Publications by authors named "Marcos Garcia-Guimaraes"

80 Publications

Prevalence and Disease Spectrum of Extracoronary Arterial Abnormalities in Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Importance: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has been associated with fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities. However, the prevalence, severity, and clinical relevance of these abnormalities remain unclear.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and spectrum of FMD and other extracoronary arterial abnormalities in patients with SCAD vs controls.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case series included 173 patients with angiographically confirmed SCAD enrolled between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019. Imaging of extracoronary arterial beds was performed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Forty-one healthy individuals were recruited to serve as controls for blinded interpretation of MRA findings. Patients were recruited from the UK national SCAD registry, which enrolls throughout the UK by referral from the primary care physician or patient self-referral through an online portal. Participants attended the national SCAD referral center for assessment and MRA.

Exposures: Both patients with SCAD and healthy controls underwent head-to-pelvis MRA (median time between SCAD event and MRA, 1 [IQR, 1-3] year).

Main Outcome And Measures: The diagnosis of FMD, arterial dissections, and aneurysms was established according to the International FMD Consensus. Arterial tortuosity was assessed both qualitatively (presence or absence of an S curve) and quantitatively (number of curves ≥45%; tortuosity index).

Results: Of the 173 patients with SCAD, 167 were women (96.5%); mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 44.5 (7.9) years. The prevalence of FMD was 31.8% (55 patients); 16 patients (29.1% of patients with FMD) had involvement of multiple vascular beds. Thirteen patients (7.5%) had extracoronary aneurysms and 3 patients (1.7%) had dissections. The prevalence and degree of arterial tortuosity were similar in patients and controls. In 43 patients imaged with both computed tomographic angiography and MRA, the identification of clinically significant remote arteriopathies was similar. Over a median 5-year follow-up, there were 2 noncardiovascular-associated deaths and 35 recurrent myocardial infarctions, but there were no primary extracoronary vascular events.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this case series with blinded analysis of patients with SCAD, severe multivessel FMD, aneurysms, and dissections were infrequent. The findings of this study suggest that, although brain-to-pelvis imaging allows detection of remote arteriopathies that may require follow-up, extracoronary vascular events appear to be rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4690DOI Listing
November 2021

Primary Angioplasty of Calcified Coronary Lesions Using Coronary Lithotripsy in Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Hospital del Mar, Passeig Marítim 25-29, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: This study reports procedural and short-term clinical outcomes from a real-world series with the use of coronary lithotripsy in the context of primary angioplasty in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods And Results: This was a prospective registry conducted at 2 hospitals, which included 10 patients who presented a culprit calcified lesion within acute STEMI and underwent coronary lithotripsy during primary angioplasty, between July 2019 and July 2020. Mean age was 69.2 ± 11.8 years, and there was a high proportion of hypertension (70%) and dyslipidemia (60%). All lesions (type B/C) were predilated with a semicompliant balloon. Coronary lithotripsy was performed in all cases once macroscopic thrombus was successfully retrieved by thrombus aspiration catheter. Before lithotripsy, rotational atherectomy was used in 1 case and cutting balloon was used in 2 cases. On average, coronary lithotripsy required the use of 1 lithotripsy balloon (range, 1-2) delivering a mean of 70 pulses. Two lithotripsy balloons were ruptured during lithotripsy therapy without any adverse event. Successful coronary lithotripsy was achieved in 90%. There were no periprocedural cardiac complications.

Conclusions: Coronary lithotripsy seems to be a safe and effective technique in patients with STEMI and a culprit calcified lesion undergoing primary angioplasty for calcium modification in the absence of angiographic thrombus, and a suitable option to achieve adequate stent expansion and apposition.
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November 2021

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using the new Evolut-Pro system: a prospective comparison with the Evolut-R device.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Jul;13(7):4023-4032

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Evolut Pro (EVP) is a novel self-expandable aortic valve. This prosthesis consists of an external porcine pericardial wrap designed to reduce paravalvular leak (PVL), maintaining the benefits of its predecessor, the Evolut R (EVR). The aim was to compare the functional and clinical results in the short and medium term of the new EVP with the EVR system.

Methods: Consecutive patients receiving either the EVR (n=50) or the EVP (n=33) from June 2015 to October 2018 were compared. Baseline characteristics, cardiovascular imaging, procedural outcomes, short and mid-term follow-up outcomes were prospectively collected and assessed.

Results: Residual mild PVL was common and comparable in the two groups (EVR 79% EVP 70%; P=0.4). In the EVR group, the presence of PVL was directly related to prosthesis size, but this correlation was not observed in the EVP group. Conduction abnormalities were more prevalent with the EVP, but these did not translate into a higher need of permanent pacemaker implantation. Vascular and bleeding complications were infrequent in both groups. At mid-term clinical follow-up (median survival time: EVR 11±0.3 months, EVP 12±0.2 months), the 1-year rate of adverse events was similar (EVR: 24%, EVP: 33%; P=0.3).

Conclusions: Both protheses are effective for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis with excellent results at mid-term clinical follow up. The EVP remains associated with a significant rate of residual mild PVL that appears to be similar to that observed with EVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-20-2409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339791PMC
July 2021

Letter: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in France.

EuroIntervention 2021 08;17(6):525

Cardiac Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, IIS-IP, Madrid, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00026LDOI Listing
August 2021

Antithrombotic strategies in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation revascularized with drug-eluting stents: PACO-PCI (EPIC-15) registry.

Int J Cardiol 2021 09 29;338:63-71. Epub 2021 May 29.

