Publications by authors named "Marcos Tavares-Dias"

71 Publications

Diversity and community ecology of metazoan parasites in Pimelodus ornatus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazonas River in Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 12;30(3):e006021. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia (Rede Bionorte), Universidade Federal do Amapá (UNIFAP), Macapá, AP, Brasil.

The present study investigated the metazoan parasite community in Pimelodus ornatus from the Amazon River, in the state of Amapá (Brazil). Of 71 fish examined, 70.4% were parasitized by Demidospermus sp. (Monogenea), Cucullanus pinnai, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda) and plerocercoids from Proteocephalidae gen. sp. (Cestoda). The dominance was of nematode species such as Procamallanus (S.) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. The parasites showed a highly aggregated dispersion and a predominance of hosts infected by one species of parasite. The parasite community was characterized by a low Shannon diversity index, low evenness and low species richness. The richness of parasite species, Shannon's diversity index, abundance of P. (S.) inopinatus and Proteocephalidae gen. sp. showed a positive correlation with the length of the hosts. Therefore, the size of the hosts had an influence on the parasite community and infracommunities, as well as their intermediate position in the food web. This is the first record of P. (S.) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. for P. ornatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612021065DOI Listing
July 2021

Parasites in Leporinus macrocephalus (Anostomidae) of four fish farms from the western Amazon (Brazil).

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 16;93(3):e20190988. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia/Bionorte, Universidade Federal do Amapá/UNIFAP, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, s/n, Universidade, 68903-419 Macapá, AP, Brazil.

This study evaluated the presence of metazoan parasites in Leporinus macrocephalus from four fish farms from the western Amazon (Brazil). In 160 fish examined, prevalence was 61.9%, and parasites found were: Urocleidoides paradoxus, Urocleidoides eremitus, Tereancistrum parvus, Jainus leporini, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) acuminata, Dolops discoidalis and Ergasilus sp., but U. paradoxus was the dominant parasite. Jainus leporini and Ergasilus sp. occurred only in L. macrocephalus from one fish farm, while U. paradoxus, U. eremitus and T. parvus were found in fish from three fish farms. Dolops discoidalis, P. (S.) inopinatus and R. (R.) acuminata occurred only in L. macrocephalus from two fish farms. Higher infection levels were caused by U. paradoxus, U. eremitus and P. (S.) inopinatus, which had an aggregated dispersion. There was positive correlation between abundance of parasites and the length of hosts. No difference in the condition factor of parasitized and non-parasitized fish were found. Such differences between fish farms were attributed to differences in management and quality of cultivation environments, and data indicate the need to adopt prophylactic measures in the fish farms to prevent diseases in the future. This was the first report of D. discoidalis and Ergasilus sp. for L. macrocephalus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202120190988DOI Listing
June 2021

Diversity and Ecology of Endohelminth Parasites in a Fish Assemblage of an Amazon River Tributary in Brazil.

Acta Parasitol 2021 May 23. Epub 2021 May 23.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia da Amazônia Legal (Bionorte), Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

Purpose: This study investigated the diversity and ecology of endohelminth parasites in an assemblage of 15 omnivorous and four piscivorous fish species in a tributary of the Amazon River (Brazil).

Methods: Fish were collected bimonthly to evaluate the diversity and ecology of endohelminth parasites in omnivorous and piscivorous fish species in a tributary of the Amazon River using traditional methods and other methods.

Results: A total of 4,234 parasites of 19 species (8 Nematoda, 5 Acanthocephala, 4 Digenea and 2 Cestoda) were sampled from 531 fish specimens. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus and Contracaecum sp. were the predominant parasite species, and the parasites showed an aggregated dispersion pattern. Positive correlation was shown between the abundance of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium patagonense and P. (S.) inopinatus, and the body size of 15.8% of the host fish examined. No difference was shown for Shannon diversity index and evenness between omnivorous and piscivorous hosts, but the richness, abundance and intensity of parasites were greater in piscivorous host fish.

