Publications by authors named "Marek Kowalczyk"

33 Publications

Effectiveness of various methods of DNA isolation from bones and teeth of animals exposed to high temperature.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Feb 3;78:102131. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Institute of Biological Basis of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

In the event of fires, natural disasters, and other events associated with high temperature, bones and teeth are the only source of genetic material for identifying human or animal carcasses. To obtain reliable final results of identification tests, the use of appropriate nucleic acid extraction methods is crucial. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of selected methods of DNA isolation from animal burnt bones and teeth. In addition, the effect of the duration of high temperature on the stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in these tissues was determined, as well as the possibility of using the genetic material obtained for species identification of remains of unknown origin. Bones and teeth collected during necropsy of dogs were burnt in a laboratory oven at 400 °C (752 °F; 673.15 K) for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. DNA was isolated according to four different protocols, using three commercial kits, i.e. the PrepFiler® Forensic DNA Extraction Kit from Applied Biosystems, the QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit from QIAGEN, and the DNA Mini Kit from Syngen, as well as a classic organic method. The effectiveness of these methods was compared by assessing the amount of isolated DNA using Real-Time PCR and its purity using a NanoDrop™ spectrophotometer. Each isolate was also subjected to PCR with primers designed to amplify fragments of dog mitochondrial DNA. The effectiveness of species identification was assessed for the method showing the best DNA recovery and for the organic method, considered the gold standard for analysis of difficult material. The QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit showed the highest efficiency of DNA isolation from bones and teeth burnt for 15 min (the longest burning time for which DNA could still be recovered from bones and teeth). The results of the experiment clearly indicate that DNA stability in hard tissues depends on how long they burn. In the case of exposure to 400 °C, reliable genetic testing, including species identification, is possible when the burning time does not exceed 15 min. Among the hard tissues examined, bones proved more suitable than teeth for identification purposes. It was also concluded that identification of bone remains with extreme heat damage should be based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2021.102131DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effect of Smoking on the Number and Type of Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF)-First Identifiable Precursors of Colorectal Cancer (CRC).

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 26;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Clinic of Oncological and General Surgery, University Clinical Hospital in Olsztyn, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: The problem of smoking and its influence on the occurrence of precursors and advanced colorectal cancer is often discussed in the medical literature. Tobacco smoke can provide a non-nutritional source of polycyclic hydrocarbons and other substances which, when combined with an incorrect diet, may play a role in promoting carcinogenesis at the level of the genetic control mechanism. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of smoking on the frequency and type of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rectum and polyps in the large intestine in people who smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day for more than 20 years.

Methods And Findings: A colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue was performed in 131 patients. Each of the study participants gave informed consent to participate in the study. Three bioptates were collected from the foci defined macroscopically as ACF; in cases where there were fewer foci, the number of collected foci was respectively lower. On the colonoscopy day, patients completed the questionnaire regarding epidemiological data used for analysis of factors affecting the occurrence of ACF in the study group. The number of ACF in the colon was divided into three groups: -ACF < 5, 5 < ACF < 10, ACF > 10. In the statistical analysis, numerical data were presented and real numbers, range of arrhythmic means, mean standard deviation, and results of probability distribution. The Student's test, U test, and chi2 were applied in order to determine the significance of differences of means and frequency of events in both groups. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Statistica 7.1 and Excel 2010 were used. Most smokers are in the age groups between 51-70 years. In the youngest (31-40 years), single ACF appear first (ACF <5) ACF in the number of 5-10 appear a little later (around 50 years of age) and dynamically increase, reaching a maximum at the age of 60-65.ACF in the number >10 appear at the latest age (55 years old) and their number gradually increases with age (linear growth). The probability of occurrence of ACF in all groups is greater in smokers, and the difference for the ACF group 5-10 and ACF >10 is statistically significant with a significance level of < 0.05. Apart from ACF normal, all types of ACF are more likely in this group than in non-smokers and these differences are statistically significant with < 0.05.

Conclusions: Smoking has a significant impact on the number and type of rectal ACF. Smokers have a greater number of ACFs in the rectum than non-smokers, and the most common type is hyperplastic ACF. Smokers are more likely to develop polyps in all sections of the colon compared to non-smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795789PMC
December 2020

Correction to: Effect of the Neurofeedback-EEG Training During Physical Exercise on the Range of Mental Work Performance and Individual Physiological Parameters in Swimmers.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2020 06;45(2):57

Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Marymoncka 34, 00-968, Warsaw, Poland.

The original version of the article unfortunately contained an error in the co-author details such as family name and e-mail address.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-020-09463-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645561PMC
June 2020

Effect of the Neurofeedback-EEG Training During Physical Exercise on the Range of Mental Work Performance and Individual Physiological Parameters in Swimmers.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2020 06;45(2):49-55

Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Marymoncka 34, 00-968, Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effects of the Neurofeedback-EEG training during physical exercise on the improvements in mental work performance and physiological parameters. The study examined seven swimmers based on the following anthropometric measurements: body height, body mass and body composition. The Kraepelin's work curve test, EEG and EMG during physical exercise were also performed. The athletes followed 20 Neurofeedback-EEG training sessions on the swimming ergometer for 4 months. Most mean indices of partial measures of the work curve were significantly modified (p < 0.05) following the Neurofeedback-EEG training. Mean level of maximal oxygen uptake in study participants was over 55 ml/kg/min, with statistically significant differences documented between the first and the second measurements. No significant differences were found in the fatigue rate between the measurements 1 and 2. The improved mental work performance following the Neurofeedback-EEG training facilitates optimization of psychomotor activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-020-09456-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250807PMC
June 2020

Rectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as a predictor of benign and malignant neoplastic lesions in the large intestine.