Cardiology Dpt., Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, Leon, Spain.

Background: We sought to investigate the antithrombotic regimens applied and their prognostic effects in patients over 75 years old with atrial fibrillation (AF) after revascularization with drug-eluting stents (DES).

Methods: Retrospective registry in 20 centers including patients over 75 years with AF treated with DES. A primary endpoint of MACCE and a co-primary endpoint of major bleeding by ISTH criteria were considered at 12 months.

Results: A total of 1249 patients (81.1 ± 4.2 years, 33.1% women, 66.6% ACS, 30.6% complex PCI) were included. Triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) was prescribed in 81.7% and dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT) in 18.3%. TAT was based on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) in 48.4% and maintained for only 1 month in 52.2%, and DAT included DOAC in 70.6%. Primary endpoint of MACCE was met in 9.6% and primary endpoint of major bleeding in 9.4%. TAT was significantly associated with more bleeding (10.2% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.04) but less MACCE (8.7% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.02) than DAT and the use of DOAC was significantly associated to less bleeding (8% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.03) and similar MACCE (9.8% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.8). TAT over 1 month or with VKA was associated with more major bleeding but comparable MACCE rates.

Conclusions: Despite advanced age TAT prevails, but duration over 1 month or the use of other agent than Apixaban are associated with increased bleeding without additional MACCE prevention. DAT reduces bleeding but with a trade-off in terms of ischemic events. DOAC use was significantly associated to less bleeding and similar MACCE rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.05.036DOI Listing
September 2021

A Novel Circulating MicroRNA for the Detection of Acute Myocarditis.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(21):2014-2027

From the Vascular Pathophysiology Area (R.B.-D., R.S.-D., A.M.-M., M. Relaño, R.J.-A., B.L.-P., K.T., D.A.P.-F., V.F., F.S.-M., P.M.) and the Myocardial Pathophysiology Area (L.A.-H., M. Ricote, H.B., L.F.-F., B.I.), Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), the Department of Immunology (H.F., F.S.-M.), the Department of Cardiology (L.J.J.-B., M.M.G.-G., F.A.), the Department of Dermatology (E.D.), and the Department of Rheumatology (I.G.-A.), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Fundación Jiménez Díaz (M.L.M.-M., B.I.), the Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, and Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (G.M., R.M.-A., H.B.), the Department of Immunology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal (L.M.V.-G.), HM Hospitales-Centro Integral de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (L.F.-F.), and CIBER de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (R.S.-D., H.F., L.J.J.-B., F.A., D.A.P.-F., B.I., F.S.-M., P.M.), Madrid, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo (A.M.-L.), and the Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (D.A.P.-F.) - all in Spain; the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL (K.A.B., D.F.); the Cardiovascular Division and Corrigan Minehan Heart Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston (A.M.S.-G., S.A.M., N.E.I., J.L.J., S.D.); Kanntonsspital St. Gallen Klinik für Anesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin, St. Gallen, Switzerland (J.K.); Cardiology (S.I., A.B., A.L.P.C.) and the Cardiovascular Pathology Unit (C.B.), the Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, the Department of Laboratory Medicine (M.P., M.S.), and the Department of Medicine, Hematology and Clinical Immunology (R.M.), University of Padua, Padua, Italy; Charite Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (B.H.); Imperial College and Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospital, London (T.F.L.); and the Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York (V.F.).

Background: The diagnosis of acute myocarditis typically requires either endomyocardial biopsy (which is invasive) or cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (which is not universally available). Additional approaches to diagnosis are desirable. We sought to identify a novel microRNA for the diagnosis of acute myocarditis.

Methods: To identify a microRNA specific for myocarditis, we performed microRNA microarray analyses and quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) assays in sorted CD4+ T cells and type 17 helper T (Th17) cells after inducing experimental autoimmune myocarditis or myocardial infarction in mice. We also performed qPCR in samples from coxsackievirus-induced myocarditis in mice. We then identified the human homologue for this microRNA and compared its expression in plasma obtained from patients with acute myocarditis with the expression in various controls.

Results: We confirmed that Th17 cells, which are characterized by the production of interleukin-17, are a characteristic feature of myocardial injury in the acute phase of myocarditis. The microRNA mmu-miR-721 was synthesized by Th17 cells and was present in the plasma of mice with acute autoimmune or viral myocarditis but not in those with acute myocardial infarction. The human homologue, designated hsa-miR-Chr8:96, was identified in four independent cohorts of patients with myocarditis. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for this novel microRNA for distinguishing patients with acute myocarditis from those with myocardial infarction was 0.927 (95% confidence interval, 0.879 to 0.975). The microRNA retained its diagnostic value in models after adjustment for age, sex, ejection fraction, and serum troponin level.

Conclusions: After identifying a novel microRNA in mice and humans with myocarditis, we found that the human homologue (hsa-miR-Chr8:96) could be used to distinguish patients with myocarditis from those with myocardial infarction. (Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2003608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258773PMC
May 2021

Risks and benefits of percutaneous coronary intervention in spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

Heart 2021 Sep 18;107(17):1398-1406. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, Leicestershire, UK

Objective: To investigate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice in an international cohort of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD). To explore factors associated with complications and study angiographic and longer term outcomes.

Methods: SCAD patients (n=215, 94% female) who underwent PCI from three national cohort studies were investigated and compared with a matched cohort of conservatively managed SCAD patients (n=221).

