Publications by authors named "Marco van Eijk"

43 Publications

GCase and LIMP2 Abnormalities in the Liver of Niemann Pick Type C Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 3;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department Medical Biochemistry, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

The lysosomal storage disease Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is caused by impaired cholesterol efflux from lysosomes, which is accompanied by secondary lysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide (GlcCer). Similar to Gaucher disease (GD), patients deficient in glucocerebrosidase (GCase) degrading GlcCer, NPC patients show an elevated glucosylsphingosine and glucosylated cholesterol. In livers of mice lacking the lysosomal cholesterol efflux transporter NPC1, we investigated the expression of established biomarkers of lipid-laden macrophages of GD patients, their GCase status, and content on the cytosol facing glucosylceramidase GBA2 and lysosomal integral membrane protein type B (LIMP2), a transporter of newly formed GCase to lysosomes. Livers of 80-week-old mice showed a partially reduced GCase protein and enzymatic activity. In contrast, GBA2 levels tended to be reciprocally increased with the GCase deficiency. In liver, increased expression of lysosomal enzymes (cathepsin D, acid ceramidase) was observed as well as increased markers of lipid-stressed macrophages (GPNMB and galectin-3). Immunohistochemistry showed that the latter markers are expressed by lipid laden Kupffer cells. Earlier reported increase of LIMP2 in liver was confirmed. Unexpectedly, immunohistochemistry showed that LIMP2 is particularly overexpressed in the hepatocytes of the liver. LIMP2 in these hepatocytes seems not to only localize to (endo)lysosomes. The recent recognition that LIMP2 harbors a cholesterol channel prompts the speculation that LIMP2 in hepatocytes might mediate export of cholesterol into the bile and thus protects the hepatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959463PMC
March 2021

Lyso-glycosphingolipids: presence and consequences.

Essays Biochem 2020 09;64(3):565-578

Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Lyso-glycosphingolipids are generated in excess in glycosphingolipid storage disorders. In the course of these pathologies glycosylated sphingolipid species accumulate within lysosomes due to flaws in the respective lipid degrading machinery. Deacylation of accumulating glycosphingolipids drives the formation of lyso-glycosphingolipids. In lysosomal storage diseases such as Gaucher Disease, Fabry Disease, Krabbe disease, GM1 -and GM2 gangliosidosis, Niemann Pick type C and Metachromatic leukodystrophy massive intra-lysosomal glycosphingolipid accumulation occurs. The lysosomal enzyme acid ceramidase generates the deacylated lyso-glycosphingolipid species. This review discusses how the various lyso-glycosphingolipids are synthesized, how they may contribute to abnormal immunity in glycosphingolipid storing lysosomal diseases and what therapeutic opportunities exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/EBC20190090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517347PMC
September 2020

The Iminosugar AMP-DNM Improves Satiety and Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Through GLP1.

Diabetes 2019 12 2;68(12):2223-2234. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Laboratory of Endocrinology, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam Gastroenterology & Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Obesity is taking on worldwide epidemic proportions, yet effective pharmacological agents with long-term efficacy remain unavailable. Previously, we designed the iminosugar N-adamantine-methyloxypentyl-deoxynojirimycin (AMP-DNM), which potently improves glucose homeostasis by lowering excessive glycosphingolipids. Here we show that AMP-DNM promotes satiety and activates brown adipose tissue (BAT) in obese rodents. Moreover, we demonstrate that the mechanism mediating these favorable actions depends on oral, but not central, administration of AMP-DNM, which ultimately stimulates systemic glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) secretion. We evidence an essential role of brain GLP1 receptors (GLP1r), as AMP-DNM fails to promote satiety and activate BAT in mice lacking the brain GLP1r as well as in mice treated intracerebroventricularly with GLP1r antagonist exendin-9. In conclusion, AMP-DNM markedly ameliorates metabolic abnormalities in obese rodents by restoring satiety and activating BAT through central GLP1r, while improving glucose homeostasis by mechanisms independent of central GLP1r.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-0049DOI Listing
December 2019

Adipocytes harbor a glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway involved in iNKT cell activation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2019 08 30;1864(8):1157-1167. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Molecular Cancer Research, Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Natural killer T (NKT) cells in adipose tissue (AT) contribute to whole body energy homeostasis.

Results: Inhibition of the glucosylceramide synthesis in adipocytes impairs iNKT cell activity.

Conclusion: Glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway is important for endogenous lipid antigen activation of iNKT cells in adipocytes.