Conclusion: In the fish assemblage, the presence of parasites in the larval and adult stages suggests that these are intermediate, paratenic and definitive hosts, reflecting the feeding habits of the omnivorous and piscivorous host species. 74.1% of the parasite species were new records for the different host species examined. The size of the hosts, trophic level and diet had an influence on the structuring of endohelminth communities and infracommunities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00413-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Safety of oral administration of high doses of ivermectin by means of biocompatible polyelectrolytes formulation.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 31;7(1):e05820. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Laboratory of Nano Bio Materials (LNBM), Department of Biophysics, Paulista Medical School, Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), 04023-062 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The FDA-approved drug ivermectin is applied for treatments of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. The anti-cancer and anti-viral activities have been demonstrated stressing possibilities for the drug repurposing and therefore new information on high dosage safety is on demand. We analyzed tissue responses for high doses of ivermectin using fish as animal model. We made intestinal histology and hematologic assays after oral administration of ivermectin transported with polyelectrolytes formulation. Histology showed any apparent damage of intestinal tissues at 0.22-170 mg of ivermectin/kg body weight. Immunofluorescence evidenced delocalization of Myosin-Vb at enterocytes only for the higher dose. Hematology parameters showed random variations after 7 days from administration, but a later apparent recover after 14 and 21 days. The study evaluated the potential of high doses of oral administration of ivermectin formulation, which could be an alternative with benefits in high compliance therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775035PMC
January 2021

Distribution patterns of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus (Nematoda: Camallanidae) and its interactions with freshwater fish in Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 7;29(4):e012820. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia - Rede Bionorte, Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

This study used information about Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928 that had been published over a period of more than 90 years to investigate the infection and distribution patterns of this nematode in teleost freshwater fish in Brazil. This study was carried out using 181 samples from 82 fish species in 19 families within the five orders, with predominance of Characiformes species (71.6%). We organized a matrix-based parasite-host system in which the fish species were classified in different trophic levels and parasitic infection parameters according data available on host fish species with different life histories and geographic distributions across Brazilian hydrographic basins. Procamallanus (S.) inopinatus showed prevalence ranging from low to moderate, low abundance, low intensity, typically aggregated dispersion, and preferential infection of the hosts' gastrointestinal tract. There was difference in prevalence between detritivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous and piscivorous hosts, but no difference in intensity and abundance was found due to similarity in the communities of this endoparasite among the host fish species. The geographic distribution of this parasite encompasses the river of the Amazon, Paraná, São Francisco, North Atlantic, South Atlantic and Eastern basins. Lastly, suggestions regarding the life cycle of P. (S.) inopinatus, with its potential intermediate hosts, were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020092DOI Listing
January 2021

First report of Livoneca guianensis (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) in Leporinus fasciatus (Pisces: Anostomidae) in Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 4;29(4):e020420. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical - PPGBio, Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

This study aimed to report the first record of the occurrence of the parasite Livoneca guianensis in Leporinus fasciatus in Brazil. In September 2019, during surveys of the parasites in 12 specimens of L. fasciatus from the lower Jari River basin, in Amapá State, Brazil, one specimen of L. guianensis was found in the tongue of one host. The prevalence of L. guianensis was 8.3%, and it was observed that this parasite has a geographic distribution restricted to South America, parasitizing fish species from Guyana and Brazil. This study contributed to the first report on the occurrence of L. guianensis for L. fasciatus in Brazil. In addition, increased the knowledge on the geographic distribution of this parasite with morphometric data, which are scarce for this Cymothoidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020106DOI Listing
January 2021

Morphometric Characterization of Trypanosoma spp. and blood parameters in Pterygoplichthys pardalis (Pisces: Loricariidae) from the Brazilian Amazon.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 19;92(suppl 2):e20190577. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará/UFOPA, Instituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das Águas/ICTA, Av. Mendonça Furtado, 2946, Fátima, 68040-470 Santarém, PA, Brazil.

The present study describes Trypanosoma spp. infection and blood parameters in Pterygoplichthys pardalis from the Tapajós River basin in eastern Amazon (Brazil). Of 32 fish examined, 40.6% were infected by Trypanosoma spp., while a total of 112 trypomastigotes were found. Two Trypanosoma morphotypes were characterized and compared with species described in literature infecting other Loricariidae, and a similarity of 94% was found with one species described for another host. The plasma glucose and aspartate aminotransferase levels, hematocrit, number of total erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in the infected and uninfected fish were similar, but hemoglobin was lower in fish infected with Trypanosoma spp. Hemoglobin levels declined with the abundance of the hemoparasites, but the condition factor was similar among fish infected and uninfected by Trypanosoma spp. This is the first study on the hemoparasitism by Trypanosoma spp. and blood parameters in P. pardalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020190577DOI Listing
November 2020

Diversity of monogenean parasites on gills of fishes from the Matapi River, in the Brazilian Amazon.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 Sep;29(4):e013520

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia da Rede Bionorte, Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

