Publications by authors named "Marco Wietzoreck"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Modeling the Formation, Degradation, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of 2-Nitrofluoranthene and 2-Nitropyrene in the Global Atmosphere.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 11 28;54(22):14224-14234. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common atmospheric pollutants and known to cause adverse health effects. Nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) are formed in combustion activities and by nitration of PAHs in the atmosphere and may be equally or more toxic, but their spatial and temporal distribution in the atmosphere is not well characterized. Using the global EMAC model with atmospheric chemistry and surface compartments coupled, we investigate the formation, abundance, and fate of two secondarily formed NPAHs, 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFLT) and 2-nitropyrene (2-NPYR). The default reactivity scenario, the model with the simplest interpretation of parameters from the literature, tends to overestimate both absolute concentrations and NPAH/PAH ratios at observational sites. Sensitivity scenarios indicate that NO-dependent NPAH formation leads to better agreement between measured and predicted NPAH concentrations and that photodegradation is the most important loss process of 2-NFLT and 2-NPYR. The highest concentrations of 2-NFLT and 2-NPYR are found in regions with strong PAH emissions, but because of continued secondary formation from the PAH precursors, these two NPAHs are predicted to be spread across the globe.
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November 2020

Toxic potentials of particulate and gaseous air pollutant mixtures and the role of PAHs and their derivatives.

Environ Int 2020 06 20;139:105634. Epub 2020 May 20.

RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Background: Air pollution, which represents a major environmental risk to human health, comprises a complex mixture of compounds where only little is known about its specific toxicities.

Objectives: This study examined the specific toxicities associated with ambient air pollutant mixtures with respect to gas/particle partitioning, particulate matter (PM) size, pollutant polarity and bioaccessibility from PM, and evaluated the contribution of PAHs and their oxygenated and nitrated derivatives (OPAHs, NPAHs).

Methods: Air samples (gas phase, PM and size-segregated PM), were collected at urban (in winter and summer) and background (winter) sites in the Czech Republic. The total and bioaccessible concentrations were addressed using organic solvent extraction and simulated lung fluid extraction, respectively. Organic extracts were also further fractionated according to polarity. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity, anti-/estrogenicity, anti-/androgenicity, thyroid receptor (TR)-mediated activity and cytotoxicity for bronchial cells were determined by human cell-based in vitro bioassays. The contribution of studied compounds to observed effects was assessed by both modelling and reconstructing the mixtures.

Results: Significant effects were detected in the sub-micrometre size fraction of PM (estrogenicity, androgenicity, TR- and AhR-mediated activities) and in the gas phase (TR-mediated activity, antiandrogenicity). Compounds interacting with TR showed high bioaccessibility to simulated lung fluid. Relatively lower bioaccessibility was observed for estrogenicity and AhR-mediated activity. However, the toxicity testing of reconstructed mixtures revealed that the targeted pollutants are not the main contributors, except for urban PM air pollution in winter, where they accounted for 5-88% of several effects detected in the original complex environmental samples.

Discussion: Studied toxicities were mostly driven by polar compounds largely attributed to the easily inhalable PM, which is of high relevance for human health risk assessment. Except of parent PAHs in some cases, the targeted compounds contributed to the detected effects mostly to a relatively low extent implying huge data gaps in terms of endocrine disruptive potencies of targeted substances and the significance of other polar compounds present in ambient air.
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June 2020

Oxygenated and Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air-Levels, Phase Partitioning, Mass Size Distributions, and Inhalation Bioaccessibility.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 03 11;54(5):2615-2625. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Multiphase Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz 55128, Germany.

Among the nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs) are some of the most hazardous substances to public health, mainly because of their carcinogenicity and oxidative potential. Despite these concerns, the concentrations and fate of NPAHs and OPAHs in the atmospheric environment are largely unknown. Ambient air concentrations of 18 NPAHs, 5 quinones, and 5 other OPAHs were determined at two urban and one regional background sites in central Europe. At one of the urban sites, the total (gas and particulate) concentrations of ΣOPAHs were 10.0 ± 9.2 ng/m in winter and 3.5 ± 1.6 ng/m in summer. The gradient to the regional background site exceeded 1 order of magnitude. ΣNPAH concentrations were typically 1 order of magnitude lower than OPAHs. Among OPAHs, 9-fluorenone and (9,10)-anthraquinone were the most abundant species, accompanied by benzanthrone in winter. (9,10)-Anthraquinone represented two-thirds of quinones. We found that a large fraction of the target substance particulate mass was carried by submicrometer particles. The derived inhalation bioaccessibility in the PM size fraction is found to be ≈5% of the total ambient concentration of OPAHs and up to ≈2% for NPAHs. For 9-fluorenone and (9,10)-anthraquinone, up to 86 and 18%, respectively, were found at the rural site. Our results indicate that water solubility could function as a limiting factor for bioaccessibility of inhaled particulate NPAHs and OPAHs, without considerable effect of surfactant lipids and proteins in the lung lining fluid.
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March 2020