Significance: Unraveling adipocyte-iNKT cell communication may help to fight obesity-induced AT dysfunction. Overproduction and/or accumulation of ceramide and ceramide metabolites, including glucosylceramides, can lead to insulin resistance. However, glucosylceramides also fulfill important physiological functions. They are presented by antigen presenting cells (APC) as endogenous lipid antigens via CD1d to activate a unique lymphocyte subspecies, the CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells. Recently, adipocytes have emerged as lipid APC that can activate adipose tissue-resident iNKT cells and thereby contribute to whole body energy homeostasis. Here we investigate the role of the glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway in the activation of iNKT cells by adipocytes. UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (Ugcg), the first rate limiting step in the glucosylceramide biosynthesis pathway, was inhibited via chemical compounds and shRNA knockdown in vivo and in vitro. β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase (B4Galt) 5 and 6, enzymes that convert glucosylceramides into potentially inactive lactosylceramides, were subjected to shRNA knock down. Subsequently, (pre)adipocyte cell lines were tested in co-culture experiments with iNKT cells (IFNγ and IL4 secretion). Inhibition of Ugcg activity shows that it regulates presentation of a considerable fraction of lipid self-antigens in adipocytes. Furthermore, reduced expression levels of either B4Galt5 or -6, indicate that B4Galt5 is dominant in the production of cellular lactosylceramides, but that inhibition of either enzyme results in increased iNKT cell activation. Additionally, in vivo inhibition of Ugcg by the aminosugar AMP-DNM results in decreased iNKT cell effector function in adipose tissue. Inhibition of endogenous glucosylceramide production results in decreased iNKT cells activity and cytokine production, underscoring the role of this biosynthetic pathway in lipid self-antigen presentation by adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.04.016DOI Listing
August 2019

Glycoprotein Non-Metastatic Protein B: An Emerging Biomarker for Lysosomal Dysfunction in Macrophages.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 24;20(1). Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Several diseases are caused by inherited defects in lysosomes, the so-called lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). In some of these LSDs, tissue macrophages transform into prominent storage cells, as is the case in Gaucher disease. Here, macrophages become the characteristic Gaucher cells filled with lysosomes laden with glucosylceramide, because of their impaired enzymatic degradation. Biomarkers of Gaucher cells were actively searched, particularly after the development of costly therapies based on enzyme supplementation and substrate reduction. Proteins selectively expressed by storage macrophages and secreted into the circulation were identified, among which glycoprotein non-metastatic protein B (GPNMB). This review focusses on the emerging potential of GPNMB as a biomarker of stressed macrophages in LSDs as well as in acquired pathologies accompanied by an excessive lysosomal substrate load in macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337583PMC
December 2018

HEPES activates a MiT/TFE-dependent lysosomal-autophagic gene network in cultured cells: A call for caution.

Autophagy 2018 17;14(3):437-449. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

a Department of Medical Biochemistry , University of Amsterdam , Academic Medical Centre , The Netherlands.

In recent years, the lysosome has emerged as a highly dynamic, transcriptionally regulated organelle that is integral to nutrient-sensing and metabolic rewiring. This is coordinated by a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling nexus in which MTORC1 controls the subcellular distribution of the microphthalmia-transcription factor E (MiT/TFE) family of "master lysosomal regulators". Yet, despite the importance of the lysosome in cellular metabolism, the impact of traditional in vitro culture media on lysosomal dynamics and/or MiT/TFE localization has not been fully appreciated. Here, we identify HEPES, a chemical buffering agent that is broadly applied in cell culture, as a potent inducer of lysosome biogenesis. Supplementation of HEPES to cell growth media is sufficient to decouple the MiT/TFE family members-TFEB, TFE3 and MITF-from regulatory mechanisms that control their cytosolic retention. Increased MiT/TFE nuclear import in turn drives the expression of a global network of lysosomal-autophagic and innate host-immune response genes, altering lysosomal dynamics, proteolytic capacity, autophagic flux, and inflammatory signaling. In addition, siRNA-mediated MiT/TFE knockdown effectively blunted HEPES-induced lysosome biogenesis and gene expression profiles. Mechanistically, we show that MiT/TFE activation in response to HEPES requires its macropinocytic ingestion and aberrant lysosomal storage/pH, but is independent of MTORC1 signaling. Altogether, our data underscore the cautionary use of chemical buffering agents in cell culture media due to their potentially confounding effects on experimental results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2017.1419118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915011PMC
March 2019

Induction of Sphk1 activity in obese adipose tissue macrophages promotes survival.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(7):e0182075. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

During obesity, adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are increased in concert with local inflammation and insulin resistance. Since the levels of sphingolipid (SLs) in adipose tissue (AT) are altered during obesity we investigated the potential impact of SLs on ATMs. For this, we first analyzed expression of SL metabolizing genes in ATMs isolated from obese mice. A marked induction of sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression was observed in obese ATM when compared to lean ATM. This induction was observed in both MGL-ve (M1) and MGL1+ve (M2) macrophages from obese WAT. Next, RAW264.7 cells were exposed to excessive palmitate, resulting in a similar induction of Sphk1. This Sphk1 induction was also observed when cells were treated with chloroquine, a lysosomotropic amine impacting lysosome function. Simultaneous incubation of RAW cells with palmitate and the Sphk1 inhibitor SK1-I promoted cell death, suggesting a protective role of Sphk1 during lipotoxic conditions. Interestingly, a reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes was detected in obese ATM and was found to be associated with elevated Sphk1 expression. Altogether, our data suggest that lipid overload in ATM induces Sphk1, which promotes cell viability.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0182075PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5533446PMC
October 2017

Activity-based probes for functional interrogation of retaining β-glucuronidases.

Nat Chem Biol 2017 Aug 5;13(8):867-873. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

York Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York, UK.