BMC Cancer 2020 Feb 19;20(1):133. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Underwater Works Technology, Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland.

Background: The importance of ACF is not fully explained, however, their number may be a good predictor of synchronous and metachronic adenoma or other polyps whose removal reduces the risk of CRC. Due to the epidemiological and genetic association of ACF with pre-cancer lesions, they may be a potential CRC biomarker. The aim of our study was to show that the number and type of rectal ACF may be a good predictive factor for the presence of polyps located proximally from the splenic flexure and that the type and number of ACF can correlate with the number and specific types of polyps in the large intestine.

Methods: The study included 131 patients who underwent colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue. The number of rectal ACF was determined and bioptats were sampled for histopathological examination to assess the type of ACF. Endoscopic ACF assessment criteria given by L. Roncucci were used. The obtained material was subjected to statistical analysis using probability distribution, U-test, t-student test, and chi as well as the Statistica 7.1 software package.

Results: The study population was divided into three subgroups according to the number of ACF observed, i.e. ACF < 5, 5-10 and > 10. ACF < 5 were found in 35 patients (29.41%), 5-10 ACF in 70 (58.82%) and ACF > 10 in 14 individuals (11.76%). The study revealed the presence of normal ACF (p = 0.49), hyperplastic ACF (p = 0.34), dysplastic ACF (p = 0.11), and mixed ACF (p = 0.06). A single type of ACF was most commonly observed (n = 88, p = 0.74). In the researched group a larger number of ACF is concurrent with adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The number of ACF clearly correlates with the dysplasia advancement in the adenoma and the number of polyps found.

Conclusions: Rectal ACF are a useful marker for the presence of cancerous lesions in the proximal and distal sections of the large intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6590-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029492PMC
February 2020

Microsporidia Nosema spp. - obligate bee parasites are transmitted by air.

Sci Rep 2019 10 7;9(1):14376. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Institute of Biological Basis of Animal Production; Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Microsporidia Nosema are transferred among bees via the faecal-oral route. Nosema spp. spores have been detected on flowers and transferred to hives along with the bee pollen. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Nosema microsporidia are transferred by air in an apiary, in a control area (without the presence of bee colonies), and/or in a laboratory during cage experiments with artificially infected bees. The novel way of transmission by air was investigated by the volumetric method using a Hirst-type aerobiological sampler located on the ground in the apiary, in the Botanical Garden and on the laboratory floor. Concurrently, the mean rate of Nosema infections in the foragers in the apiary was estimated with the Bürker haemocytometer method. Spore-trapping tapes were imaged by means of light microscopy, Nomarski interference contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The highest concentration of Nosema spores per 1m of air (4.65) was recorded in August, while the lowest concentration (2.89) was noted in July. This was confirmed by a Real-Time PCR analysis. The presence of N. apis as well as N. ceranae was detected in each of the tested tapes from the apiary. The average copy number of N. apis was estimated at 14.4 × 10 copies per 1 cm of the tape; whereas the number of N. ceranae was 2.24 × 10 copies per tape per 1 cm. The results indicate that Nosema microsporidia were transferred by the wind in the apiary, but not in the Botanical Garden and laboratory by air. This was confirmed by genetic analyses. DNA from immobilised biological material was isolated and subjected to a PCR to detect the Nosema species. A fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, characteristic of Nosema apis and N. ceranae, was detected. Our research adds knowledge about the transfer of Nosema spp. microsporidia in the natural environment and indicates the season associated with the greatest risk of a bee colony infection with Nosema spp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50974-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779873PMC
October 2019

Breeding parameters on a mink farm infected with Aleutian mink disease virus following the use of methisoprinol.

Arch Virol 2019 Nov 19;164(11):2691-2698. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Biological Basis of Animal Production, Faculty of Biology, Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Aleutian mink disease virus is one of the greatest threats to modern mink farming. The disease reduces fecundity and causes high mortality among kits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of methisoprinol in counteracting the effects of Aleutian disease, both by inhibiting replication of the virus and by mitigating the harmful effects of the disease on the fecundity and weight of infected animals. The study included 300 individuals with confirmed infection, divided according to antibody titres into three experimental groups, which received a 20% methisoprinol solution, and three control groups, which did not receive the immunostimulant. In the mink from the experimental groups, the number of copies of the genetic material of the virus in the spleens and lymph nodes was one order of magnitude lower than in the case of the control groups. Mink receiving the supplement also showed higher fecundity (on average 5.83 in the experimental groups and 4.83 in the control groups), and the weight of their offspring before slaughter was over 200 g higher. Given the lack of effective methods for immunoprophylaxis and treatment, methisoprinol supplementation can be an effective means of counteracting the effects of AMDV on persistently infected farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04375-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768903PMC
November 2019

A rare case of the simultaneous location of Echinococcus multilocularis in the liver and the head of the pancreas: case report analysis and review of literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jul 24;19(1):661. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Clinic of Oncological and General Surgery, University Clinical Hospital in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland.