Results: SCAD-PCI patients were high risk at presentation with only 8.8% undergoing PCI outside the context of ST-elevation myocardial infarction/cardiac arrest, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) 0/1 flow or proximal dissections. PCI complications occurred in 38.6% (83/215), with 13.0% (28/215) serious complications. PCI-related complications were associated with more extensive dissections (multiple vs single American Heart Association coronary segments, OR 1.9 (95% CI: 1.06-3.39),p=0.030), more proximal dissections (proximal diameter per mm, OR 2.25 (1.38-3.67), p=0.001) and dissections with no contrast penetration of the false lumen (Yip-Saw 2 versus 1, OR 2.89 (1.12-7.43), p=0.028). SCAD-PCI involved long lengths of stent (median 46mm, IQR: 29-61mm). Despite these risks, SCAD-PCI led to angiographic improvements in those with reduced TIMI flow in 84.3% (118/140). Worsening TIMI flow was only seen in 7.0% (15/215) of SCAD-PCI patients. Post-PCI major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and left ventricular function outcomes were favourable.

Conclusion: While a conservative approach to revascularisation is favoured, SCAD cases with higher risk presentations may require PCI. SCAD-PCI is associated with longer stent lengths and a higher risk of complications but leads to overall improvements in coronary flow and good medium-term outcomes in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372386PMC
September 2021

Left Atrial Appendage Closure with a New Occluder Device: Efficacy, Safety and Mid-Term Performance.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 1;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Interventional Cardiology Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital del Mar, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

The LAmbre device is a novel system designed for left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). First registries showed a high rate of device implantation success. However, few mid-term results are available. We present our 1- and 12-month follow-up results for this device. This prospective, single-center registry included consecutive patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who underwent LAAC with the LAmbre device. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) was performed at 1-month follow-up. In total, 55 patients were included. The population was elderly (75 ± 9.4 years), with a high proportion of comorbidities. The mean CHADS-VASc and HAS-BLED scores were 4.6 ± 1.6 and 3.9 ± 1.0, respectively. Previous history of a major bleeding event was present in 37 patients (67.3%). Procedural success was achieved in 54 patients (98.2%). Device success was achieved in 100% of patients in whom device implantation was attempted (54 patients). Major in-hospital device-related complications included mortality of one patient (1.8%) and pericardial tamponade in two patients (3.6%); the incidence of stroke was 0%. No thrombus or significant leaks (≥5 mm) were observed on 1-month TEE. At 12 months, adverse events were overall death (1.8%), transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke (1.8%), and major bleeding events (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3a and 3c; 11%). In this high-risk population, the LAmbre device seems to be a safe and effective option for LAAC with a remarkable mid-term performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036586PMC
April 2021

Clinical implications of arterial hypertension in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Cardiac Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, IIS-IP, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CIBERCV, Madrid Cardiac Department, Hospital del Mar - Parc de Salut Mar Grupo de Investigación Biomédica en Enfermedades del Corazón, IMIM, Barcelona Cardiac Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, IIS-GM, CIBERCV, Madrid Cardiac Department, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L´Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona Cardiac Deprtament, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, ICICOR Cardiac Department, Hospital Universitario Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona Cardiac Department, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña, A Coruña Cardiac Department, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona Cardiac Department, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León Cardiac Department, Hospital Miguel Servet Zaragoza Cardiac Department, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real Cardiac Department, Hospital Clinico de Valencia Cardiac Department, Hospital Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain.

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare but increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndrome. Many patients with SCAD have associated coronary risk factors. However, the implications of arterial hypertension in SCAD patients remain unknown.

Objective: This study sought to assess the clinical implications of arterial hypertension in a nationwide cohort of patients with SCAD.

Methods: The Spanish SCAD registry (NCT03607981) prospectively enrolled 318 consecutive patients. All coronary angiograms were centrally analyzed to confirm the diagnosis of SCAD. Patients were classified according to the presence of arterial hypertension.

Results: One-hundred eighteen patients (37%) had a diagnosis of arterial hypertension. Hypertensive SCAD patients were older (60 ± 12 vs. 51 ± 9 years old) and had more frequently dyslipidemia (56 vs. 23%) and diabetes (9 vs. 3%) but were less frequently smokers (15 vs. 35%) than normotensive SCAD patients (all P < 0.05). Most patients in both groups were female (90 vs. 87%, NS) and female patients with hypertension were more frequently postmenopausal (70 vs. 47%, P < 0.05). Hypertensive SCAD patients had more severe lesions and more frequently multivessel involvement (15 vs. 7%, P < 0.05) and coronary ectasia (19 vs. 7%, P < 0.05) but showed a similar prevalence of coronary tortuosity (34 vs. 26%, NS). Revascularization requirement was similar in both groups (17 vs. 26%, NS) but procedural success was significantly lower (65 vs. 88%, P < 0.05) and procedural-related complications more frequent (65 vs. 41%, P < 0.05) in SCAD patients with hypertension.

Conclusion: Patients with SCAD and hypertension are older, more frequently postmenopausal and have more coronary risk factors than normotensive SCAD patients. During revascularization SCAD patients with hypertension obtain poorer results and have a higher risk of procedural-related complications (NCT03607981).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000001043DOI Listing
April 2021

Differential miRNAs in acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection: Pathophysiological insights from a potential biomarker.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 15;66:103338. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain; CIBER de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) is an important cause of acute coronary syndromes, particularly in young to middle-aged women. Differentiating acute SCAD from coronary atherothrombosis remains a major clinical challenge.