Humans express at least two distinct β-glucuronidase enzymes that are involved in disease: exo-acting β-glucuronidase (GUSB), whose deficiency gives rise to mucopolysaccharidosis type VII, and endo-acting heparanase (HPSE), whose overexpression is implicated in inflammation and cancers. The medical importance of these enzymes necessitates reliable methods to assay their activities in tissues. Herein, we present a set of β-glucuronidase-specific activity-based probes (ABPs) that allow rapid and quantitative visualization of GUSB and HPSE in biological samples, providing a powerful tool for dissecting their activities in normal and disease states. Unexpectedly, we find that the supposedly inactive HPSE proenzyme proHPSE is also labeled by our ABPs, leading to surprising insights regarding structural relationships between proHPSE, mature HPSE, and their bacterial homologs. Our results demonstrate the application of β-glucuronidase ABPs in tracking pathologically relevant enzymes and provide a case study of how ABP-driven approaches can lead to discovery of unanticipated structural and biochemical functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.2395DOI Listing
August 2017

Elevation of glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B in type 1 Gaucher disease patients and mouse models.

FEBS Open Bio 2016 09 30;6(9):902-13. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Biochemistry Academic Medical Center Amsterdam The Netherlands; Department of Medical Biochemistry Leiden Institute of Chemistry Leiden University The Netherlands.

Gaucher disease is caused by inherited deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase. Proteome analysis of laser-dissected splenic Gaucher cells revealed increased amounts of glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (gpNMB). Plasma gpNMB was also elevated, correlating with chitotriosidase and CCL18, which are established markers for human Gaucher cells. In Gaucher mice, gpNMB is also produced by Gaucher cells. Correction of glucocerebrosidase deficiency in mice by gene transfer or pharmacological substrate reduction reverses gpNMB abnormalities. In conclusion, gpNMB acts as a marker for glucosylceramide-laden macrophages in man and mouse and gpNMB should be considered as candidate biomarker for Gaucher disease in treatment monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5011488PMC
September 2016

A PPARγ-Bnip3 Axis Couples Adipose Mitochondrial Fusion-Fission Balance to Systemic Insulin Sensitivity.

Diabetes 2016 09 20;65(9):2591-605. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Aberrant mitochondrial fission plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, fusion-fission dynamics are physiologically regulated by inherent tissue-specific and nutrient-sensitive processes that may have distinct or even opposing effects with respect to insulin sensitivity. Based on a combination of mouse population genetics and functional in vitro assays, we describe here a regulatory circuit in which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the adipocyte master regulator and receptor for the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs, controls mitochondrial network fragmentation through transcriptional induction of Bnip3. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Bnip3 in cultured adipocytes shifts the balance toward mitochondrial elongation, leading to compromised respiratory capacity, heightened fatty acid β-oxidation-associated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, insulin resistance, and reduced triacylglycerol storage. Notably, the selective fission/Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 mimics the effects of Bnip3 knockdown on adipose mitochondrial bioenergetics and glucose disposal. We further show that Bnip3 is reciprocally regulated in white and brown fat depots of diet-induced obesity and leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse models. Finally, Bnip3(-/-) mice trade reduced adiposity for increased liver steatosis and develop aggravated systemic insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. Together, our data outline Bnip3 as a key effector of PPARγ-mediated adipose mitochondrial network fragmentation, improving insulin sensitivity and limiting oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db16-0243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5001173PMC
September 2016

Accurate quantification of sphingosine-1-phosphate in normal and Fabry disease plasma, cells and tissues by LC-MS/MS with (13)C-encoded natural S1P as internal standard.

Clin Chim Acta 2016 Aug 21;459:36-44. Epub 2016 May 21.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

We developed a mass spectrometric procedure to quantify sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in biological materials. The use of newly synthesized (13)C5 C18-S1P and commercial C17-S1P as internal standards rendered very similar results with respect to linearity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation. Caution is warranted with determination of plasma S1P levels. Earlier it was reported that S1P is elevated in plasma of Fabry disease patients. We investigated this with the improved quantification. No clear conclusion could be drawn for patient plasma samples given the lack of uniformity of blood collection and plasma preparation. To still obtain insight, plasma and tissues were identically collected from α-galactosidase A deficient Fabry mice and matched control animals. No significant difference was observed in plasma S1P levels. A significant 2.3 fold increase was observed in kidney of Fabry mice, but not in liver and heart. Comparative analysis of S1P in cultured fibroblasts from normal subjects and classically affected Fabry disease males revealed no significant difference. In conclusion, accurate quantification of S1P in biological materials is feasible by mass spectrometry using the internal standards (13)C5 C18-S1P or C17-S1P. Significant local increases of S1P in the kidney might occur in Fabry disease as suggested by the mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2016.05.017DOI Listing
August 2016

Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

PLoS One 2016 15;11(1):e0147208. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Impaired function of NPC1 or NPC2 lysosomal proteins leads to the intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, the primary defect underlying Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. In addition, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) accumulate in lysosomes as well. Intralysosomal lipid accumulation triggers the activation of a set of genes, including potential biomarkers. Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model. We speculated that Gpnmb could serve as a marker for visceral lipid accumulation in NPC disease. We report that Gpnmb expression is increased at protein level in macrophages in the viscera of Npc1nih/nih mice. Interestingly, soluble Gpnmb was also found to be increased in murine and NPC patient plasma. Exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to the NPC-phenotype-inducing drug U18666A also upregulated Gpnmb expression. Inhibition of GSL synthesis with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin prevented U18666A-induced Gpnmb induction and secretion. In summary, we show that Gpnmb is upregulated in NPC mice and patients, most likely due to GSL accumulation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147208PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4714856PMC
July 2016

Glucosylated cholesterol in mammalian cells and tissues: formation and degradation by multiple cellular β-glucosidases.