Background: Echinococcosis multilocularis (Hydatid Disease - HD) is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval form of Echinococcus multilocularis (EM). The main sites for this zoonosis are the Middle East, China, India, Alaska, and Siberia. It is rather rare in Europe. In Poland, the Warmian-Masurian Province is the endemic region for Echinococcus multilocularis. The clinical manifestation of the disease is dependent on the location, the size of the cyst and the development stage of the parasite. Considering the uncommon character of echinococcosis in Central Europe, especially such located in the areas outside the liver and lungs, the authors would like to present a case of coexistence in one patient of two EM foci in the liver and the head of the pancreas.

Case Presentation: We present a clinical case of a 32-year-old man who was diagnosed with a cystic lesion with septa and calcification in the sixth segment of the liver and a suspicious change in the head of the pancreas. ELISA Em 2 plus test was positive, Western Blot method - the P-5 pattern showed an image that is characteristic of an EM infection. The sixth liver segment with a tumour and a tumour from the head of pancreas were excised by means of laparotomy. On the 6th day after the surgery the patient was discharged from hospital without complications and in good condition. Currently, he is under the control of a parasitic and zoonotic clinic. He takes an 800 mg daily dosage of Albendazole.

Conclusions: The presented clinical case shows that if we have a patient with cystic / tumour change in the pancreas and positive immunological tests, CT and MRI of the abdominal cavity are usually sufficient in order to fully diagnose and to qualify such a person for surgery. The most effective treatment is surgical treatment supplemented with pre- and postsurgical treatment with Albendazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4274-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657101PMC
July 2019

Aleutian Mink Disease Virus in the breeding environment in Poland and its place in the global epidemiology of AMDV.

Virus Res 2019 09 12;270:197665. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Institute of Biological Basis of Animal Production, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

Aleutian mink disease (AMD) leads to an increase in mortality of animals and causes losses in mink farming. The study investigated the presence of AMDV in tissue and environmental samples from farmed mink in Poland, and selected samples were genetically characterized. Blood, spleens and swabs from the breeding environment were collected on 27 farms in seven voivodeships in Poland (n = 250). DNA was isolated, amplified by PCR and subsequently subjected to sequencing to reveal information on the molecular epidemiology of the samples. A qPCR method was used to determine the viral load in test samples. The presence of AMDV was confirmed in tissues and the farm environment on 26 of the 27 farms. The average viral load in spleens was 10 copies. The virus was also present in the blood (average - 10 copies) and the farm environment (average - 10 copies). Isolates from the West Pomeranian Voivodeship showed high similarity within the voivodeship (over 99%). Variants from the Lublin and Podlaskie Voivodeships differed 5% from any of the AMDV isolates present in the NCBI database. Isolates from the Greater Poland, Pomeranian, Podkarpackie and Lesser Poland Voivodeships formed heterogeneous clades, showing over 97% similarity to variants previously isolated in Poland, the Netherlands and Lithuania. A high degree of genetic variation was identified among the majority of the samples, which indicates that AMDV has been introduced to Poland multiple times. However, the results within one area showed high identity between isolates, suggesting that one common ancestor was the source of these outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2019.197665DOI Listing
September 2019

Does kisspeptin participate in GABA-mediated modulation of GnRH and GnRH receptor biosynthesis in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit of follicular-phase ewes?

Pharmacol Rep 2019 Aug 5;71(4):636-643. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

The Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Neuroendocrinology, Warszawa, Poland.

Background: The inverse relationship between GnRH transcript level and GABA neurons activity has suggested that GABA at the hypothalamic level may exert a suppressive effect on subsequent steps of the GnRH biosynthesis. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of GABA type A receptor agonist (muscimol) or antagonist (bicuculline) on molecular mechanisms governing GnRH/LH secretion in follicular-phase sheep.

Methods: ELISA technique was used to investigate the effects of muscimol and/or bicuculline on levels of post-translational products of genes encoding GnRH ligand and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary (AP). Real-time PCR was chosen for determination of the effect of drugs on kisspeptin (Kiss 1) mRNA level in POA and VMH including arcuate nucleus (VMH/ARC), and on Kiss1 receptor (Kiss1r) mRNA abundance in POA-hypothalamic structures. These analyses were supplemented by RIA method for measurement of plasma LH concentration.

Results: The study demonstrated that muscimol and bicuculline significantly decreased or increased GnRH biosynthesis in all analyzed structures, respectively, and led to analogous changes in plasma LH concentration. Similar muscimol- and bicuculline-related alterations were observed in levels of GnRHR. However, the expression of Kiss 1 and Kiss1r mRNAs in selected POA-hypothalamic areas of either muscimol- and bicuculline-treated animals remained unaltered.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that GABAergic neurotransmission is involved in the regulatory pathways of GnRH/GnRHR biosynthesis and then GnRH/LH release in follicular-phase sheep conceivably via indirect mechanisms that exclude involvement of Kiss 1 neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2019.02.019DOI Listing
August 2019

Analysis of Postoperative Complications After 303 Sentinel Lymph Node Identification Procedures Using the SentiMag® Method in Breast Cancer Patients.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Apr 29;25:3154-3160. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department VI of Trauma and Orthopaedics, District Hospital of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Piekary Śląskie, Poland.