Methods: A case-control study was used to explore the usefulness of circulating miRNAs to discriminate both clinical entities. The profile of miRNAs was evaluated using an unbiased human RT-PCR platform and confirmed using individual primers. miRNAs were evaluated in plasma samples from acute SCAD and atherothrombotic acute myocardial infarction (AT-AMI) from two independent cohorts; discovery cohort (SCAD n = 15, AT-AMI n = 15), and validation cohort (SCAD n = 11, AT-AMI n = 41) with 9 healthy control subjects. Plasma levels of IL-8, TGFB1, TGBR1, Endothelin-1 and MMP2 were analysed by ELISA assays.

Findings: From 15 differentially expressed miRNAs detected in cohort 1, we confirmed in cohort 2 the differential expression of 4 miRNAs: miR-let-7f-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-223-5p, whose expression was higher in SCAD compared to AT-AMI. The combined expression of these 4 miRNAs showed the best predictive value to distinguish between both entities (AUC: 0.879, 95% CI 0.72-1.0) compared to individual miRNAs. Functional profiling of target genes identified an association with blood vessel biology, TGF-beta pathway and cytoskeletal traction force. ELISA assays showed high plasma levels of IL-8, TGFB1, TGFBR1, Endothelin-1 and MMP2 in SCAD patients compared to AT-AMI.

Interpretation: We present a novel signature of plasma miRNAs in patients with SCAD. miR-let-7f-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-151a-3p and miR-223-5p discriminate SCAD from AT-AMI patients and also shed light on the pathological mechanisms underlying this condition.

Funding: Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO): Plan Nacional de Salud SAF2017-82886-R, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV). Fundación BBVA a equipos de Investigación Científica 2018 and from Caixa Banking Foundation under the project code HR17-00016 to F.S.M. Instituto de Salud Carlos III (AES 2019): PI19/00565 to F.R, PI19/00545 to P.M. CAM (S2017/BMD-3671-INFLAMUNE-CM) from Comunidad de Madrid to FSM and PM. The UK SCAD study was supported by BeatSCAD, the British Heart Foundation (BHF) PG/13/96/30608 the NIHR rare disease translational collaboration and the Leicester NIHR Biomedical Research Centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079473PMC
April 2021

Coronary microvascular dysfunction assessed by continuous intracoronary thermodilution: A comparative study with index of microvascular resistance.

Int J Cardiol 2021 06 5;333:1-7. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, IIS-IP, CIBERCV, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to assess the correlation between the standard of care, the index of microvascular resistance (IMR) versus the novel microvascular resistance (R) and to determine the pathologic cut-off value in a selected population with suspected coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD).

Methods: One-hundred and twenty patients with high clinical suspicion of CMD due to ischemic symptoms in the absence of significant epicardial coronary lesions were prospectively included. Following a standardized systematic protocol, coronary flow reserve, IMR, fractional flow reserve, Q and R were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery using a temperature/pressure sensor-tipped guidewire and a dedicated infusion catheter.

Results: There was a high prevalence of CMD with 50 (42%) patients showing an IMR ≥ 25. Median IMR was 23 [IQR: 14-34] and median R was 464 Woods Units (WU) [IQR: 354-636WU]. ROC analyses identified 500 WU as the optimal R cut-off to identify patients with an IMR ≥ 25, with an area under the ROC curve (C statistic) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74 to 0.89, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: R derived from continuous intracoronary thermodilution is an accurate index to measure microvascular resistances enabling the invasive diagnostic of CMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in old patients: clinical features, angiographic findings, management and outcome.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Oct;10(8):926-932

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.

Aims: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively rare but well-known cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical features, angiographic findings, management and outcomes of SCAD in old patients (>65 years of age) remain unknown.

Methods And Results: The Spanish multicentre prospective SCAD registry (NCT03607981), included 318 consecutive patients with SCAD. Data were collected between June 2015 and April 2019. All angiograms were analysed in a centralized corelab. For the purposes of this study, patients were classified according to age in two groups <65 and ≥65 years old and in-hospital outcomes were analysed. Fifty-five patients (17%) were ≥65 years old (95% women). Older patients had more often hypertension (76% vs. 29%, P < 0.01) and dyslipidaemia (56% vs. 30%, P < 0.01), and less previous (4% vs. 18%, P < 0.001) or current smoking habit (4% vs. 33%, P < 0.001). An identifiable trigger was less often present in old patients (27% vs. 43%, P = 0.028). They also had more often severe coronary tortuosity (36% vs. 11%, P = 0.036) and showed more frequently coronary ectasia (24% vs. 9%, P < 0.01). Older patients were more often managed conservatively (89% vs. 75%, P = 0.025), with no significant differences in major adverse cardiac events during index admission (7% vs. 8%, P = 0.858). There were no differences between groups in terms of in-hospital stay, new acute myocardial infarction, unplanned coronary angiography or heart failure.

Conclusion: Older patients with SCAD show different clinical and angiographic characteristics compared with younger patients. Initial treatment strategy was different between groups, though in-hospital outcomes do not significantly differ (NCT03607981).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuaa029DOI Listing
October 2021

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Menopause.

