Publications by authors named "Marcos C Miranda"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular basis of immune evasion by the delta and kappa SARS-CoV-2 variants.

bioRxiv 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Worldwide SARS-CoV-2 transmission leads to the recurrent emergence of variants, such as the recently described B.1.617.1 (kappa), B.1.617.2 (delta) and B.1.617.2+ (delta+). The B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of concern is causing a new wave of infections in many countries, mostly affecting unvaccinated individuals, and has become globally dominant. We show that these variants dampen the in vitro potency of vaccine-elicited serum neutralizing antibodies and provide a structural framework for describing the impact of individual mutations on immune evasion. Mutations in the B.1.617.1 (kappa) and B.1.617.2 (delta) spike glycoproteins abrogate recognition by several monoclonal antibodies via alteration of key antigenic sites, including an unexpected remodeling of the B.1.617.2 (delta) N-terminal domain. The binding affinity of the B.1.617.1 (kappa) and B.1.617.2 (delta) receptor-binding domain for ACE2 is comparable to the ancestral virus whereas B.1.617.2+ (delta+) exhibits markedly reduced affinity. We describe a previously uncharacterized class of N-terminal domain-directed human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with several variants of concern, revealing a possible target for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.11.455956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8366796PMC
August 2021

Adjuvanting a subunit COVID-19 vaccine to induce protective immunity.

Nature 2021 06 19;594(7862):253-258. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tulane National Primate Research Center, Covington, LA, USA.

The development of a portfolio of COVID-19 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on an I53-50 protein nanoparticle scaffold (hereafter designated RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing-antibody responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. We evaluated five adjuvants including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an α-tocopherol-containing oil-in-water emulsion; AS37, a Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist adsorbed to alum; CpG1018-alum, a TLR9 agonist formulated in alum; and alum. RBD-NP immunization with AS03, CpG1018-alum, AS37 or alum induced substantial neutralizing-antibody and CD4 T cell responses, and conferred protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and bronchoalveolar lavage. The neutralizing-antibody response to live virus was maintained up to 180 days after vaccination with RBD-NP in AS03 (RBD-NP-AS03), and correlated with protection from infection. RBD-NP immunization cross-neutralized the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant efficiently but showed a reduced response against the B.1.351 variant. RBD-NP-AS03 produced a 4.5-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351 whereas the group immunized with RBD-NP-AS37 produced a 16-fold reduction in neutralization of B.1.351, suggesting differences in the breadth of the neutralizing-antibody response induced by these adjuvants. Furthermore, RBD-NP-AS03 was as immunogenic as a prefusion-stabilized spike immunogen (HexaPro) with AS03 adjuvant. These data highlight the efficacy of the adjuvanted RBD-NP vaccine in promoting protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and have led to phase I/II clinical trials of this vaccine (NCT04742738 and NCT04750343).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03530-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Elicitation of broadly protective sarbecovirus immunity by receptor-binding domain nanoparticle vaccines.

bioRxiv 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Understanding the ability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-elicited antibodies to neutralize and protect against emerging variants of concern and other sarbecoviruses is key for guiding vaccine development decisions and public health policies. We show that a clinical stage multivalent SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain nanoparticle vaccine (SARS-CoV-2 RBD-NP) protects mice from SARS-CoV-2-induced disease after a single shot, indicating that the vaccine could allow dose-sparing. SARS-CoV-2 RBD-NP elicits high antibody titers in two non-human primate (NHP) models against multiple distinct RBD antigenic sites known to be recognized by neutralizing antibodies. We benchmarked NHP serum neutralizing activity elicited by RBD-NP against a lead prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike immunogen using a panel of single-residue spike mutants detected in clinical isolates as well as the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern. Polyclonal antibodies elicited by both vaccines are resilient to most RBD mutations tested, but the E484K substitution has similar negative consequences for neutralization, and exhibit modest but comparable neutralization breadth against distantly related sarbecoviruses. We demonstrate that mosaic and cocktail sarbecovirus RBD-NPs elicit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, including against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351 variant, and protect mice against severe SARS-CoV challenge even in the absence of the SARS-CoV RBD in the vaccine. This study provides proof of principle that sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and enables advancement of broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.15.435528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986998PMC
March 2021

Multimeric antibodies from antigen-specific human IgM+ memory B cells restrict Plasmodium parasites.