BACKGROUND The objective of this paper was to assess the complications following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients using the SentiMag® method. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study material consisted of 368 patients who had received the SLNB procedure in combination with wide local excision (WLE), simple mastectomy or who had an autonomous SLNB procedure in the period from January 2014 to September 2017. The final study group consisted of 303 patients who attended follow-up consultations. RESULTS Sensory disturbances in the arm occurred in 12 patients (9.9%), including 3 patients (1.5%) after WLE and 9 patients (8.4%) after simple mastectomy. Restricted mobility in the upper limb was experienced by 9 patients (7.1%), including 3 patients (1.5%) after WLE and 6 patients (5.6%) after simple mastectomy. Minimal-degree lymphedema developed in 9 patients (7.5%), including 2 patients (1%) after WLE and 7 patients (6.5%) after simple mastectomy. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the incidence of these complications and the number of lymph nodes dissected. A significantly higher incidence of paresthesia and lymphedema was revealed for simple mastectomy with SLNB when compared to WLE with SLNB. Discolorations upon tracer administration were observed in 47 patients (15.5%). CONCLUSIONS SentiMag® is a safe sentinel lymph node identification method used in breast cancer and has a low risk of complications. The rate of complications increases together with the number of dissected lymph nodes and the extent of the surgery. The possibility of temporary discolorations on the skin should be communicated to the patients explicitly prior to surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.912758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6503749PMC
April 2019

Primarily resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma - to operate or to refer the patient to an oncologist?

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Mar 25;135:95-102. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Radiotherapy, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry in Zabrze, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

The aim of this work is to investigate the optimal therapeutic sequence of resectable pancreatic cancer - primary surgery with adjuvant therapy or neoadjuvant followed by resection. Application of the neoadjuvant approach in routine treatment of pancreatic cancer is rapidly growing every year, despite the lack of final results from randomized trials. Recent advancements in the adjuvant therapy, due to the more effective chemotherapy regimens, favor the upfront surgery strategy. On the other hand, theoretical background and metaanalyses favor the neoadjuvant strategy. Currently, primary resection with adjuvant chemotherapy remains the standard approach in resectable pancreatic cancer, but the first recommendations considering the neoadjuvant approach as an option seem to arise among the scientific societies with a global impact. Preliminary results of Prodige 24 study and PREOPANC-1 trial demonstrates that both options are worth further evaluation in clinical trials. Their results should soon provide more answers to this important clinical questions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.01.010DOI Listing
March 2019

Assessment of exogenous melatonin action on mouse liver cells after exposure to soman.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Dec 29;64:147-154. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland.

Melatonin is a hormone with many different biological activities and therefore seems to be an important factor reducing the harmful effects caused by toxic organophosphorus compounds. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the protective effect of melatonin on liver cells of mice challenged with chemical warfare agent-soman. The study was conducted at the level of ultrastructural and biochemical changes (analysis of the activity of model lysosomal enzymes and assessment of the level of lipid peroxidation). Significant biochemical and ultrastructural changes were found in the studied mouse hepatocytes after administration of soman alone, and soman in combination with melatonin, and the scope of the disclosed changes was dependent on the time of action of the examined factors. Melatonin has shown protective action, shielding liver cells from toxic effects of soman, which may result from its antioxidant properties and stimulation of the lysosomal compartment, the system coordinating the isolation and removal of cell-threatening processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.10.007DOI Listing
December 2018

Molecular markers used in forensic genetics.

Med Sci Law 2018 Oct 30;58(4):201-209. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

1 Department of Biological Basis of Animal Production, Faculty of Biology, Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland.

Forensic genetics is a field that has become subject to increasing interest in recent years. Both the technology and the markers used for forensic purposes have changed since the 1980s. The minisatellite sequences used in the famous Pitchfork case introduced genetics to the forensic sciences. Minisatellite sequences have now been replaced by more sensitive microsatellite markers, which have become the basis for the creation of genetic profile databases. Modern molecular methods also exploit single nucleotide polymorphisms, which are often the only way to identify degraded DNA samples. The same type of variation is taken into consideration in attempting to establish the ethnicity of a perpetrator and to determine phenotypic traits such as the eye or hair colour of the individual who is the source of the genetic material. This paper contains a review of the techniques and molecular markers used in human and animal forensic genetics, and also presents the potential trends in forensic genetics such as phenotyping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802418803852DOI Listing
October 2018

A comparative molecular characterization of AMDV strains isolated from cases of clinical and subclinical infection.

Virus Genes 2018 Aug 29;54(4):561-569. Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Epizootiology and Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612, Lublin, Poland.