J Lipid Res 2016 Mar 2;57(3):451-63. Epub 2016 Jan 2.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Departments of Medical Biochemistry Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands

The membrane lipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is continuously formed and degraded. Cells express two GlcCer-degrading β-glucosidases, glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and GBA2, located in and outside the lysosome, respectively. Here we demonstrate that through transglucosylation both GBA and GBA2 are able to catalyze in vitro the transfer of glucosyl-moieties from GlcCer to cholesterol, and vice versa. Furthermore, the natural occurrence of 1-O-cholesteryl-β-D-glucopyranoside (GlcChol) in mouse tissues and human plasma is demonstrated using LC-MS/MS and (13)C6-labeled GlcChol as internal standard. In cells, the inhibition of GBA increases GlcChol, whereas inhibition of GBA2 decreases glucosylated sterol. Similarly, in GBA2-deficient mice, GlcChol is reduced. Depletion of GlcCer by inhibition of GlcCer synthase decreases GlcChol in cells and likewise in plasma of inhibitor-treated Gaucher disease patients. In tissues of mice with Niemann-Pick type C disease, a condition characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol, marked elevations in GlcChol occur as well. When lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol is induced in cultured cells, GlcChol is formed via lysosomal GBA. This illustrates that reversible transglucosylation reactions are highly dependent on local availability of suitable acceptors. In conclusion, mammalian tissues contain GlcChol formed by transglucosylation through β-glucosidases using GlcCer as donor. Our findings reveal a novel metabolic function for GlcCer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M064923DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4766994PMC
March 2016

Visualization of Active Glucocerebrosidase in Rodent Brain with High Spatial Resolution following In Situ Labeling with Fluorescent Activity Based Probes.

PLoS One 2015 29;10(9):e0138107. Epub 2015 Sep 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Leiden Insitute of Chemistry, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Gaucher disease is characterized by lysosomal accumulation of glucosylceramide due to deficient activity of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA). In cells, glucosylceramide is also degraded outside lysosomes by the enzyme glucosylceramidase 2 (GBA2) of which inherited deficiency is associated with ataxias. The interest in GBA and glucosylceramide metabolism in the brain has grown following the notion that mutations in the GBA gene impose a risk factor for motor disorders such as α-synucleinopathies. We earlier developed a β-glucopyranosyl-configured cyclophellitol-epoxide type activity based probe (ABP) allowing in vivo and in vitro visualization of active molecules of GBA with high spatial resolution. Labeling occurs through covalent linkage of the ABP to the catalytic nucleophile residue in the enzyme pocket. Here, we describe a method to visualize active GBA molecules in rat brain slices using in vivo labeling. Brain areas related to motor control, like the basal ganglia and motor related structures in the brainstem, show a high content of active GBA. We also developed a β-glucopyranosyl cyclophellitol-aziridine ABP allowing in situ labeling of GBA2. Labeled GBA2 in brain areas can be identified and quantified upon gel electrophoresis. The distribution of active GBA2 markedly differs from that of GBA, being highest in the cerebellar cortex. The histological findings with ABP labeling were confirmed by biochemical analysis of isolated brain areas. In conclusion, ABPs offer sensitive tools to visualize active GBA and to study the distribution of GBA2 in the brain and thus may find application to establish the role of these enzymes in neurodegenerative disease conditions such as α-synucleinopathies and cerebellar ataxia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0138107PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587854PMC
June 2016

LIM-only protein FHL2 regulates experimental pulmonary Schistosoma mansoni egg granuloma formation.

Eur J Immunol 2015 Nov 13;45(11):3098-106. Epub 2015 Sep 13.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

LIM-only protein FHL2 is associated with several immune and inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, influenza A virus infection, and lung inflammation. However, the role of FHL2 in macrophage differentiation and in the development of granuloma formation is unknown. Here, we show that expression of FHL2 is induced in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs) following stimulation with M2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-10. FHL2-knockout (FHL2-KO) BMMs exhibit a proinflammatory M1 phenotype after LPS treatment and display a reduced anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype following IL-4 treatment. Furthermore, thioglycollate-induced migration of macrophages and B cells is enhanced in FHL2-KO mice. To evaluate the importance of FHL2 in the development of pulmonary granuloma formation, FHL2-KO mice were challenged with Schistosoma mansoni eggs. FHL2-KO mice show an enhanced number of granulomas and display decreased expression of Th2 markers and an exacerbated Th1 type of inflammation, characterized by enhanced expression of neutrophil markers and Th1 cytokines. Furthermore, the expression of barrier proteins is reduced in FHL2-KO lung compared to WT. Collectively, these data identify a previously unrecognized role for FHL2 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary granulomatous inflammation, partly through its effect on macrophage polarization, modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance and regulation of permeability in lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201545627DOI Listing
November 2015

The calcium-binding protein complex S100A8/A9 has a crucial role in controlling macrophage-mediated renal repair following ischemia/reperfusion.

