Publications by authors named "Marcos V P Gondim"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CD4 receptor diversity represents an ancient protection mechanism against primate lentiviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project, BP 2012, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Infection with human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV) requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the host protein CD4 on the surface of immune cells. Although invariant in humans, the Env binding domain of the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants circulating in wild populations. Here, we show that within-species CD4 diversity is not unique to chimpanzees but found in many African primate species. Characterizing the outermost (D1) domain of the CD4 protein in over 500 monkeys and apes, we found polymorphic residues in 24 of 29 primate species, with as many as 11 different coding variants identified within a single species. D1 domain amino acid replacements affected SIV Env-mediated cell entry in a single-round infection assay, restricting infection in a strain- and allele-specific fashion. Several identical CD4 polymorphisms, including the addition of -linked glycosylation sites, were found in primate species from different genera, providing striking examples of parallel evolution. Moreover, seven different guenons ( spp.) shared multiple distinct D1 domain variants, pointing to long-term trans-specific polymorphism. These data indicate that the HIV/SIV Env binding region of the primate CD4 protein is highly variable, both within and between species, and suggest that this diversity has been maintained by balancing selection for millions of years, at least in part to confer protection against primate lentiviruses. Although long-term SIV-infected species have evolved specific mechanisms to avoid disease progression, primate lentiviruses are intrinsically pathogenic and have left their mark on the host genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025914118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020793PMC
March 2021

Heightened resistance to host type 1 interferons characterizes HIV-1 at transmission and after antiretroviral therapy interruption.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Jan;13(576)

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are potent innate antiviral effectors that constrain HIV-1 transmission. However, harnessing these cytokines for HIV-1 cure strategies has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of their antiviral activities at later stages of infection. Here, we characterized the IFN-I sensitivity of 500 clonally derived HIV-1 isolates from the plasma and CD4 T cells of 26 individuals sampled longitudinally after transmission or after antiretroviral therapy (ART) and analytical treatment interruption. We determined the concentration of IFNα2 and IFNβ that reduced viral replication in vitro by 50% (IC) and found consistent changes in the sensitivity of HIV-1 to IFN-I inhibition both across individuals and over time. Resistance of HIV-1 isolates to IFN-I was uniformly high during acute infection, decreased in all individuals in the first year after infection, was reacquired concomitant with CD4 T cell loss, and remained elevated in individuals with accelerated disease. HIV-1 isolates obtained by viral outgrowth during suppressive ART were relatively IFN-I sensitive, resembling viruses circulating just before ART initiation. However, viruses that rebounded after treatment interruption displayed the highest degree of IFNα2 and IFNβ resistance observed at any time during the infection course. These findings indicate a dynamic interplay between host innate responses and the evolving HIV-1 quasispecies, with the relative contribution of IFN-I to HIV-1 control affected by both ART and analytical treatment interruption. Although elevated at transmission, host innate pressures are the highest during viral rebound, limiting the viruses that successfully become reactivated from latency to those that are IFN-I resistant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923595PMC
January 2021

CpG Frequency in the 5' Third of the Gene Determines Sensitivity of Primary HIV-1 Strains to the Zinc-Finger Antiviral Protein.

mBio 2020 01 14;11(1). Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany

CpG dinucleotide suppression has been reported to allow HIV-1 to evade inhibition by the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP). Here, we show that primate lentiviruses display marked differences in CpG frequencies across their genome, ranging from 0.44% in simian immunodeficiency virus SIVwrc from Western red colobus to 2.3% in SIVmon infecting mona monkeys. Moreover, functional analyses of a large panel of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses revealed that the magnitude of CpG suppression does not correlate with their susceptibility to ZAP. However, we found that the number of CpG dinucleotides within a region of ∼700 bases at the 5' end of the gene determines ZAP sensitivity of primary HIV-1 strains but not of HIV-2. Increased numbers of CpGs in this region were associated with reduced mRNA expression and viral protein production. ZAP sensitivity profiles of chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) expressing different HIV-1 genes were highly similar to those of the corresponding HIV-1 strains. The frequency of CpGs in the identified region correlated with differences in clinical progression rates. Thus, the CpG frequency in a specific part of , rather than the overall genomic CpG content, governs the susceptibility of HIV-1 to ZAP and might affect viral pathogenicity Evasion of the zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP) may drive CpG dinucleotide suppression in HIV-1 and many other viral pathogens but the viral determinants of ZAP sensitivity are poorly defined. Here, we examined CpG suppression and ZAP sensitivity in a large number of primate lentiviruses and demonstrate that their genomic frequency of CpGs varies substantially and does not correlate with ZAP sensitivity. We further show that the number of CpG residues in a defined region at the 5' end of the gene together with structural features plays a key role in HIV-1 susceptibility to ZAP and correlates with differences in clinical progression rates in HIV-1-infected individuals. Our identification of a specific part of as a major determinant of HIV-1 susceptibility to ZAP restriction provides a basis for future studies of the underlying inhibitory mechanisms and their potential relevance in the pathogenesis of AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02903-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960287PMC
January 2020