This study investigated the fauna of monogeneans on gills of 13 fish species from the Matapi River, Brazilian Amazon. A total 548 fish belonging to 13 species (1 Anostomidae, 3 Characidae, 1 Curimatidae, 1 Hemiodontidae, 2 Serrasalmidae, 3 Scianidae, 1 Ageneiosidae and 1 Tetradontidae) were examined. From these fish, 6 species were infected and with a total prevalence of 22.4%. Monogeneans collected are represented by the following taxa: Anacanthorus gravihamulatus, Notozothecium minor, Notozothecium penetrarum, Diplectanum piscinarius, Aetheolabes goeldiensis, Euryhaliotrema succedanus, Anacanthorus jegui, Urocleidoides astyanacis, Urocleidoides strombicirrus, Euryhaliotrema sp. and Urocleidoides spp. There was a variation in the prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of monogeneans among the host populations examined. Monogeneans of Metynnis lippincottianus, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Astyanax bimaculatus and Curimata incompta presented a highly aggregated dispersion pattern. Body weight of M. lippincottianus and C. incompta presented a weak positive correlation with abundance of parasites. Lastly, this is first study for 12 fish species from the Matapi River and the first report of E. succedanus for Plagioscion surinamensis and N. penetrarum for Serrasalmus rhombeus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020081DOI Listing
September 2020

Lethal concentration of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) essential oil for Dolops discoidalis and Argulus sp. (Crustacea: Argulidae).

J Fish Dis 2020 Dec 13;43(12):1497-1504. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Laboratory of Multiuser Chemistry, Institute of Water Science and Technology, Federal University of West of Pará, Santarém, Brazil.

This study investigated the acute toxicity (LC ) effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus for adult Argulus sp. and Dolops discoidalis, before and during oviposition. In vitro acute toxicity (LC ) was tested using 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 μg/L of C. citratus essential oil, and two control groups (one with cultivation tank water and one with cultivation tank water + alcohol) were used. Specimens of Argulus sp. and D. discoidalis submitted to acute toxicity were evaluated using histological procedures. The major chemical compounds of C. citratus essential oil were geranial (47.5%), neral (35.6%) and myrcene (6.7%). The LC for Argulus sp. adults was 67.97 μg/L, while for D. discoidalis it was 59.55 µg/L. In the oviposition of both species of argulids, maximum mortality began with treatments of 140 μg/L, while the LC for Argulus sp. and D. discoidalis was 83.98 μg/L and 82.48 μg/L, respectively. In both argulid species exposed to C. citratus essential oil, morphological alterations were observed only in the eyes, and they occurred in the ommatidium and rhabdomeres and were dependent on the concentration of C. citratus essential oil and the parasite species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13250DOI Listing
December 2020

New species of Urocleidoides (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) from the gills of two species of Anostomidae from the Brazilian Amazon.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 28;29(3):e007820. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Ambiental, Universidade Federal do Pará, Bragança, PA, Brasil.

Three species (2 new) of Urocleidoides are described and/or reported from the gills of Schizodon fasciatus and Laemolyta proxima (Anostomidae) from the Jari River in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Urocleidoides jariensis n. sp. presents a sclerotized, tubular, spiral male copulatory organ (MCO) with one counterclockwise coil, a circular sclerotized tandem brim associated with the base of the MCO; a heavily sclerotized, funnel-shaped vaginal vestibule; and a broadly V-shaped ventral bar with anteromedial constriction and enlarged ends. Urocleidoides ramentacuminatus n. sp. has a sclerotized, tubular, spiral MCO with one counterclockwise coil; an accessory piece with a hook-shaped distal portion; and a dorsal anchor with a short, straight shaft; anchor point with ornamentation as sclerotized shredded filaments. Urocleidoides paradoxus is reported for the first time parasitizing S. fasciatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1984-29612020039DOI Listing
December 2020

Crustacean parasites of Leporinus affinis, an Anostomidae fish from the Brazilian Amazon.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2020 26;29(2):e001820. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Embrapa Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

This study investigated the fauna of ectoparasitic crustaceans in Leporinus affinis from Reservoir Coaracy Nunes, in eastern Amazon (Brazil), as well as the parasite-host interactions. The mouth, gills and tegument of 50.9% of the fish examined were parasitized by Argulus chicomendesi, Ergasilus turucuyus and Excorallana berbicensis, and a total of 118 parasites were collected. The dominance was found for E. berbicensis and the higher infestation levels were caused by E. berbicensis on the body surface of the hosts, but E. turucuyus had the highest prevalence on the gills of this host. The cluster analysis revealed higher similarity in the infestations by E. berbicensis and A. chicomendesi in relation to infestation site in hosts. Host sex and relative condition factor (Kn) were not influenced by moderate parasitism, but the abundance of parasites presented negative correlation with weight and Kn of the fish. This is the first study on the parasites of L. affinis showing low species diversity, with moderate prevalence and low parasite abundance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612020040DOI Listing
August 2020

New records of hosts for and (Crustacea: Isopoda) in brackish fish from the coast of the State of Amapá (Brazil), with an update on the geographic distribution of .