Kidney Int 2015 Jan 18;87(1):85-94. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Upon ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury, several damage-associated molecular patterns are expressed including the calcium-binding protein S100A8/A9 complex. S100A8/A9 can be recognized by Toll-like receptor-4 and its activation is known to deleteriously contribute to renal I/R-induced injury. To further test this, wild-type and S100A9 knockout mice (deficient for S100A8/A9 complex) were subjected to renal I/R. The expression of S100A8/A9 was significantly increased 1 day after I/R and was co-localized with Ly6G (mouse neutrophil marker)-positive cells. These knockout mice displayed similar renal dysfunction and damage and neutrophil influx compared with wild-type mice at this early time point. Interestingly, S100A9 knockout mice displayed altered tissue repair 5 and 10 days post I/R, as reflected by increased renal damage, sustained inflammation, induction of fibrosis, and increased expression of collagens. This coincided with enhanced expression of alternatively activated macrophage (M2) markers, while the expression of classically activated macrophage (M1) markers was comparable. Similarly, S100A9 deficiency affected M2, but not M1 macrophage polarization in vitro. During the repair phase following acute kidney injury, S100A9 deficiency affects M2 macrophages in mice leading to renal fibrosis and damage. Thus, S100A8/A9 plays a crucial part in controlling macrophage-mediated renal repair following I/R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2014.216DOI Listing
January 2015

Lysosomal stress in obese adipose tissue macrophages contributes to MITF-dependent Gpnmb induction.

Diabetes 2014 Oct 1;63(10):3310-23. Epub 2014 May 1.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) contains crown-like structures where macrophages surround nonviable adipocytes. To understand how AT macrophages (ATMs) contribute to development of insulin resistance, we examined their character in more detail. In silico analysis of F2 mouse populations revealed significant correlation between adipose glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (Gpnmb) expression and body weight. In obese mice and obese individuals, Gpnmb expression was induced in ATMs. Cultured RAW264.7 cells were used to obtain insight into the mechanism of Gpnmb regulation. Gpnmb was potently induced by lysosomal stress inducers, including palmitate and chloroquine, or Torin1, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). These stimuli also provoked microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) translocation to the nucleus, and knockdown of MITF by short hairpin RNA indicated its absolute requirement for Gpnmb induction. In agreement with our in vitro data, reduced mTORC1 activity was observed in isolated ATMs from obese mice, which coincided with increased nuclear MITF localization and Gpnmb transcription. Aberrant nutrient sensing provokes lysosomal stress, resulting in attenuated mTORC1 activity and enhanced MITF-dependent Gpnmb induction. Our data identify Gpnmb as a novel marker for obesity-induced ATM infiltration and potentiator of interleukin-4 responses and point toward a crucial role for MITF in driving part of the ATM phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1720DOI Listing
October 2014

Obesity activates a program of lysosomal-dependent lipid metabolism in adipose tissue macrophages independently of classic activation.

Cell Metab 2013 Dec;18(6):816-30

Department of Medicine, Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 07043, USA.

Obesity activates a complex systemic immune response that includes the recruitment of macrophages and other immune cells to key metabolic tissues. Current models postulate that obesity and excess lipids classically activate macrophages, polarizing them toward an M1 (inflammatory) state. Little is known about noninflammatory functions of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Here, we show that the expansion of adipose tissue (AT) across models of obesity induces a program of lysosome biogenesis in ATMs and is associated with lipid catabolism but not a classic inflammatory phenotype. This program is induced by factors produced by AT and is tightly coupled to lipid accumulation by ATMs. Inhibition of ATM lysosome function impairs lipid metabolism and increases lipid content in ATMs and reduces whole AT lipolysis. These data argue that ATMs contribute quantitatively to the development of obesity-induced inflammation but also serve an important role in lipid trafficking independent of their inflammatory phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2013.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939841PMC
December 2013

Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome: diagnostic applications of activity-based probes and lipid analysis.

J Lipid Res 2014 Jan 8;55(1):138-45. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Lysosome and Peroxisome Biology Unit (UniLiPe), Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IBMC), University of Oporto, Oporto, Portugal.

Lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 (LIMP2) mediates trafficking of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) to lysosomes. Deficiency of LIMP2 causes action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF). LIMP2-deficient fibroblasts virtually lack GBA like the cells of patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GBA gene. While GD is characterized by the presence of glucosylceramide-laden macrophages, AMRF patients do not show these. We studied the fate of GBA in relation to LIMP2 deficiency by employing recently designed activity-based probes labeling active GBA molecules. We demonstrate that GBA is almost absent in lysosomes of AMRF fibroblasts. However, white blood cells contain considerable amounts of residual enzyme. Consequently, AMRF patients do not acquire lipid-laden macrophages and do not show increased plasma levels of macrophage markers, such as chitotriosidase, in contrast to GD patients. We next investigated the consequences of LIMP2 deficiency with respect to plasma glycosphingolipid levels. Plasma glucosylceramide concentration was normal in the AMRF patients investigated as well as in LIMP2-deficient mice. However, a marked increase in the sphingoid base, glucosylsphingosine, was observed in AMRF patients and LIMP2-deficient mice. Our results suggest that combined measurements of chitotriosidase and glucosylsphingosine can be used for convenient differential laboratory diagnosis of GD and AMRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M043802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3927471PMC
January 2014

Microglia in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis are alerted but immunosuppressed.

Glia 2013 Nov 6;61(11):1848-61. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

Neuroimmunology Group, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, An Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Little is known about the functional phenotype of microglia in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS), although it may hold valuable clues about mechanisms for lesion development. Therefore, we studied microglia from NAWM obtained post-mortem from controls (n = 25) and MS patients (n = 21) for their phenotype ex vivo and their immune responsiveness in vitro, using a microglia isolation method that omits culture and adherence. By flow cytometry, microglia in MS NAWM displayed elevated CD45 levels and increased size and granularity but were distinct from autologous choroid plexus macrophages by absent or low expression of additional markers, in particular CD206. Flow cytometric analysis of microglia from NAWM of three controls and four MS patients showed alterations in levels of Fc-gamma receptors in MS. In primary microglia from a bigger sample of subjects, analysis of Fc-gamma receptors by quantitative PCR indicated a significant increase in mRNA levels of the inhibitory CD32b isoform in MS NAWM. Despite their changed activation status, microglia from MS NAWM were unresponsive to lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Notably, culture with dexamethasone led to an impaired induction of the inflammation-limiting cytokine CCL18 in microglia from MS NAWM compared with those from control NAWM. Together, these data demonstrate that microglia in MS NAWM are in an alerted state, but display features of immunosuppression. Thus, the activation status of microglia in NAWM of MS patients likely reflects a response to ongoing neuroinflammation, which coincides with upregulation of immunoregulatory molecules to prevent full activation and damage to the vulnerable milieu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.22562DOI Listing
November 2013

Correction of liver steatosis by a hydrophobic iminosugar modulating glycosphingolipids metabolism.

PLoS One 2012 8;7(10):e38520. Epub 2012 Oct 8.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The iminosugar N-(5'-adamantane-1'-yl-methoxy)-pentyl-1-deoxynoijirimycin (AMP-DNM), an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid (GSL) biosynthesis is known to ameliorate diabetes, insulin sensitivity and to prevent liver steatosis in ob/ob mice. Thus far the effect of GSL synthesis inhibition on pre-existing NASH has not yet been assessed. To investigate it, LDLR(-/-) mice were kept on a western-type diet for 12 weeks to induce NASH. Next, the diet was continued for 6 weeks in presence or not of AMP-DNM in the diet. AMP-DNM treated mice showed less liver steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Induction of fatty acid beta-oxydation was observed, as well as a reduction of plasma lipids. Our study demonstrates that AMP-DNM treatment is able to significantly correct pre-existing NASH, suggesting that inhibiting GSL synthesis may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of this pathology.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0038520PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466229PMC
April 2013

Phenotyping primary human microglia: tight regulation of LPS responsiveness.

Glia 2012 Oct 27;60(10):1506-17. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

Department of Neuroimmunology, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105 BA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Much is still unknown about mechanisms underlying the phenotypical and functional versatility of human microglia. Therefore, we developed a rapid procedure to isolate pure microglia from postmortem human brain tissue and studied their immediate ex vivo phenotype and responses to key inflammatory mediators. Microglia were isolated, along with macrophages from the choroid plexus by tissue dissociation, density gradient separation, and selection with magnetic microbeads. By flow cytometry, microglia were identified by a CD11b(+) CD45(dim) phenotype and a smaller size compared with CD11b(+) CD45(high) macrophages. Interestingly, white matter microglia from donors with peripheral inflammation displayed elevated CD45 levels and increased size and granularity, but were still distinct from macrophages. The phenotype of isolated microglia was further specified by absent surface expression of CD14, CD200 receptor, and mannose receptor (MR, CD206), all of which were markedly expressed by macrophages. Microglia stimulated immediately after isolation with LPS and IFNγ failed to upregulate TNFα or CCR7. Notably, responsiveness to LPS and IFNγ was clearly instigated in microglia after overnight preculture, which coincided with a strong upregulation of CD14. Culture of microglia with IL-4 resulted in the induction of HLA-DR and CCL18 but not MR, whereas culture with dexamethasone did induce MR, in addition to CD163 and CCL18. In conclusion, this study demonstrates phenotypic changes of microglia associated with peripheral inflammation, and reveals tight regulation of responses to LPS and IFNγ as well as distinct microglial responses to IL-4 and glucocorticoids. These findings are of high relevance to studies on human microglia functioning in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.22370DOI Listing
October 2012

Inflammation aggravates disease severity in Marfan syndrome patients.