Am J Cardiol 2021 06 20;148:53-59. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Servicio de Cardiología. Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid. Spain, CIBER-CV, IIS-IP, Universidad Autónoma de Mdrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively rare but well-known cause of acute coronary syndrome in women. The role of sexual hormones has been related to the pathophysiology of SCAD. However, clinical features, angiographic findings, management and outcomes of SCAD women in relation to menopause status remain unknown. The Spanish multicenter prospective SCAD registry (NCT03607981), included 318 consecutive patients with SCAD. All coronary angiograms were analyzed in a centralized Corelab. In this substudy, 245 women were classified according to their menopause state (pre-menopausal and post-menopausal). In-hospital outcomes were analyzed: 148 patients (60.4%) were post-menopausal. These patients were older (57 [52 to 66] vs 49 [44 to 54] years, p <0.01) and had more often hypertension (49% vs 27%, p <0.01) and dyslipidemia (46% vs 25%, p <0.01). Post-menopausal women showed more often previous history of acute coronary syndrome, including previous SCAD (9% vs 3%, p = 0.046), and presented less frequently as ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on admission, compared with premenopausal women (34% vs 49%, p = 0.014). On the other hand, premenopausal women showed more often proximal and multisegment involvement (24% vs 7%, and 32% vs 18%, respectively, both p <0.01). Post-menopausal women were more often managed conservatively (85% vs 71%, p <0.01) and presented less frequently left ventricular dysfunction (both, p <0.01). There were no differences between groups in terms of in-hospital stay or mortality, new acute myocardial infarction, unplanned coronary angiography or heart failure. In conclusion, post-menopausal women with SCAD show different clinical and angiographic characteristics compared with pre-menopausal SCAD patients. Initial treatment strategy was different between groups, though in-hospital outcomes did not significantly differ (NCT03607981).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.02.007DOI Listing
June 2021

[Markers of myocardial injury in the prediction of short-term COVID-19 prognosis].

Rev Esp Cardiol 2021 Jul 27;74(7):576-583. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, España.

Introduction And Objectives: COVID-19 is currently causing high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Information on cardiac injury is scarce. We aimed to evaluate cardiovascular damage in patients with COVID-19 and determine the correlation of high-sensitivity cardiac-specific troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with the severity of COVID-19.

Methods: We included 872 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from February to April 2020. We tested 651 patients for high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and 506 for NT-proBNP on admission. Cardiac injury was defined as hs-TnT > 14 ng/L, the upper 99th percentile. Levels of NT-proBNP > 300 pg/mL were considered related to some extent of cardiac injury. The primary composite endpoint was 30-day mortality or mechanical ventilation (MV).

Results: Cardiac injury by hs-TnT was observed in 34.6% of our COVID-19 patients. Mortality or MV were higher in cardiac injury than noncardiac injury patients (39.1% vs 9.1%). Hs-TnT and NT-proBNP levels were independent predictors of death or MV (HR, 2.18; 95%CI, 1.23-3.83 and 1.87 (95%CI, 1.05-3.36), respectively) and of mortality alone (HR, 2.91; 95%CI, 1.211-7.04 and 5.47; 95%CI, 2.10-14.26, respectively). NT-ProBNP significantly improved the troponin model discrimination of mortality or MV (C-index 0.83 to 0.84), and of mortality alone (C-index 0.85 to 0.87).

Conclusions: Myocardial injury measured at admission was a common finding in patients with COVID-19. It reliably predicted the occurrence of mortality and need of MV, the most severe complications of the disease. NT-proBNP improved the prognostic accuracy of hs-TnT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.recesp.2020.09.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691144PMC
July 2021

Drug-Coated Balloon Versus Drug-Eluting Stent for Small Coronary Vessel Disease: PICCOLETO II Randomized Clinical Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 12 25;13(24):2840-2849. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Cardiology Department, Hospital de la Princesa, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: This study sought to compare the performance of a novel drug-coated balloon (DCB) (Elutax SV, Aachen Resonance, Germany), with an everolimus-eluting stent (EES) (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) in patients with de novo lesions.

Background: Small vessel coronary artery disease (SVD) represents one of the most attractive fields of application for DCB. To date, several devices have been compared with drug-eluting stents in this setting, with different outcomes.

Methods: The PICCOLETO II (Drug Eluting Balloon Efficacy for Small Coronary Vessel Disease Treatment) trial was an international, investigator-driven, multicenter, open-label, prospective randomized controlled trial where patients with de novo SVD lesions were randomized to DCB or EES. Primary study endpoint was in-lesion late lumen loss (LLL) at 6 months (independent core laboratory), with the noninferiority between the 2 arms hypothesized. Secondary endpoints were minimal lumen diameter, percent diameter stenosis at angiographic follow-up, and the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events at 12 months.

Results: Between May 2015 and May 2018, a total of 232 patients were enrolled at 5 centers. After a median of 189 (interquartile range: 160 to 202) days, in-lesion LLL was significantly lower in the DCB group (0.04 vs. 0.17 mm; p = 0.001 for noninferiority; p = 0.03 for superiority). Percent diameter stenosis and minimal lumen diameter were not significantly different. At 12-month clinical follow-up, major adverse cardiac events occurred in 7.5% of the DES group and in 5.6% of the DCB group (p = 0.55). There was a numerically higher incidence of spontaneous myocardial infarction (4.7% vs. 1.9%; p = 0.23) and vessel thrombosis (1.8% vs. 0%; p = 0.15) in the DES arm.

Conclusions: In this multicenter randomized clinical trial in patients with de novo SVD lesions, a new-generation DCB was found superior to EES in terms of LLL as the angiographic pattern and comparable in terms of clinical outcome. (Drug Eluting Balloon Efficacy for Small Coronary Vessel Disease Treatment [PICCOLETO II]; NCT03899818).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.08.035DOI Listing
December 2020

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection and Takotsubo syndrome: comparison of baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics and in-hospital outcomes.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Sep;32(6):509-516

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-IP), CIBER-CV, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid.