J Parasit Dis 2020 Jun 13;44(2):420-428. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Embrapa Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, Km 5, n° 2600, Universidade, Macapá, Amapá CEP 68903-419 Brazil.

Fish are parasitized by several species of crustaceans, including Cymothoidae and Corallanidae. The aim of this study was to investigate the crustacean parasite fauna in , , , , , , , , , , , , , and from the coast of the State of Amapá, eastern Amazon. In addition, an update on the geographic distribution of in Brazilian Amazon is present. A total of 204 fish were examined and prevalence was 16.17%. A total of 185 and were collected and was the most frequent parasite species. The community of parasitic crustaceans in fish species from the coast of the State of Amapá consisted of two species of isopods, and , which are new records for nine host species here studied. Lastly, this is the first record of for Brazil, besides the first report of for , , , , , and ; as well as for , , , and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-020-01192-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244646PMC
June 2020

Diet composition of the electric eel Electrophorus voltai (Pisces: Gymnotidae) in the Brazilian Amazon region.

J Fish Biol 2020 Oct 19;97(4):1220-1223. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Postgraduate Program on Tropical Biodiversity (PPGBio), Federal University of Amapá, Macapá, Brazil.

The diet composition of the electric eel Electrophorus voltai was studied in specimens collected from the River Jari, state of Amapá, eastern Amazon region, Brazil. Analysis on their stomach contents revealed that fish, especially Megalechis thoracata, were the most frequent prey item, whereas arthropods and plant material were the least frequent intakes. This is the first stomach content analysis on E. voltai, and it corroborates that electric eel species are piscivorous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14413DOI Listing
October 2020

Nanoemulsions with oleoresin of Copaifera reticulata (Leguminosae) improve anthelmintic efficacy in the control of monogenean parasites when compared to oleoresin without nanoformulation.

J Fish Dis 2020 Jun 21;43(6):687-695. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Postgraduate Program on Tropical Biodiversity (PPGBIO), Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP), Macapá, Brazil.

This study compared the in vitro anthelmintic activity of Copaifera reticulata oleoresin (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 mg/L) and of nanoemulsions prepared with this oleoresin (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L) against monogeneans on the gills of Colossoma macropomum. The major compounds present in the oleoresin of C. reticulata were γ-macrocarpene (14.2%), α-bergamotene (13.6%), β-selinene (13.4%) and β-caryophyllene (11.7%). All concentrations of the nanoemulsion and the oleoresin without nanoformulation showed anthelmintic efficacy against monogeneans, and higher concentrations led to more rapid parasite mortality. Structural damages to the tegument of the parasites exposed to C. reticulata oleoresin were observed with scanning electron microscopy. At two hours of exposure, fish showed 100% tolerance to all nanoemulsion concentrations used in the in vitro assays, whereas 100% mortality was shown in the fish exposed to the oleoresin without nanoformulation after one hour. The results of this study suggest that nanoemulsions with oleoresin of C. reticulata have advantages in the control and treatment of monogenean infections in C. macropomum when compared to the oleoresin without nanoformulation. In addition, since nanoemulsions with the C. reticulata oleoresin are safe to control monogeneans, the efficacy of these nanoformulations may be assayed in therapeutic baths to treat C. macropomum infected by monogeneans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13168DOI Listing
June 2020

(Digenea: Cladorchiidae) in definitive host (Pisces: Pimelodidae), with morphological and geographic distribution data in fishes from the South America.

J Parasit Dis 2020 Mar 20;44(1):62-68. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Embrapa Amapá, Macapá, AP Brazil.

The aim of this study was to describe structural and ultrastructural morphological data of (Diesing, 1836) Travassos, 1931 in Valenciennes, 1840 from western Amazon (Brazil), besides geographic distribution in host fishes from South America. Of 160 examined in the rivers Acre and Iaco, 15% were infected by with mean intensity of 6.5 ± 1.9 and mean abundance of 1.0 ± 5.1. All parasites were found in the intestine of the infected hosts. The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of the developmental stages of are presented and discussed. has a wide geographic distribution in South America, parasitizing fish species of Characiformes and Siluriformes from Brazil, Venezuela, Argentina, Peru and Paraguay. We elucidated part of life cycle of in , which is a definitive host for this digenean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01161-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046875PMC
March 2020

Toxicological, hematological and immunological effects of levamisole and ivermectin diet supplementation on Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalmidae).

Dis Aquat Organ 2019 Nov;136(3):255-263

Postgraduate Program on Tropical Biodiversity (PPGBio), Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP), Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek S/N, Universidade, 68903-419 Macapá, AP, Brazil.