J Exp Med 2021 04;218(4)

Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA.

Multimeric immunoglobulin-like molecules arose early in vertebrate evolution, yet the unique contributions of multimeric IgM antibodies to infection control are not well understood. This is partially due to the difficulty of distinguishing low-affinity IgM, secreted rapidly by plasmablasts, from high-affinity antibodies derived from later-arising memory cells. We developed a pipeline to express B cell receptors (BCRs) from Plasmodium falciparum-specific IgM+ and IgG+ human memory B cells (MBCs) as both IgM and IgG molecules. BCRs from both subsets were somatically hypermutated and exhibited comparable monomeric affinity. Crystallization of one IgM+ MBC-derived antibody complexed with antigen defined a linear epitope within a conserved Plasmodium protein. In its physiological multimeric state, this antibody displayed exponentially higher antigen binding than a clonally identical IgG monomer, and more effectively inhibited P. falciparum invasion. Forced multimerization of this IgG significantly improved both antigen binding and parasite restriction, underscoring how avidity can alter antibody function. This work demonstrates the potential of high-avidity IgM in both therapeutics and vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20200942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938364PMC
April 2021

Adjuvanting a subunit SARS-CoV-2 nanoparticle vaccine to induce protective immunity in non-human primates.

bioRxiv 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

The development of a portfolio of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to vaccinate the global population remains an urgent public health imperative. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of a subunit vaccine under clinical development, comprising the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domain displayed on a two-component protein nanoparticle (RBD-NP), to stimulate robust and durable neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates. We evaluated five different adjuvants combined with RBD-NP including Essai O/W 1849101, a squalene-in-water emulsion; AS03, an alpha-tocopherol-containing squalene-based oil-in-water emulsion used in pandemic influenza vaccines; AS37, a TLR-7 agonist adsorbed to Alum; CpG 1018-Alum (CpG-Alum), a TLR-9 agonist formulated in Alum; or Alum, the most widely used adjuvant. All five adjuvants induced substantial nAb and CD4 T cell responses after two consecutive immunizations. Durable nAb responses were evaluated for RBD-NP/AS03 immunization and the live-virus nAb response was durably maintained up to 154 days post-vaccination. AS03, CpG-Alum, AS37 and Alum groups conferred significant protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pharynges, nares and in the bronchoalveolar lavage. The nAb titers were highly correlated with protection against infection. Furthermore, RBD-NP when used in conjunction with AS03 was as potent as the prefusion stabilized Spike immunogen, HexaPro. Taken together, these data highlight the efficacy of the RBD-NP formulated with clinically relevant adjuvants in promoting robust immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in non-human primates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.10.430696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885918PMC
February 2021

De novo design of modular and tunable protein biosensors.

Nature 2021 03 27;591(7850):482-487. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Design, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Naturally occurring protein switches have been repurposed for the development of biosensors and reporters for cellular and clinical applications. However, the number of such switches is limited, and reengineering them is challenging. Here we show that a general class of protein-based biosensors can be created by inverting the flow of information through de novo designed protein switches in which the binding of a peptide key triggers biological outputs of interest. The designed sensors are modular molecular devices with a closed dark state and an open luminescent state; analyte binding drives the switch from the closed to the open state. Because the sensor is based on the thermodynamic coupling of analyte binding to sensor activation, only one target binding domain is required, which simplifies sensor design and allows direct readout in solution. We create biosensors that can sensitively detect the anti-apoptosis protein BCL-2, the IgG1 Fc domain, the HER2 receptor, and Botulinum neurotoxin B, as well as biosensors for cardiac troponin I and an anti-hepatitis B virus antibody with the high sensitivity required to detect these molecules clinically. Given the need for diagnostic tools to track the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we used the approach to design sensors for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and antibodies against the membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. The former, which incorporates a de novo designed spike receptor binding domain (RBD) binder, has a limit of detection of 15 pM and a luminescence signal 50-fold higher than the background level. The modularity and sensitivity of the platform should enable the rapid construction of sensors for a wide range of analytes, and highlights the power of de novo protein design to create multi-state protein systems with new and useful functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03258-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074680PMC
March 2021

Elicitation of Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses by Designed Protein Nanoparticle Vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.