The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is one of the most serious threats to modern mink breeding. The disease can have various courses, from progressive to subclinical infections. The objective of the study was to provide a comparative molecular characterization of isolates of AMDV from farms with a clinical and subclinical course of the disease. The qPCR analysis showed a difference of two orders of magnitude between the number of copies of the viral DNA on the farm with the clinical course of the disease (10) and the farm with the subclinical course (10). The sequencing results confirm a high level of homogeneity within each farm and variation between them. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that the variants belonging to different farms are closely related and occupy different branches of the same clade. The in silico analysis of the effect of differences in the sequence encoding the VP2 protein between the farms revealed no effect of the polymorphism on its functionality. The close phylogenetic relationship between the isolates from the two farms, the synonymous nature of most of the polymorphisms and the potentially minor effect on the functionality of the protein indicate that the differences in the clinical picture may be due not only to polymorphisms in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, but also to the stage of infection on the farm and the degree of stabilization of the pathogen-host relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-018-1576-xDOI Listing
August 2018

Examinations of the methods used to power supply of different light sources and their effect on bioelectrical brain activity.

Neurol Neurochir Pol 2018 Aug 8;52(4):505-513. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Marymoncka 34, 00-968 Warsaw, Poland.

Objective: The article represents the preliminary study, with the aim of the experiment being to examine whether different types of light sources used commonly in building interiors combined with various color temperature have an effect on EEG activity. The effect of frequency pulsation and color temperature on brain activity in EEG examinations in the beta 2 band was assumed.

Material/participants: Twenty healthy men aged 19-25 years participated in the experiment.

Methods: The research stand was lit by: LED diodes with color temperatures of 3000K, 4200K, 6500K, with the power supplied using the pulse width modulation (PWM) method with the current frequency of 122Hz, linear fluorescent tubes (3000K, 6500K), with the power supplied with the frequency of 50Hz and 52kHz from the electromagnetic and electronic ballasts, and the conventional light bulb, with the power supplied directly from the mains electricity, used as a reference light. System Flex 30 apparatus with TrueScan software was used to record the EEG signal. The examination used two factors (speed and accuracy) of the Kraepelin's work curve to describe changes in work performance for various types of lighting.

Results: The results demonstrate that the use of different types of emission of light and color temperature of the light have an effect on bioelectrical brain activity and work performance.

Conclusions: The highest activity of brain waves concerns the beta band in the frequency range of 21-22Hz, regardless of the type of the light source (LED, fluorescent tube). The methods used to supply power and color temperature of fluorescent tubes do not significantly affect bioelectrical brain activity during "work", but previous lighting with fluorescent tubes during work has an essential effect on bioelectrical brain activity during rest. Regardless of the color temperature, LED lighting with PWM power supply leads to the highest bioelectrical activity (mainly in the range of 21-22Hz) in the brain during work and rest, which might suggests the usefulness of this method of supplying power for everyday work. Incandescent light does not affect the bioelectrical brain activity during work and rest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pjnns.2018.02.007DOI Listing
August 2018

Occurrence of colorectal aberrant crypt foci depending on age and dietary patterns of patients.

BMC Cancer 2018 02 21;18(1):213. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Histology and Embryology with Unit of Experimental Cytology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are commonly considered the early pre-cancerous lesions that can progress to colorectal cancer (CRC). The available literature data reveal that age, dietary factors and lifestyle can affect the development of several dozen percentages of malignant tumours, including CRC. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the incidence and growth dynamics of ACF and to determine whether the type of diet affected the development and number of AFC.

Methods: Colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue was performed in 131 patients. On the day of examination, each patient completed a questionnaire regarding epidemiological data. According to their numbers, colorectal ACF were divided into three groups. The findings were analysed statistically. The Student's t test and the U test were applied in order to determine the significance of differences of means and frequency of events in both groups. Statistica 7.1 and Excel 2010 were used.

Results: The single ACF occur in the youngest individuals (ACF < 5). Since the age of 38 years, the number of ACF gradually increases to show a decreasing tendency since the age of 60 years. The number of 5 < ACF < 10 occurs slightly later, since the age of 50 years, and dynamically increases reaching the maximum at the age of 62 years, subsequently the increase is proportional. ACF > 10 occur at a more advanced age (55 years) and their number gradually increases with age. The maximum number is observed at the age of 77 years. In individuals not using high-fibre diets and with high intake of red meat, the probability of higher numbers of ACF increases. The probability of higher numbers of ACF (5 < ACF10) was observed in patients with colon diverticula. In patients with higher BMI, the number of ACF is higher.

Conclusion: Age significantly affects the number of colorectal ACF. The types of foods consumed can considerably increase the risk of colorectal ACF, which is particularly visible in individuals who do not regularly use high-fibre diets, those obese and with colon diverticula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4100-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822661PMC
February 2018

Comparative molecular analysis of strains of the Aleutian Disease Virus isolated from farmed and wild mink.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2017 Sep 5;24(3):366-371. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Department of Biological Basis of Animal Production, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: Aleutian Disease is a significant biological factor causing substantial losses in mink farming. The virus inducing the disease also infects wild populations which may constitute an asymptomatic reservoir. To compare genetic variants of the AMD virus occurring in wild and farmed mink populations, an analysis was performed on a fragment of the VP2 protein sequence of the virus infecting both populations, taken from different living environments.