This study investigated the toxicological, hematological and immunological effects of diets supplemented with levamisole and ivermectin on Colossoma macropomum. Fish were fed for 24, 96 and 240 h with diets containing 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg of levamisole kg-1 of feed. None of the levamisole concentrations caused either mortality or behavioral alterations among the fish over 10 d of feeding. In comparison, a single feeding of ivermectin at 4500, 9000, 13500 or 18000 mg kg-1 caused 100% mortality among the fish within 10 h. There were no alterations in erythrocyte parameters or albumin in any treatments with levamisole after 24, 96 and 240 h of feeding. At concentrations of 900 and 1200 mg kg-1, levamisole caused decreases in the albumin-to-globulin ratio compared to the control group and the 300 and 600 mg kg-1 diet treatment groups. Levels of glucose and total plasma protein were higher in the fish fed with 600, 900 and 1200 mg kg-1 than in the controls and the 300 mg kg-1 diet treatment group. After 10 d of receiving feed supplemented with levamisole, globulin levels were higher in the 600 mg kg-1 group than in the controls. Respiratory burst activity of leukocytes also increased in the fish supplemented with the 900 and 1200 mg kg-1 diets compared to the controls and other treatments. This is the first study to investigate how diets supplemented with these drugs affect C. macropomum. Our research indicates that all the levamisole concentrations tested can be used in the diet of C. macropomum for antiparasitic treatments against helminth species, and that dietary treatments with levamisole can stimulate components of the innate immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03413DOI Listing
November 2019

High concentration of levamisole in the diet of Colossoma macropomum (Pisces: Serrasalmidae) is effective for controlling monogenean parasites.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Oct-Dec;28(4):708-712

Embrapa Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

This study investigated the effects of diets supplemented with levamisole on monogeneans on the gills of Colossoma macropomum. Fish were fed with diets containing levamisole at concentrations of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg kg-1 for 24, 96 and 240 h and the infection by Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis and Mymarothecium boegeri were evaluated. None of the levamisole concentrations caused either mortality or behavioral alterations in fishes during 240 h of feeding. After 24 h of feeding with 1200 mg kg-1 of levamisole, the abundance of N. janauachensis decreased in comparison with treatments of 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg kg-1, as did the abundance of M. boegeri after 240 h of feeding with 1200 mg kg-1 of levamisole. The efficacy of 900 mg kg-1 of levamisole was only 55.7% after 96 h of feeding, but it was 84.6% after 240 h of feeding with 1200 mg kg-1. Our results show that 1200 mg kg-1 of levamisole for 10 days has good anthelmintic efficacy against monogeneans of C. macropomum. Since monogeneans elicit some of the worst problems in C. macropomum, this study has provided evidence of an effective control method that may be used in fish farms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019095DOI Listing
January 2020

Long-term temporal variation in the parasite community structure of metazoans of Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae), a catfish from the Brazilian Amazon.

Parasitol Res 2019 Dec 29;118(12):3337-3347. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Embrapa Amapá, Macapá, Estado do Amapá, Brazil.

The Amazon represents one of the most complex biomes in the world; however, the temporal variations in parasite community structure of fishes inhabiting this region remain poorly understood. Therefore, processes generating such variations are still unknown. The present study evaluated the long-term temporal variation of community structure of metazoan parasites of Pimelodus blochii collected in Iaco River, State of Acre (Southwestern Brazilian Amazon). A total of 196 parasites were collected over a 6-year period (2012-2017). Twenty-four different taxa of parasites were found, of which 5 Monogenea, 11 Nematoda, 3 Digenea, 1 Acanthocephala, 1 Cestoda, and 3 Crustacea. The overall species richness ranged from 4 in 2012 to 17 in 2016, in which nematodes (larvae and adults) showed higher numerical dominance, diversity, and species richness. However, the annual species richness was similar between the study years, except in 2016, where it showed a distinctly higher value. The overall parasite diversity was also different in 2012 and 2016, whereas the overall abundance differed in 2013 and 2017. The prevalence and abundance of some infracommunities of parasites varied over time. The temporal changes in the parasite community structure of P. blochii are probably related to variations in host-related features, i.e., body size and shift in diet composition as well as to the occurrence of parasites with distinct life history and biology (mainly monogeneans, digeneans, and nematodes). This is the first evaluation of a long-term temporal variation in the structure of the parasite community in fish from the Amazon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06480-xDOI Listing
December 2019

Haemogregarina daviesensis sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa (Sarcopterygii: Lepidosirenidae) in the eastern Amazon region.

Parasitol Res 2019 Oct 27;118(10):2773-2779. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Departamento de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Amapá. Rodovia Juscelino Kubitscheck, KM 02, S/N, Jardim Marco Zero, Macapá, Amapá, 68903-419, Brazil.