PLoS One 2012 30;7(3):e32963. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a pleiotropic genetic disorder with major features in cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal systems, associated with large clinical variability. Numerous studies reveal an involvement of TGF-β signaling. However, the contribution of tissue inflammation is not addressed so far.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here we showed that both TGF-β and inflammation are up-regulated in patients with MFS. We analyzed transcriptome-wide gene expression in 55 MFS patients using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array and levels of TGF-β and various cytokines in their plasma. Within our MFS population, increased plasma levels of TGF-β were found especially in MFS patients with aortic root dilatation (124 pg/ml), when compared to MFS patients with normal aorta (10 pg/ml; p = 8×10(-6), 95% CI: 70-159 pg/ml). Interestingly, our microarray data show that increased expression of inflammatory genes was associated with major clinical features within the MFS patients group; namely severity of the aortic root dilatation (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DRB5 genes; r = 0.56 for both; False Discovery Rate(FDR) = 0%), ocular lens dislocation (RAET1L, CCL19 and HLA-DQB2; Fold Change (FC) = 1.8; 1.4; 1.5, FDR = 0%) and specific skeletal features (HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB5, GZMK; FC = 8.8, 7.1, 1.3; FDR = 0%). Patients with progressive aortic disease had higher levels of Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) in blood. When comparing MFS aortic root vessel wall with non-MFS aortic root, increased numbers of CD4+ T-cells were found in the media (p = 0.02) and increased number of CD8+ T-cells (p = 0.003) in the adventitia of the MFS patients.

Conclusion/significance: In conclusion, our results imply a modifying role of inflammation in MFS. Inflammation might be a novel therapeutic target in these patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0032963PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316543PMC
August 2012

Glycosphingolipids and insulin resistance.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2011 ;721:99-119

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Glycosphingolipids are structural membrane components, residing largely in the plasma membrane with their sugar-moieties exposed at the cell's surface. In recent times a crucial role for glycosphingolipids in insulin resistance has been proposed. A chronic state of insulin resistance is a rapidly increasing disease condition in Western and developing countries. It is considered to be the major underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, a combination of metabolic abnormalities that increases the risk for an individual to develop Type 2 diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, polycystic ovary syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. As discussed in this chapter, the evidence for a direct regulatory interaction of glycosphingolipids with insulin signaling is still largely indirect. However, the recent finding in animal models that pharmacological reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis ameliorates insulin resistance and prevents some manifestations of metabolic syndrome, supports the view that somehow glycosphingolipids act as critical regulators, Importantly, since reductions in glycosphingolipid biosynthesis have been found to be well tolerated, such approaches may have a therapeutic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0650-1_7DOI Listing
December 2011

The prolactin receptor is expressed in macrophages within human carotid atherosclerotic plaques: a role for prolactin in atherogenesis?

J Endocrinol 2011 Feb 10;208(2):107-17. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Atherosclerotic vascular disease is the consequence of a chronic inflammatory process, and prolactin has been shown to be a component of the inflammatory response. Additionally, recent studies indicate that prolactin contributes to an atherogenic phenotype. We hypothesized that this may be the result of a direct effect of prolactin on atherogenesis through activation of the prolactin receptor. Human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were obtained from patients by endarteriectomies. The mRNA of prolactin receptor, but not of prolactin, was detected in these atherosclerotic plaques by quantitative real-time PCR. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of the prolactin receptor in mononuclear cells. Analysis at the protein level using immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the prolactin receptor was abundantly present in macrophages near the lipid core and shoulder regions of the plaques. Our findings demonstrate that the prolactin receptor is present in macrophages of the atherosclerotic plaque at sites of most prominent inflammation. We therefore propose that prolactin receptor signaling contributes to the local inflammatory response within the atherosclerotic plaque and thus to atherogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/JOE-10-0076DOI Listing
February 2011

Curdlan-mediated regulation of human phagocyte-specific chitotriosidase.

FEBS Lett 2010 Jul 10;584(14):3165-9. Epub 2010 Jun 10.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Human phagocyte-specific chitotriosidase is part of innate immunity and shows anti-fungal activity towards chitin-containing fungi. We investigated the effect of stimulation of the C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 by beta-1,3-glucan (curdlan) on chitotriosidase expression and release by human phagocytes. We observed that curdlan triggers chitotriosidase release from human neutrophils. In addition, we show that curdlan impairs chitotriosidase induction in monocytes. Finally, curdlan temporarily induces chitotriosidase in enzyme-expressing monocyte-derived macrophages, followed by reduction of chitotriosidase expression after prolonged stimulation. These data on regulation of phagocyte-specific chitotriosidase following curdlan recognition support an important role of chitotriosidase in the elimination of chitin-containing pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2010.06.001DOI Listing
July 2010

6-mercaptopurine inhibits atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein e*3-leiden transgenic mice through atheroprotective actions on monocytes and macrophages.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2010 Aug 22;30(8):1591-7. Epub 2010 Apr 22.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP), the active metabolite of the immunosuppressive prodrug azathioprine, is commonly used in autoimmune diseases and transplant recipients, who are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Here, we aimed to gain knowledge on the action of 6-MP in atherosclerosis, with a focus on monocytes and macrophages.