Material And Methods: Genetic material was isolated from 11 farmed animals in which anti-AMDV antibodies had been detected and from 20 wild animals. The DNA obtained was amplified using primers specific for the fragment encoding the VP2 protein. The product obtained was sequenced and bioinformatic analysis was performed.

Results: Viral material was detected in 11 farmed and 7 free-living animals. Similarity of sequences averaged 99% within groups and 94% between groups. The sequencing results made it possible to identify characteristic changes for each group. In the isolates from the wild animals, the following changes were observed in the epitope region with respect to the reference sequence: C3704T, G3710A, T3722C, T3746C and A3749G. In the isolates from the farmed animals a G3779A transition was noted. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the variants infecting the two groups occupy separate branches of the phylogenetic tree.

Conclusions: The variants of the virus infecting the two groups may have a common origin, but at present they constitute two separate groups, with characteristic differences making it possible to recognize their genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26444/aaem/75688DOI Listing
September 2017

Impaired memory for material related to a problem solved prior to encoding: suppression at learning or interference at recall?

Authors:
Marek Kowalczyk

Memory 2017 07 17;25(6):752-763. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

a Institute of Psychology, Adam Mickiewicz University , Poznań , Poland.

Earlier research by the author revealed that material encoded incidentally in a speeded affective classification task and related to the demands of a divergent problem tends to be recalled worse in participants who solved the problem prior to encoding than in participants in the control, no-problem condition. The aim of the present experiment was to replicate this effect with a new, size-comparison orienting task, and to test for possible mechanisms of impaired recall. Participants either solved a problem before the orienting task or not, and classified each item in this task either once or three times. There was a reliable effect of impaired recall of problem-related items in the repetition condition, but not in the no-repetition condition. Solving the problem did not influence repetition priming for these items. These results support an account that attributes the impaired recall to inhibitory processes at learning and speak against a proactive interference explanation. However, they can be also accommodated by an account that refers to inefficient context cues and competitor interference at retrieval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2016.1219750DOI Listing
July 2017

Chromoendoscopy with a Standard-Resolution Colonoscope for Evaluation of Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci.

PLoS One 2016 17;11(2):e0148286. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Department of Histology and Embryology with Unit of Experimental Cytology, Medical University of Lublin, Poland.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death worldwide. According to the theory by Vogelstein, colorectal carcinogenesis involves a series of successive changes in the normal colonic mucosa, starting with excessive proliferation and focal disorders of intestinal crypts, followed by adenoma and its subsequent malignant transformation. The first identifiable changes in CRC carcinogenesis are aberrant crypt foci (ACF). ACF are invisible during routine colonoscopy yet are well identifiable in chromoendoscopy using methylene blue or indigo carmine. High-resolution colonoscopes are used for assessment of ACF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of standard-resolution colonoscopy for identification of rectal ACF. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of chromoendoscopy of a given rectal segment, type of ACF, sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy combined with histopathological evaluation. The mean duration of colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy was 26.8 min. In the study population, typical ACF were found in 73 patients (p = 0.489), hyperplastic ACF in 49 (p = 0.328), and dysplastic ACF in 16 patients (p = 0.107). Mixed ACF were observed in 11 individuals (p = 0.073). The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.96 whereas its specificity 0.99. Identification of rectal ACF using standard-resolution colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue is characterised by high sensitivity and specificity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0148286PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757420PMC
July 2016

Analysis of cases of forensic veterinary opinions produced in a research and teaching unit.

J Forensic Leg Med 2015 Nov 14;36:84-9. Epub 2015 Aug 14.

Department of Biological Basis of Animal Production, Faculty of Biology and Animal Breeding, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

The aim of the study was to present the results of necropsies carried out in the years 2000-2014 in the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The material used for the analysis consisted of expert opinions prepared on the basis of a decision by a judicial body to admit an expert opinion as evidence. An increase was observed in the demand for the services of veterinary forensic experts, beginning in 2006 and persisting through 2014. The response to the growing popularity of veterinary forensic examinations should be systematization of knowledge and exchange of experience, which would enable the further development of this interdisciplinary science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2015.08.002DOI Listing
November 2015

Audio-Visual and Autogenic Relaxation Alter Amplitude of Alpha EEG Band, Causing Improvements in Mental Work Performance in Athletes.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2015 Sep;40(3):219-27

University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland,

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz's autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7-12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete's ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10484-015-9290-0DOI Listing
September 2015

Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes.

Croat Med J 2015 Feb;56(1):32-40

Marek Kowalczyk, Institute of Forensic Research, Westerplatte St. 9, 31-033 Krakow, Poland,

Aim: To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice.

Methods: Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequen-ces were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological identification of mushrooms was also performed for 57 samples of clinical material.

Results: Of 221 samples, positive sequencing results were obtained for 152 (69%). The highest percentage of positive results was obtained for samples of dried mushrooms (96%) and food remains (91%). Comparison with GenBank sequences enabled identification of all samples at least at the genus level. Most samples (90%) were identified at the level of species or a group of closely related species. Sporological and molecular identification were consistent at the level of species or genus for 30% of analyzed samples.