Based on morphology and morphometry of gametocytes in blood and molecular phylogenetic analysis, we described a new species of hemoparasite from the genus Haemogregarina isolated from Lepidosiren paradoxa in the eastern Amazon region. Haemogregarina daviesensis sp. nov. is characterized by monomorphic gametocytes of varying maturity stage and their dimensions were 16 ± 0.12 μm (range 13-18) in length and 6 ± 0.97 μm (range 5-8) in width. The morphological and morphometric data were not identical with other haemogregarine species from fish. All specimens of L. paradoxa analyzed were infected by H. daviesensis sp. nov. and the parasitemia level was moderate (1-28/2000 blood erythrocytes). Two sequences were obtained from L. paradoxa, and these constituted a monophyletic sister clade to the Haemogregarina species. In addition, H. daviesensis sp. nov. detected here grouped with Haemogregarina sp. sequences isolated from chelonian Macrochelys temminckii, with 99% bootstrap support. This study provides the first data on the molecular phylogeny of an intraerythrocytic haemogregarine of freshwater fish and highlights the importance of obtaining additional information on aspects of the general biology of these hemoparasites in fish populations, in order to achieve correct taxonomic classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06430-7DOI Listing
October 2019

Helminth parasites in two populations of Astronotus ocellatus (Cichliformes: Cichlidae) from the eastern Amazon, Northern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jul 29;28(3):425-431. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia de Agentes Infecciosos e Parasitários, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Pará - UFPA, Belém, PA, Brasil.

This study compared the structure of helminth parasite communities in two populations of Astronotus ocellatus from two localities in Pará State, eastern Amazon (Brazil). Hosts from the Tapajós River were infected by Posthodiplostomum sp. metacercarie, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoproleptus sp., with predominance of Contracaecum sp. Hosts from Iara Lake were infected by Procamallanus spiculastriatus, Proteocephalus sp. and Acanthocephala gen. sp., with predominance of P. spiculastriatus. Parasites had an aggregated dispersion and there were differences in Shannon diversity index and the evenness between both host populations, because the parasite component community showed no similarity. The existence of variation in infracommunity and community of parasites for A. ocellatus from different localities indicates the presence of an uneven distribution in terms of species and density of parasites, as well as of intermediate hosts in the localities surveyed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019052DOI Listing
July 2019

Anthelminthic potential of the Ficus insipida latex on monogeneans of Colossoma macropomum (Serrasalmidae), a medicinal plant from the Amazon.

Acta Parasitol 2019 Dec 8;64(4):927-931. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical (PPGBio), Universidade Federal do Amapá (UNIFAP), Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, s/n, Universidade, Macapá, AP, CEP 68903-419, Brazil.

Introduction: Herbal therapy is a potentially beneficial alternative for fish aquaculture, since it may be cheaper and more effective than chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro efficacy of Ficus insipida latex on monogeneans of Colossoma macropomum gills.

Materials And Methods: To evaluate the anthelmintic activity, four concentrations of F. insipida latex (250, 500, 750 and 1000 µL/L) and exposure time to cause immobilization on monogeneans were used. In addition, two control groups, being one with water from the breeding tank and the other with breeding water from the tank + 70% ethyl alcohol were used.

Results: At the concentration of 250 µL/L of F. insipida latex, the immobilization of the monogeneans occurred after 4 h of exposure, while at the concentration of 500 µL/L, it occurred after 2 h. At the concentrations of 750 and 1000 µL/L of F. insipida latex, the immobilization of the monogeneans occurred after 1 h and 30 min, respectively. After exposure to 250 µL/L of F. insipida latex, 100% of immobilization of monogeneans was observed within 4 h, to 500 and 750 µL/L, 100% immobilization occurred within 4 h and to 1000 µL/L, 100% mortality occurred after 2 h.

Conclusions: Thus, we recommended the use of 1000 μL/L of F. insipida latex for therapeutic baths in of C. macropomum against monogeneans, after previous test of toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00094-0DOI Listing
December 2019

Community structure of metazoan parasites in Hemibrycon surinamensis (Characidae) from the Matapi River in the State of Amapá, Brazil.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 Jul 1;91(2):e20180393. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Embrapa Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, 2600, 68903-419 Macapá, AP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the community of metazoan parasites in Hemibrycon surinamensis from the Matapi River, State of Amapá, Brazil. Among the 31 examined fish, 77.4 % were parasitized by Jainus hexops, Tereancistrum ornatus (Monogenea), Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Clinostomus marginatum and Posthodiplostomum sp. (Digenea). However, the dominance was of monogeneans J. hexops and T. ornatus, and among the endoparasites, the predominance was of species at the larval stage. The parasites showed random dispersion. Brillouin diversity index varied from 0 to 0.9, evenness from 0 to 0.7 and species richness from 0 to 3 parasites per host. Low levels of parasitic infection were observed and discussed. The results indicate that this intermediate host occupies a low position in the food web. This is the third eco-epidemiological study for H. surinamensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180393DOI Listing
July 2019

Physiological parameters of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae) exposed to a biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 Jun 19;91(2):e20180474. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia/BIONORTE, Universidade Federal do Amapá/UNIFAP, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, Km 2, 68903-419 Macapá, AP, Brazil.