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) and Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) constitute two relatively common nonatherosclerotic causes of acute coronary syndrome particularly frequent in women.

Methods: This study sought to compare the baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients from two large prospective registries on SCAD and TTS (the prospective nation-wide Spanish SCAD Registry and a prospective single-center TTS registry).

Results: A total of 318 SCAD and 106 TTS consecutive patients were included. Most patients in both groups (88%) were women. Patients in the TTS group were older [74 (interquartile range, IQR 67-81) vs. 53 years-old (IQR 47-60), P < 0.001] and presented a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Precipitating triggers were more frequent in TTS (56% vs. 42%, P = 0.009) but emotional stress was more common in the SCAD group (25% vs. 15%, P = 0.037). TTS patients showed a reduced release of cardiac biomarkers but had more severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <50%: 73% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events occurred more frequently in TTS patients (12% vs. 4.7%, P < 0.001). Notably, TTS patients showed more frequently congestive heart failure (10% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001), atrial fibrillation (11% vs. 1%, P < 0.001) and had a higher all-cause in-hospital mortality (5.7% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.032).

Conclusion: TTS patients are older and present a higher prevalence of some cardiovascular risk factors than patients with SCAD. TTS is linked to a worse in-hospital prognosis with higher mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000984DOI Listing
September 2021

Markers of myocardial injury in the prediction of short-term COVID-19 prognosis.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Jul 29;74(7):576-583. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; Departamento de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas (IMIM), Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain; Grupo de Investigación en Enfermedades del Corazón (GREC), Instituto Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: COVID-19 is currently causing high mortality and morbidity worldwide. Information on cardiac injury is scarce. We aimed to evaluate cardiovascular damage in patients with COVID-19 and determine the correlation of high-sensitivity cardiac-specific troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with the severity of COVID-19.

Methods: We included 872 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 from February to April 2020. We tested 651 patients for high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and 506 for NT-proBNP on admission. Cardiac injury was defined as hs-TnT> 14ng/L, the upper 99th percentile. Levels of NT-proBNP> 300 pg/mL were considered related to some extent of cardiac injury. The primary composite endpoint was 30-day mortality or mechanical ventilation (MV).

Results: Cardiac injury by hs-TnT was observed in 34.6% of our COVID-19 patients. Mortality or MV were higher in cardiac injury than noncardiac injury patients (39.1% vs 9.1%). Hs-TnT and NT-proBNP levels were independent predictors of death or MV (HR, 2.18; 95%CI, 1.23-3.83 and 1.87 (95%CI, 1.05-3.36), respectively) and of mortality alone (HR, 2.91; 95%CI, 1.211-7.04 and 5.47; 95%CI, 2.10-14.26, respectively). NT-ProBNP significantly improved the troponin model discrimination of mortality or MV (C-index 0.83 to 0.84), and of mortality alone (C-index 0.85 to 0.87).

Conclusions: Myocardial injury measured at admission was a common finding in patients with COVID-19. It reliably predicted the occurrence of mortality and need of MV, the most severe complications of the disease. NT-proBNP improved the prognostic accuracy of hs-TnT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522647PMC
July 2021

Clinical outcomes by optical characteristics of neointima and treatment modality in patients with coronary in-stent restenosis.

EuroIntervention 2021 Aug 6;17(5):e388-e395. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen, Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Drug-coated balloons (DCB) and drug-eluting stents (DES) represent the currently recommended treatments for in-stent restenosis (ISR). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows detailed neointimal characterisation which can guide treatment strategies.

Aims: The aims of this study were first, to assess the relation between neointimal pattern and clinical outcomes following in-stent restenosis (ISR) treatment, and second, to explore a potential interaction between neointimal pattern and treatment modality relative to clinical outcomes.

Methods: Patients undergoing OCT-guided treatment (DCB or DES) of ISR in three European centres were included. Based on the median of distribution of non-homogeneous neointima quadrants, patients were categorised into low and high inhomogeneity groups.

Results: A total of 197 patients (low inhomogeneity=100 and high inhomogeneity=97) were included. There were no significant differences in terms of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (p=0.939) or target lesion revascularisation (TLR) (p=0.732) between the two groups. The exploratory analysis showed a significant interaction between neointimal pattern and treatment modality regarding MACE (pint=0.006) and TLR (pint=0.022). DES showed a significant advantage over DCB in the high (MACE: HR 0.26 [0.10-0.65], p=0.004; TLR: HR 0.28 [0.11-0.69], p=0.006), but not in the low inhomogeneity group (MACE: p=0.917; TLR: p=0.797).

Conclusions: In patients with ISR treated with DCB or DES, there were no significant differences in terms of MACE or TLR between the low and high inhomogeneity groups. A significant interaction was observed between treatment modality and neointimal pattern with an advantage of DES over DCB in the high and no difference in the low inhomogeneity group. This warrants confirmation from prospective dedicated studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-00662DOI Listing
August 2021

Prolonged QT Interval in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence and Prognosis.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 21;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital del Mar, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The prognostic value of a prolonged QT interval in SARS-Cov2 infection is not well known.

Objective: To determine whether the presence of a prolonged QT on admission is an independent factor for mortality in SARS-Cov2 hospitalized patients.

Methods: Single-center cohort of 623 consecutive patients with positive polymerase-chain-reaction test (PCR) to SARS Cov2, recruited from 27 February to 7 April 2020. An electrocardiogram was taken on these patients within the first 48 h after diagnosis and before the administration of any medication with a known effect on QT interval. A prolonged QT interval was defined as a corrected QT (QTc) interval >480 milliseconds. Patients were followed up with until 10 May 2020.