Conclusion: Molecular analysis identified a larger number of species than sporological method. It proved to be suitable for analysis of evidential material (dried hallucinogenic mushrooms) in forensic genetic laboratories as well as to complement classical methods in the analysis of clinical material.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4364345PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2015.56.32DOI Listing
February 2015

Brain-training for physical performance: a study of EEG-neurofeedback and alpha relaxation training in athletes.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 2015 ;75(4):434-45

The Nencki Institute for Experimental Biology PAS, Warsaw, Poland.

In recent years, EEG-neurofeedback training (EEG-NFB) has been increasingly used to optimize various brain functions. Better performance in various activities was also reported after relaxation trainings, another popular method in therapeutic practice. Both these methods are used as a part of professional coaching in sports training centers. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of such holistic training on physiological (EEG) and behavioral measures on semi-professional athletes. EEG-NFB paradigm was intended for amplification of the amplitudes of SMR (12-15 Hz) and beta1 (13-20 Hz) bands and simultaneous reduction of the amplitude of theta (4-7.5 Hz) and beta2 (20-30 Hz). Participation in NFB sessions was accompanied with self-administration of relaxing, audio-visual stimulation after each daily athletic training session. The training program resulted in the increase of alpha and beta1 power of trained participants when assessed in rest with eyes-closed. In eyes - open state, participants of the trained group maintained the same level in all frequency bands, in opposite to the control subjects, whose power decreased in the second measurement in beta1 band when compared to the first one. The trained group exhibited greater reduction of reaction times in a test of visual attention than the control group and showed improvement in several performance measures of Kraepelin's work-curve, used to evaluate speed, effectiveness and work accuracy. Together, these results present initial support for the use of holistic, neurophysiological training in sports workout.
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December 2016

Effect of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (IMPF) poisoning on selected immunological parameters of angiogenesis.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2014 ;21(4):733-8

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw, Poland; Jozef Piłsudski University of Physical Education, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and cholinergic receptors play an important role in the immune system, including lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis. However, their exact role is not fully understood. The presented work tests the influence of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (IMPF), an irreversible inhibitor of AChE, on selected immune parameters associated with angiogenesis in mice. The levels of VEGF, bFGF, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production were measured, together with the ability of lymphoid spleen cells to induce local GvH reaction after a single dose of IMPF.

Materials And Method: Experiments were performed in male BALB/c mice. Acetylcholinesterase activity in erythrocytes was determined by the Ellman`s procedure. Levels of cytokines were measured in serum using standard commercial ELISA kits. Influence of IMPF intoxication upon angiogenesis was examined by the LIA test, according to the Sidky and Auerbach procedure.

Results: The results showed a 6- and 8-fold increase in VEGF at days 1 and 7 of the experiment, respectively, as well as a decrease (at days 14 and 21 after administration), followed by a significant increase (day 1) in bFGF levels. A statistically significant decrease in the concentration of IFN-γ was observed throughout all experiments. The maximum decrease in the level of TNF-α was found at days 1 and 7 after administration of IMPF. Additionally, a significant decrease was found in the ability to form new blood vessels following IMPF administration.

Conclusions: This study revealed that IMPF has a significant effect on the regulation of lymphocyte-induced angiogenesis, which is related with the modulation of angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion. The observed differences suggest a possible derangement of certain elements of the neuronal and/or non-neuronal cholinergic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5604/12321966.1129925DOI Listing
August 2015

Antinociceptive effect of D-Lys(2), Dab(4)N-(ureidoethyl)amide, a new cyclic 1-4 dermorphin/deltorphin analog.

Pharmacol Rep 2014 Aug 26;66(4):600-5. Epub 2014 Apr 26.

Warsaw University, Department of Chemistry, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: A preliminary evaluation of antinociceptive activity of a new cyclic dermorphin/deltorphin tetrapeptide analog restricted via a urea bridge and containing C-terminal ureidoethylamid {[H-Tyr-d-Lys(&(1))-Phe-Dab(&(2))-CH2CH2NHCONH2][&(1)CO&(2)]} (cUP-1) revealed a significant and long-lasting increase of pain threshold to thermal stimulation after systemic application. The current studies were aimed at further evaluation of cUP-1 activity in animal models of somatic and visceral pain. The influence of cUP-1 on motor functions was also investigated.

Methods: The influence of cUP-1 (0.5-2mgkg(-1), iv) on nociceptive threshold to mechanical pressure and analgesic efficacy in formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were estimated. The antinociceptive effect of cUP-1 was compared to that of morphine (MF). The influence of cUP-1 (1, 4 and 8mgkg(-1), iv) on locomotor activity, motor coordination and muscle strength was estimated using open field and rota-rod tests and a grip strength measurement.

Results: Administration of cUP-1 in doses of 1 and 2mgkg(-1) elicited a significant increase of nociceptive threshold to mechanical pressure. MF applied in the same doses induced an antinociceptive effect only at the higher dose (2mgkg(-1)). There were no marked differences between the effect of cUP-1 and MF at each dose, at relative time points. In the writhing test and both phases of the formalin test, cUP-1 showed a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect which did not markedly differ from that of MF. cUP-1 did not significantly affect motor functions of mice.