This study investigated the physiological effects of a pesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel-WP®) added in the water and diet of Piaractus mesopotamicus during 24 and 48 h. It was added 0.13 g of de B. thuringiensis per kg of commercial feed; and for the fish subjected to the biopesticide in the water of the tanks, it was added 0.13 g/L of the biopesticide. Plasma levels of sodium, chloride, potassium, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, cortisol, total protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocytes number, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), number of thrombocytes and leukocytes were determined. Cortisol, lactate, glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, AST, sodium, potassium, hematocrit, hemoglobin, MCV, number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and PAS-positive granular leukocytes suffered alterations derived from the addition of B. thuringiensis in water and diet of the fish. The toxicity of the concentrations of biopesticide in short-term exposure in water and diet of the fish led to blood alterations (increase or decrease). Therefore, care must be taken to avoid a possible prolonged contamination in the tanks of fish farming by agricultural pollution based on B. thuringiensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920180474DOI Listing
June 2019

First report of Artystone trysibia (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) in Caquetaia spectabilis (Cichliformes: Cichlidae).

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Oct-Dec;28(4):735-738

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade Tropical - PPGBIO, Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

The present study provides the first record of an isopod parasite (Artystone trysibia) on Caquetaia spectabilis, a cichlid from the eastern Amazon collected in the State of Amapá, northern Brazil. In May 2018, specimens of C. spectabilis were collected in the lower Jari River, and 33.3% were parasitized by A. trysibia on the tegument tissue between pelvic fins. No hemorrhage or injury signals were observed in the tegument of the host. This study also expanded the distribution of A. trysibia to the eastern Amazon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019030DOI Listing
January 2020

First record of Unibarra paranoplatensis Suriano & Incorvaia, 1995 (Dactylogyridae: Monogenea) on Sorubim lima (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jun 6;28(3):504-507. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - EMBRAPA, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of Unibarra paranoplatensis Suriano & Incorvaia, 1995 on Sorubim lima Bloch & Schneider, 1801 from Brazil. On the gills of S. lima, U. paranoplatensis presented similar morphological and morphometric features to those described for conspecifics infesting Zungaro zungaro Humboldt, 1921 except the length, which was higher in the present study, as well as ventral bar shape that was V-shaped open, and with the upper and lower end of the rod relatively sinuous. This study expands the geographic distribution of U. paranoplatensis to Brazil, a parasite that has a wide occurrence across South America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019012DOI Listing
June 2019

Low levels of crustacean parasite infestation in fish species from the Matapi River in the state of Amapá, Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jun 6;28(3):493-498. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia da Amazônia Legal - Bionorte, Universidade Federal do Amapá - UNIFAP, Macapá, AP, Brasil.

This first study investigated the crustacean parasite fauna in 66 species of fish from the Matapi River basin, state of Amapá (Brazil). Fish were collected every two months between March 2012 and August 2013, encompassing dry and rainy seasons. Among the 66 species examined (corresponding to 722 fish specimens) only 11 species were parasitized. The infestation prevalence was 2.2%, and a total of 48 specimens of parasites were distributed between three different parasite groups. These included Argulus elongatus, Dolops reperta and Argulus multicolor (Branchiura), Ergasilus xinguensis and Gamidactylus sp. (Copepoda), and Isopoda (Braga patagonica), but branchiuran species were predominant. This was the first report of these parasite species for Leporinus fasciatus, Astyanax bimaculatus, Curimata incompta, Pygocentrus nattereri, Crenicichla cincta, Crenicichla johanna, Geophagus camopiensis, Pterophyllum scalare, Plagioscion squamosissimus, Hypostomus plecostomus and Propimelodus eigenmanni. Lastly, this study expands the range of occurrence of these six parasite species to the Matapi River basin in eastern Amazon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019006DOI Listing
June 2019

Monogeneans of the catfish Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, with a description of a new species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae).

Syst Parasitol 2019 06 13;96(4-5):399-406. Epub 2019 May 13.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biociências (INBIO), Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, 79070-900, Brazil.