Cell 2020 11 31;183(5):1367-1382.e17. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA.

A safe, effective, and scalable vaccine is needed to halt the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We describe the structure-based design of self-assembling protein nanoparticle immunogens that elicit potent and protective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The nanoparticle vaccines display 60 SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domains (RBDs) in a highly immunogenic array and induce neutralizing antibody titers 10-fold higher than the prefusion-stabilized spike despite a 5-fold lower dose. Antibodies elicited by the RBD nanoparticles target multiple distinct epitopes, suggesting they may not be easily susceptible to escape mutations, and exhibit a lower binding:neutralizing ratio than convalescent human sera, which may minimize the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. The high yield and stability of the assembled nanoparticles suggest that manufacture of the nanoparticle vaccines will be highly scalable. These results highlight the utility of robust antigen display platforms and have launched cGMP manufacturing efforts to advance the SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticle vaccine into the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604136PMC
November 2020

Elicitation of potent neutralizing antibody responses by designed protein nanoparticle vaccines for SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2020 Aug 12. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

A safe, effective, and scalable vaccine is urgently needed to halt the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we describe the structure-based design of self-assembling protein nanoparticle immunogens that elicit potent and protective antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. The nanoparticle vaccines display 60 copies of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein receptor-binding domain (RBD) in a highly immunogenic array and induce neutralizing antibody titers roughly ten-fold higher than the prefusion-stabilized S ectodomain trimer despite a more than five-fold lower dose. Antibodies elicited by the nanoparticle immunogens target multiple distinct epitopes on the RBD, suggesting that they may not be easily susceptible to escape mutations, and exhibit a significantly lower binding:neutralizing ratio than convalescent human sera, which may minimize the risk of vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease. The high yield and stability of the protein components and assembled nanoparticles, especially compared to the SARS-CoV-2 prefusion-stabilized S trimer, suggest that manufacture of the nanoparticle vaccines will be highly scalable. These results highlight the utility of robust antigen display platforms for inducing potent neutralizing antibody responses and have launched cGMP manufacturing efforts to advance the lead RBD nanoparticle vaccine into the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.11.247395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430571PMC
August 2020

design of modular and tunable allosteric biosensors.

bioRxiv 2020 Jul 20. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Naturally occurring allosteric protein switches have been repurposed for developing novel biosensors and reporters for cellular and clinical applications , but the number of such switches is limited, and engineering them is often challenging as each is different. Here, we show that a very general class of allosteric protein-based biosensors can be created by inverting the flow of information through designed protein switches in which binding of a peptide key triggers biological outputs of interest . Using broadly applicable design principles, we allosterically couple binding of protein analytes of interest to the reconstitution of luciferase activity and a bioluminescent readout through the association of designed lock and key proteins. Because the sensor is based purely on thermodynamic coupling of analyte binding to switch activation, only one target binding domain is required, which simplifies sensor design and allows direct readout in solution. We demonstrate the modularity of this platform by creating biosensors that, with little optimization, sensitively detect the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2, the hIgG1 Fc domain, the Her2 receptor, and Botulinum neurotoxin B, as well as biosensors for cardiac Troponin I and an anti-Hepatitis B virus (HBV) antibody that achieve the sub-nanomolar sensitivity necessary to detect clinically relevant concentrations of these molecules. Given the current need for diagnostic tools for tracking COVID-19 , we use the approach to design sensors of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 protein epitopes and of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The latter, which incorporates a designed RBD binder, has a limit of detection of 15pM with an up to seventeen fold increase in luminescence upon addition of RBD. The modularity and sensitivity of the platform should enable the rapid construction of sensors for a wide range of analytes and highlights the power of protein design to create multi-state protein systems with new and useful functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.18.206946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7386493PMC
July 2020
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