Conclusions: Systemic application of cUP-1 elicited a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. The analgesic efficacy of cUP-1 on mechanical nociception, visceral and formalin-induced pain was comparable to that of MF. cUP-1 did not impair motor functions of mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2014.01.007DOI Listing
August 2014

The outcomes of SILS cholecystectomy in comparison with classic four-trocar laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2012 Dec 29;7(4):286-93. Epub 2012 Sep 29.

Department of General and Minimally Invasive Surgery, University Hospital and Clinics, Olsztyn, Poland ; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Introduction: General approval of laparoscopy as well as persistent urge to minimize operative trauma with still existing difficulties in putting natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) into practice have contributed to the introduction of laparoscopic operations through one incision in the umbilicus named single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS).

Aim: The main aim of this study was to assess the benefits to patients of applying SILS cholecystectomy as a method of gallbladder removal based on the comparison with classic four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Material And Methods: Between 18.03.2009 and 09.12.2009, 100 patients were included in the study and they underwent elective gallbladder removal by applying the laparoscopic technique. All patients were divided into two equal groups: qualified for SILS cholecystectomy (group I) and qualified for classic four-trocar laparoscopic cholecystectomy (group II), whose ASA physical status was I and II. BMI was limited to 35 kg/m(2). Outcome measures included operative time, intensity of postoperative pain and consumption of painkillers, hospital stay, need for conversion, complications, and cosmetic effects.

Results: Mean operating time in group I was 66 min and in group II 47.2 min. Intensity of pain evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS) 6 h after the operation in group I was 3.49 and in group II 4.53, whereas 24 h after the operation in group I it was 1.18 and in group II 1.55. The painkiller requirement in group I was smaller than in group II. Mean hospital stay after the operation in group I was 1.33 days and in group II 1.96 days. There were 4 conversions in group I and one conversion in group II. Among the complications in group I there were noted 2 cases of right pneumothorax, 1 case of choleperitonitis and 4 complications connected with wound healing. There was one injury of the duodenum and one wound infection in group II.

Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery cholecystectomy can be an alternative to classic laparoscopic cholecystectomy, especially with reference to young people with body mass index less than 35 kg/m(2), without serious systemic diseases, operated on electively due to benign gallbladder diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2011.30811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3557736PMC
December 2012

The place of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) in advanced chronic venous insufficiency treatment.

Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2011 Dec 20;6(4):181-9. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Department of General and Minimally Invasive Surgery, University Hospital and Clinics, Olsztyn, Poland.

In spite of medical science development and initiation of new technologies in minimally invasive surgery, treatment of advanced chronic venous insufficiency at the 5(th) and 6(th) degree of CEAP classification is still a great clinical challenge. In case of no satisfactory results of non-surgical treatment of recurrent venous ulcers, scientists search for alternative therapeutic methods which could be more effective and lasting. Subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery (SEPS) as a method of reducing venous pressure in the superficial venous system could provide healing of the recurrent venous ulcer. In this study we present a review of contemporary opinions about the place and significance of subfascial endoscopic perforator vein surgery as a treatment of advanced chronic venous insufficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/wiitm.2011.26252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516943PMC
December 2011

Computerized tomography evaluation of cortical bone properties in the tibia.

Ortop Traumatol Rehabil 2007 Mar-Apr;9(2):187-97

Katedra i Klinika Ortopedii i Traumatologii Narzadu Ruchu Akademii Medycznej, Wrocław.

Background: Tibia shaft fractures are among the most common fractures. However, the incidence of tibia fractures does not increase in the elderly. Osteoporotic bone resorption is possibly compensated for by periosteal apposition, which improves the mechanical properties of the bone. The purpose of this study was to identify a correlation between geometric indices of transverse bone scans and radiologic bone density based in CT studies.

Material And Methods: 12 human cadaver tibiae were CT examined. Radiological density in Hounsfield units was evaluated in transverse bone scans taken at the junction of the distal and middle third of the tibial shaft. The average and maximum radiological density and area of cortical bone were evaluated.

Results: Average radiological bone density decreased with age. This was not accompanied by a corresponding increase in cortical bone area.

Conclusion: The study did not provide direct confirmation that age-related osteoporotic bone resorption is compensated for by periosteal apposition.
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October 2007

[Cognitive inhibition and thought suppression in obsessive-compulsive disorder--a review].

Authors:
Marek Kowalczyk

Psychiatr Pol 2006 Nov-Dec;40(6):1051-60

Instytut Psychologii UAM Poznań, Szamarzewskiego.

The symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)--repetitive troublesome intrusive thoughts and/or compulsions--may indicate a reduction in the efficiency of inhibitory control over thought and action. A number of neuropsychological studies using various indices of inhibitory activity were aimed at verifying the hypothesis of deficient inhibition in OCD. The paper critically reviews the studies that relate to three kinds of inhibition-related phenomena --i.e. negative priming, thought suppression, and directed forgetting--and summarises the results of other research addressing the inhibitory processes in OCD subjects. All in all, the results do not support the hypothesis of general inhibitory deficit in OCD, although some studies suggest an impairment in the ability to suppress specific mental contents in this clinical group. In the discussion some general problems related to neuropsychological diagnosis of inhibitory processes in psychopathology are indicated.
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May 2007