CD4 receptor diversity in chimpanzees protects against SIV infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 02 4;116(8):3229-3238. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Sanaga-Yong Chimpanzee Rescue Center, In Defense of Animals-Africa, Portland, OR 97204.

Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIVs) use CD4 as the primary receptor to enter target cells. Here, we show that the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants present in wild populations, and that this diversity interferes with SIV envelope (Env)-CD4 interactions. Testing the replication fitness of SIVcpz strains in CD4 T cells from captive chimpanzees, we found that certain viruses were unable to infect cells from certain hosts. These differences were recapitulated in CD4 transfection assays, which revealed a strong association between CD4 genotypes and SIVcpz infection phenotypes. The most striking differences were observed for three substitutions (Q25R, Q40R, and P68T), with P68T generating a second N-linked glycosylation site (N66) in addition to an invariant N32 encoded by all chimpanzee CD4 alleles. In silico modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified charged residues at the CD4-Env interface and clashes between CD4- and Env-encoded glycans as mechanisms of inhibition. CD4 polymorphisms also reduced Env-mediated cell entry of monkey SIVs, which was dependent on at least one D1 domain glycan. CD4 allele frequencies varied among wild chimpanzees, with high diversity in all but the western subspecies, which appeared to have undergone a selective sweep. One allele was associated with lower SIVcpz prevalence rates in the wild. These results indicate that substitutions in the D1 domain of the chimpanzee CD4 can prevent SIV cell entry. Although some SIVcpz strains have adapted to utilize these variants, CD4 diversity is maintained, protecting chimpanzees against infection with SIVcpz and other SIVs to which they are exposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821197116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386711PMC
February 2019

Resistance to type 1 interferons is a major determinant of HIV-1 transmission fitness.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 01 9;114(4):E590-E599. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is an inefficient process, with only one or few variants of the donor quasispecies establishing the new infection. A critical, and as yet unresolved, question is whether the mucosal bottleneck selects for viruses with increased transmission fitness. Here, we characterized 300 limiting dilution-derived virus isolates from the plasma, and in some instances genital secretions, of eight HIV-1 donor and recipient pairs. Although there were no differences in the amount of virion-associated envelope glycoprotein, recipient isolates were on average threefold more infectious (P = 0.0001), replicated to 1.4-fold higher titers (P = 0.004), were released from infected cells 4.2-fold more efficiently (P < 0.00001), and were significantly more resistant to type I IFNs than the corresponding donor isolates. Remarkably, transmitted viruses exhibited 7.8-fold higher IFNα2 (P < 0.00001) and 39-fold higher IFNβ (P < 0.00001) half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC) than did donor isolates, and their odds of replicating in CD4 T cells at the highest IFNα2 and IFNβ doses were 35-fold (P < 0.00001) and 250-fold (P < 0.00001) greater, respectively. Interestingly, pretreatment of CD4 T cells with IFNβ, but not IFNα2, selected donor plasma isolates that exhibited a transmitted virus-like phenotype, and such viruses were also detected in the donor genital tract. These data indicate that transmitted viruses are phenotypically distinct, and that increased IFN resistance represents their most distinguishing property. Thus, the mucosal bottleneck selects for viruses that are able to replicate and spread efficiently in the face of a potent innate immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1620144114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5278458PMC
January 2017