Ameloblastella amazonica n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) collected on the gills of Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from Rivers Acre and Iaco, State of Acre (Brazil) is described. The new species differs from the congeners mainly by the morphology of the dorsal bar, i.e. slightly U-shaped bearing a posteriorly directed flap, arising from the anterior edge of its middle third. The most morphologically similar congeners, A. paranaensis (França, Isaac, Pavanelli & Takemoto, 2003) and A. satoi Monteiro, Kritsky & Brasil-Sato, 2010, resemble A. amazonica n. sp. regarding the general structure of the copulatory complex; however, besides other features, they also differ from the new species because their hooks are similar in size (vs hooks with three different sizes). In addition to the dorsal bar lacking a flap, A. amazonica n. sp. can be differentiated from all congeners based on the combination of the following features: size of hooks (one or two different sizes), shape of the dorsal bar (other than slightly U-shaped), anchor points largely passing the level of superficial root (vs not or slightly passing it), number of MCO rings (other than 3-4) and structure of the articulation between the MCO base and the accessory piece (other than thick, medium-sized, smooth and tubular). Demidospermus leptosynophallus Kritsky & Gutierrez, 1998 and Scleroductus yuncensi Jara & Cone, 1989 were also found infesting P. blochii, both representing new host and locality records.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11230-019-09862-yDOI Listing
June 2019

Interannual and Seasonal Variation in Protozoan and Metazoan Parasite Communities of Hemibrycon surinamensis, a Characid Fish Inhabiting the Brazilian Amazon.

Acta Parasitol 2019 Sep 24;64(3):479-488. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Postgraduate Program on Biodiversity (PPGBIO), Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP), Macapá, AP, Brazil.

Introduction: Few studies on the effects of rainy/dry cycle and interannual variation in parasites of Amazonian fish have been carried out. We investigated the influence of interannual variation and seasonality on the community structure and infracommunities of parasites in Hemibrycon surinamensis in a tributary of the Amazon River, in northern Brazil.

Materials And Methods: The fish were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and endoparasites.

Results: In 2011, 9 parasite species were found (2 Protozoa, 2 Monogenea, 1 Digenea, 2 Nematoda and 2 Crustacea), and in 2016, 10 parasite species (3 Protozoa, 2 Monogenea, 1 Digenea, 3 Nematoda and 1 Pentastomida). No qualitative or quantitative dissimilarity in the component communities of parasites was observed between 2011 and 2016, but Brillouin Diversity Index, species richness and evenness were higher in 2016, while Berger-Parker dominance was higher in 2011. In both years, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Piscinoodinium pillulare were predominated. Some few species of parasites had interannual (P. pillulare and Genarchella genarchella) and seasonal (Trichodina sp., I. multifiliis, P. pillulare and J. hexops) variation patterns. Species richness of parasites was higher in the dry season, but Brillouin diversity, evenness and Berger-Parker dominance were similar between the seasons. Such seasonal variations were due to the host's the availability of infectious stages of parasites with direct life cycle.

Conclusions: Variations due to seasonal dry/rainy cycle, which influenced the availability of infective stages of parasites, and host size are the factors causing the changes interannual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00057-5DOI Listing
September 2019

Community ecology of parasites in four species of Corydoras (Callichthyidae), ornamental fish endemic to the eastern Amazon (Brazil).

An Acad Bras Cienc 2019 Feb 14;91(1):e20170926. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Embrapa Amapá, Rodovia Juscelino Kubitschek, 2600, 68903-419 Macapá, AP, Brazil.

This study compared the parasites community in Corydoras ephippifer, Corydoras melanistius, Corydoras amapaensis and Corydoras spilurus from tributaries from the Amapari River in State of Amapá (Brazil). A total of 151 fish of these four ornamental species were examined, of which 66.2% were parasitized by one or more species, and a total of 732 parasites were collected. Corydoras ephippifer (91.2%) and C. spilurus (98.8%) were the most parasitized hosts, while C. amapaensis (9.6%) was the least parasitized. A high similarity (≅ 75%) of parasite communities was found in the host species. Hosts were parasitized by Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Camallanus sp. and metacercariae of digeneans. The parasites had an aggregated dispersion pattern, but in C. ephippifer a random dispersion of P. (S.) inopinatus was found. The parasite community was characterized by a low species richness (1-4 parasites per host), low diversity and low evenness, and consisted mainly of endoparasites with high prevalence and low abundance. An important component in the determination of the helminth parasite community composition was the dominance of species that use these fish species as secondary intermediate or paratenic hosts. This was the first study on the parasite community for these four hosts. A checklist of parasite species in wild populations of Corydoras spp. from different localities was also reported here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201920170926DOI Listing
February 2019
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