organ 2014 Sep;111(2):107-18

Fish Disease Research Unit, Centre of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as koi herpesvirus disease. This disease is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting on Day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response; however, very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in 2 genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp, and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02773DOI Listing
September 2014

C-reactive protein and complement as acute phase reactants in common carp Cyprinus carpio during CyHV-3 infection.

Dis Aquat Organ 2014 Jul;109(3):187-99

Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Keele University, ST5 5BG Keele, UK.

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of a highly virulent and lethal disease of common carp Cyprinus carpio and its ornamental koi varieties. However, specific knowledge about immune mechanisms behind the infection process is very limited. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the CyHV-3 infection on the profile of 2 major components of the common carp immune acute phase response: the C-reactive protein (CRP) and the complement system. Common carp were infected with CyHV-3 by bath immersion. Fish were sampled before the infection and at 6, 12, 24, 72, 120 and 336 h post-infection for serum and head kidney, liver, gill and spleen tissues. CRP levels and complement activity were determined from the serum, whereas CRP- and complement-related genes (crp1, crp2, c1rs, bf/c2, c3, masp2) expression profiles were analysed in the tissues by quantitative PCR. Both CRP levels and complement activity increased significantly up to 10- and 3-fold, respectively, in the serum of infected fish during the challenge. Analysis revealed distinct organ- and time-dependent expression profile patterns for all selected genes. These results suggest that CRP and complement behave as acute phase reactants to CyHV-3 infection in common carp with an organ- and time-dependent response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao02727DOI Listing
July 2014

Intestinal barrier of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) during a cyprinid herpesvirus 3-infection: molecular identification and regulation of the mRNA expression of claudin encoding genes.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2013 Jan 26;34(1):305-14. Epub 2012 Nov 26.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Centre of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

As a major part of tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium of vertebrates, claudin proteins are crucial to develop a selective permeable function and to maintain integrity of the barrier. The intestine has been reported as one of the targeted tissue of the cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) which causes major disease problems in carp production worldwide. To analyse the impact of the disease on the epithelial barrier of the intestine, carp claudin encoding genes were cloned, their tissue expression was described, and the abundance of gene transcripts in the intestine of carp under CyHV-3 infection was determined. Some of the carp claudin genes such as claudin-7 and -11 were expressed in various tissues, whilst others, like claudin-2 and -23, showed more tissue-specific expression profiles, which may reflect specific functions of these particular claudins. Along the gut axis, a spatial distribution of claudin gene expressions was found, with a lower abundance of gene transcripts in anterior regions of the intestine and increased expression in the distal section of the intestine, which might indicate specific functions of different regions in the intestinal tract of carp. In carp under CyHV-3 infection, an up-regulation in the expression of IFN-a2, IL-1beta and iNOS was observed, together with an elevation of transcriptional levels of claudin-2, -3c, -11, and -23. The data suggest that expression of claudins is involved in the reorganisation of the intestinal epithelium in CyHV-3-infected carp, which may be responsible for changes in the paracellular permeability. An increased expression of the claudins might be a response to the disturbance of the hydromineral balance in carp under CyHV-3 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2012.11.010DOI Listing
January 2013

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection disrupts the skin barrier of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

Vet Microbiol 2013 Mar 7;162(2-4):456-470. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Centre of Infectious Diseases, University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover, Bünteweg 17, D-30559 Hanover, Germany.

Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is recognised as a pathogen which causes mass mortality in populations of carp, Cyprinus carpio. One of the characteristic symptoms of the disease associated with CyHV-3 infection is the occurrence of skin lesions, sloughing off the epithelium and a lack of mucus. Furthermore, fish then seem to be more susceptible to secondary infections by bacterial, parasitic or fungal pathogens which may cause further mortality within the population. The observed pathological alterations lead to the assumption that the carp skin barrier is strongly challenged during CyHV-3 associated disease. Therefore we examined mRNA expression of genes encoding inflammatory mediators, type I interferons, and the following skin defence molecules: antimicrobial peptides, claudins, and mucin. In addition, we monitored changes in the bacterial flora of the skin during disease conditions. Our results show that CyHV-3 associated disease in the skin of common carp leads to a reduction in mRNA expression of genes encoding several important components of the mucosal barrier, in particular mucin 5B, beta defensin 1 and 2, and the tight junction proteins claudin 23 and 30. This caused changes in the bacterial flora and the development of secondary bacterial infection among some individual fish. To our knowledge this is the first report showing that under disease conditions associated with virus infection, the mucosal barrier of fish skin is disrupted resulting in a higher susceptibility to secondary infections. The reported clinical signs of CyHV-3 skin infection can now be explained by our results at the molecular level, although the mechanism of a probable virus induced immunomodulation has to be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.033DOI Listing
March 2013

Gene expression analysis of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) lines during Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 infection yields insights into differential immune responses.

Dev Comp Immunol 2012 May 24;37(1):65-76. Epub 2011 Dec 24.

Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ichthyobiology & Aquaculture in Gołysz, Kalinowa 2, 43-520 Chybie, Poland.

Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), also known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is the etiological agent of a virulent and lethal disease in common and koi carp. This study aimed to determine the genetic basis underlying the common carp immune response to the CyHV-3 virus. Two common carp lines (R3 and K) were infected with CyHV-3 by immersion. The R3 line presented a 20% higher survival rate compared to the K line and significantly lower viral loads as measured at day 3 post infection (p.i.). Microarray analysis using a common carp slides containing a number of 10,822 60-mer probes, revealed that 581 genes in line K (330 up-regulated, 251 down-regulated) and 107 genes in line R3 (77 up-regulated, 30 down-regulated), showed at least a 2-fold difference in expression at day 3 p.i. compared to day 0. Genes which showed at least a 4-fold difference in expression in both lines were selected as potential markers of a CyHV-3 infection in common carp. Additionally, 76 genes showed at least 2-fold differentially expression between K and R3 lines at day 3 p.i. Significantly higher expression of several immune-related genes including number of those which are involve in pathogen recognition, complement activation, MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation and development of adaptive mucosal immunity was noted in more resistant R3 line. Further real-time PCR based analysis provided evidence for higher activation of CD8(+) T cells in R3 line. This study uncovered wide array of immune-related genes involved into antiviral response of common carp toward CyHV-3. It is also demonstrated that the outcome of this severe disease in large extent could be controlled by genetic factors of the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2011.12.006DOI Listing
May 2012