Results: Sixty-one patients (9.8%) had prolonged QTc and only 3.2% had a baseline QTc > 500 milliseconds. Patients with prolonged QTc were older, had more comorbidities, and higher levels of immune-inflammatory markers. There were no episodes of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation during hospitalization. All-cause death was higher in patients with prolonged QTc (41.0% vs. 8.7%, < 0.001, multivariable HR 2.68 (1.58-4.55), < 0.001).

Conclusions: Almost 10% of patients with COVID-19 infection have a prolonged QTc interval on admission. A prolonged QTc was independently associated with a higher mortality even after adjustment for age, comorbidities, and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. An electrocardiogram should be included on admission to identify high-risk SARS-CoV-2 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563186PMC
August 2020

Scoring balloon predilation before bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in patients with in-stent restenosis: the RIBS VI 'scoring' study.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Mar;32(2):96-104

Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Currently drug-eluting stents (DES) and drug-eluting balloons are recommended in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, the efficacy of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) after scoring balloon (SCB) predilation in these patients is unknown.

Methods: RIBS VI (NCT02672878) and RIBS VI 'Scoring' (NCT03069066) are prospective multicentre studies assessing the value of BVS in patients with ISR. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical in both studies. Results of conventional BVS implantation (112 patients) were compared with those obtained with systematic SCB therapy before BVS (108 patients). Angiographic follow-up was scheduled for all patients.

Results: On late angiography (93% of eligible patients) the in-segment minimal lumen diameter (primary end-point) (1.88 ± 0.5 vs. 1.90 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.81), % diameter stenosis (28 ± 17 vs. 29 ± 15%), late lumen loss (0.23 ± 0.4 vs. 0.22 ± 0.4 mm) and binary restenosis rate (8.5 vs. 9.3%) were similar in the conventional BVS and SCB + BVS groups, respectively. At 1-year follow-up (100% of patients) target lesion revascularization (TLR) requirement (9.8 vs. 11.1%) was similar with the two strategies. Freedom from cardiac death, myocardial infarction and TLR was 88% and 87%, respectively. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and were consistent in 10 prespecified subgroups.

Conclusion: This study suggests that results of conventional BVS implantation in patients with ISR are not improved by systematic predilation with SCB. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02672878 (RIBS VI) and NCT03069066 (RIBS VI 'Scoring').
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000904DOI Listing
March 2021

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in Spain: clinical and angiographic characteristics, management, and in-hospital events.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Jan 14;74(1):15-23. Epub 2020 May 14.

Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction And Objectives: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome. The characteristics and in-hospital clinical course of patients with SCAD in Spain remain unknown.

Methods: We present data from consecutive patients included in the national prospective SCAD registry. Angiographic analysis was performed in a centralized core laboratory.

Results: Between June 2015 and April 2019, we included 318 patients with SCAD (358 lesions) from 31 centers. Median age was 53 years, and 88% were women. The most frequent presentation was non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (53%). The most frequently involved artery was the left anterior descending coronary artery (44%), predominantly affecting the distal segments (39%) and secondary branches (54%). Most lesions (62%) appeared on angiography as intramural hematoma, without double lumen. Conservative management was selected as the initial approach in most patients (78%). During the index admission, 6% of patients had a major adverse event and 4 patients (1.3%) died. Independent predictors of adverse events were initial management with percutaneous coronary intervention (OR, 5.97; P=.004) and angiographic presentation as intramural hematoma (OR, 4.96; P=.028).

Conclusions: In Spain, SCAD affects mainly middle-aged women. In most patients, the initial management strategy was conservative with excellent in-hospital survival. Initial management with percutaneous coronary intervention and angiographic presentation as intramural hematoma were related to the presence of in-hospital adverse events. Registered at ClnicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT03607981).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.04.002DOI Listing
January 2021

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Extension and Recurrences: A Justified Fear?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 04;13(8):933-937

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain; Department of Cardiology, Hospital del Mar, Parc Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2020.03.010DOI Listing
April 2020

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Management.

Eur Cardiol 2020 Feb 26;15:1-8. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Princesa, Centro de Investigación en Red en Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Madrid, Spain.

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a relatively infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome that usually affects young to middle-aged women. Mainly because of its low prevalence, until recently, most of the evidence on this condition was derived from case reports and small series. Over the last 5 years, more robust evidence has become available from larger retrospective and prospective cohorts of patients with SCAD. The increase in knowledge and recognition of this entity has led to the publication of expert consensus on both sides of the Atlantic. However, new data are continuously accumulating from larger cohorts of patients with SCAD, bringing new light to this little-understood condition. The aim of this article is to update the knowledge on SCAD, including new information from recent studies published since the consensus documents from the European Society of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/ecr.2019.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113739PMC
February 2020

Correlation between fractional flow reserve and instantaneous wave-free ratio with morphometric assessment by optical coherence tomography in diabetic patients.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Jul 27;36(7):1193-1201. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, IIS-IP, CIBERCV, C/ Diego de Leon 62, 28006, Madrid, Spain.