Methods And Results: We demonstrate that 6-MP induces apoptosis of THP-1 monocytes, involving decreased expression of the intrinsic antiapoptotic factors B-cell CLL/Lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl2-like 1 (Bcl-x(L)). In addition, we show that 6-MP decreases expression of the monocyte adhesion molecules platelet endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) and inhibits monocyte adhesion. Screening of a panel of cytokines relevant to atherosclerosis revealed that 6-MP robustly inhibits monocyte chemoattractant chemokine-1 (MCP-1) expression in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, local delivery of 6-MP to the vessel wall, using a drug-eluting cuff, attenuates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice (P<0.05). In line with our in vitro data, this inhibition of atherosclerosis by 6-MP was accompanied with decreased lesion monocyte chemoattractant chemokine-1 levels, enhanced vascular apoptosis, and reduced macrophage content.

Conclusions: We report novel, previously unrecognized atheroprotective actions of 6-MP in cultured monocytes/macrophages and in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, providing further insight into the effect of the immunosuppressive drug azathioprine in atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.205674DOI Listing
August 2010

Expression of the inhibitory CD200 receptor is associated with alternative macrophage activation.

J Innate Immun 2010 22;2(2):195-200. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

Department of Neuroimmunology, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy for Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Classical macrophage activation is inhibited by the CD200 receptor (CD200R). Here, we show that CD200R expression was specifically induced on human in vitro polarized macrophages of the alternatively activated M2a subtype, generated by incubation with IL-4 or IL-13. In mice, peritoneal M2 macrophages, elicited during infection with the parasites Taenia crassiceps or Trypanosoma brucei brucei, expressed increased CD200R levels compared to those derived from uninfected mice. However, in vitrostimulation of mouse peritoneal macrophages and T. crassiceps infection in IL-4-/- and IL-4R-/- mice showed that, in contrast to humans, induction of CD200R in mice was not IL-4 or IL-13 dependent. Our data identify CD200R as a suitable marker for alternatively activated macrophages in humans and corroborate observations of distinct species- and/or site-specific mechanisms regulating macrophage polarization in mouse and man.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000252803DOI Listing
July 2010

Differential expression of the EGF-TM7 family members CD97 and EMR2 in lipid-laden macrophages in atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Gaucher disease.

Immunol Lett 2010 Apr 16;129(2):64-71. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-transmembrane (TM)7 family of adhesion class G-protein coupled receptors are abundantly expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage. A detailed investigation of their expression by functional subsets of activated macrophages is still lacking. Therefore, we determined the expression of CD97, EGF module-containing mucin-like receptor (EMR)2 and EMR3 by monocyte-derived macrophages experimentally polarized in vitro. This was compared to three types of disease-associated lipid-laden macrophages displaying an alternatively activated phenotype in situ. Polarization in vitro towards classically activated M1 versus alternatively activated M2 extremes of macrophage activation did not result in a congruent regulation of EGF-TM7 receptor mRNA and protein except for a down-regulation of CD97 by IL-10. In contrast, macrophages handling lipid overload in vivo displayed differences in the expression of CD97 and EMR2. While foamy macrophages in atherosclerotic vessels expressed both CD97 and EMR2, foam cells in multiple sclerosis brain expressed CD97, but only little EMR2. Foam cell formation in vitro by oxidized LDL and myelin did not affect CD97 or EMR2 expression. Gaucher spleen cells accumulating glucosylceramide expressed very high levels of CD97 and EMR2. These findings indicate that complex cellular expression programmes rather than activation modes regulate the expression of EGF-TM7 receptors in macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2010.02.004DOI Listing
April 2010

Dual-action lipophilic iminosugar improves glycemic control in obese rodents by reduction of visceral glycosphingolipids and buffering of carbohydrate assimilation.

J Med Chem 2010 Jan;53(2):689-98

Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The lipophilic iminosugar N-[5-(adamantan-1-ylmethoxy)pentyl]-1-deoxynojirimycin (2, AMP-DNM) potently controls hyperglycemia in obese rodent models of insulin resistance. The reduction of visceral glycosphingolipids by 2 is thought to underlie its beneficial action. It cannot, however, be excluded that concomitant inhibition of intestinal glycosidases and associated buffering of carbohydrate assimilation add to this. To firmly establish the mode of action of 2, we developed a panel of lipophilic iminosugars varying in configuration at C-4/C-5 and N-substitution of the iminosugar. From these we identified the l-ido derivative of 2, l-ido-AMP-DNM (4), as a selective inhibitor of glycosphingolipid synthesis. Compound 4 lowered visceral glycosphingolipids in ob/ob mice and ZDF rats on a par with 2. In contrast to 2, 4 did not inhibit sucrase activity or sucrose assimilation. Treatment with 4 was significantly less effective in reducing blood glucose and HbA1c. We conclude that the combination of reduction of glycosphingolipids in tissue and buffering of carbohydrate assimilation by 2 produces a superior glucose homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm901281mDOI Listing
January 2010