Currently there is lack of data regarding the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to depict the hemodynamic relevance of coronary stenoses in diabetic patients. We sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of OCT-derived morphologic assessment in identifying hemodynamically significant coronary lesions as determined by both, the resting instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and the hyperemic fractional flow reserve (FFR) in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients presenting with at least one intermediate coronary lesion were prospectively and consecutively enrolled. All lesions were systematically assessed by iFR, FFR and OCT. A total of 41 intermediate lesions were analysed. Mean iFR and FFR values were 0.90 ± 0.04 and 0.81 ± 0.06, respectively (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.49; 95% CI 0.22-0.79). A moderate correlation between iFR and OCT derived minimal lumen diameter (MLD, r = 0.49) and minimal lumen area (MLA, r = 0.50) was found. Conversely, there was a poor correlation between FFR and OCT-derived MLD (r = 0.34) and MLA (r = 0.32). The diagnostic efficiency of MLA and MLD to identify iFR significant stenoses showed an AUC of 0.82 (95% CI 0.69-0.95) for MLD and 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.96) for MLA. A worse diagnostic efficiency was found when FFR was used as the reference with an AUC of 0.71 (95% CI 0.54-0.87) for MLD and 0.70 (95% CI 0.53-0.87). OCT-derived MLA and MLD were the strongest independent anatomic predictors of abnormal iFR and FFR values. In diabetic patients, OCT-derived MLA and MLD showed a moderate diagnostic efficiency in identifying functionally significant coronary stenoses by FFR or iFR. In diabetics, anatomic OCT measurements better predicted resting than FFR-determined physiologically significant lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01819-3DOI Listing
July 2020

Coronary Aneurysms After Magnesium Resorbable Vascular Scaffolds: "The Dissolving Scaffold Follows the Vessel Wall".

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2020 11 10;21(11S):162-164. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) may occur following virtually any coronary intervention. We present a patient developing a CAA after magnesium resorbable vascular scaffold (MRS) implantation in the left circumflex coronary artery 1 year before for an acute myocardial infarction. Intravascular ultrasound and optical coherence tomography revealed striking images of the dissolving MRS struts, well apposed and following the CAA vessel wall, rather than the expected classical findings of late acquired malapposition. The implications of these unique findings are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.01.008DOI Listing
November 2020

Chronic infarct size after spontaneous coronary artery dissection: implications for pathophysiology and clinical management.

Eur Heart J 2020 06;41(23):2197-2205

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, University of Leicester, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, UK.

Aims: To report the extent and distribution of myocardial injury and its impact on left ventricular systolic function with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) following spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) and to investigate predictors of myocardial injury.

Methods And Results: One hundred and fifty-eight angiographically confirmed SCAD-survivors (98% female) were phenotyped by CMR and compared in a case-control study with 59 (97% female) healthy controls (44.5 ± 8.4 vs. 45.0 ± 9.1 years). Spontaneous coronary artery dissection presentation was with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 95 (60.3%), ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in 52 (32.7%), and cardiac arrest in 11 (6.9%). Left ventricular function in SCAD-survivors was generally well preserved with small reductions in ejection fraction (57 ± 7.2% vs. 60 ± 4.9%, P < 0.01) and increases in left ventricular dimensions (end-diastolic volume: 85 ± 14 mL/m2 vs. 80 ± 11 mL/m2, P < 0.05; end-systolic volume: 37 ± 11 mL/m2 vs. 32 ± 7 mL/m2, P <0.01) compared to healthy controls. Infarcts were small with few large infarcts (median 4.06%; range 0-30.9%) and 39% having no detectable late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Female SCAD patients presenting with STEMI had similar sized infarcts to female Type-1 STEMI patients age <75 years. Multivariate modelling demonstrated STEMI at presentation, initial TIMI 0/1 flow, multivessel SCAD, and a Beighton score >4 were associated with larger infarcts [>10% left ventricular (LV) mass].

Conclusion: The majority of patients presenting with SCAD have no or small infarctions and preserved ejection fraction. Patients presenting with STEMI, TIMI 0/1 flow, multivessel SCAD and those with features of connective tissue disorders are more likely to have larger infarcts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299635PMC
June 2020

Can Plaque Erosion Be Visualized by High-Definition Intravascular Ultrasound?

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 04 25;13(7):e57-e61. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.10.036DOI Listing
April 2020

Treatment of In-Stent Restenosis: When the Stent Is No Longer There.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 04 25;13(7):e53-e55. Epub 2019 Dec 25.

Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.10.032DOI Listing
April 2020

Characteristic findings of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection by cardiac computed tomography.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 05;31(3):293-299

Cardiology Department, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, IIS-IP, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, its detection carries relevant clinical implications. Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has been found to be useful for follow-up, but data during the acute phase are scarce. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the early diagnostic ability of CCT to detect SCAD.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed all the in-hospital CCT performed in a prospective cohort of patients with SCAD from 2012 to 2016. An independent expert blindly evaluated the studies and described the radiologic characteristics of the lesions. These features were compared with the invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings.

Results: 18 lesions were analyzed from 12 episodes identified in 11 patients (100% females; median age of 57 years old). CCT recognized the presence of SCAD in 14 (78%) of the lesions, with four different morphological patterns. Most commonly (10, 71%) SCAD presented as a diffuse lumen narrowing surrounded by a 'sleeve-like' wall thickening, which corresponded to intramural hematoma in OCT evaluation. When compared with ICA, CCT showed a positive correlation (Spearman's Rho = 0.775; P = 0.001) and excellent concordance (ICC = 0.8; P = 0.004) in stenosis grading, but not for lesion length and minimal luminal area.

Conclusion: CCT was able to identify the presence of SCAD in most of the patients in the acute phase of this elusive and challenging clinical entity. In addition, in this setting, CCT revealed unique and distinct radiologic features and provided a precise assessment of lesion severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000819DOI Listing
May 2020
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