Publications by authors named "Marco Solmi"

214 Publications

Age at onset of mental disorders worldwide: large-scale meta-analysis of 192 epidemiological studies.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Promotion of good mental health, prevention, and early intervention before/at the onset of mental disorders improve outcomes. However, the range and peak ages at onset for mental disorders are not fully established. To provide robust, global epidemiological estimates of age at onset for mental disorders, we conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review with meta-analysis of birth cohort/cross-sectional/cohort studies, representative of the general population, reporting age at onset for any ICD/DSM-mental disorders, identified in PubMed/Web of Science (up to 16/05/2020) (PROSPERO:CRD42019143015). Co-primary outcomes were the proportion of individuals with onset of mental disorders before age 14, 18, 25, and peak age at onset, for any mental disorder and across International Classification of Diseases 11 diagnostic blocks. Median age at onset of specific disorders was additionally investigated. Across 192 studies (n = 708,561) included, the proportion of individuals with onset of any mental disorders before the ages of 14, 18, 25 were 34.6%, 48.4%, 62.5%, and peak age was 14.5 years (k = 14, median = 18, interquartile range (IQR) = 11-34). For diagnostic blocks, the proportion of individuals with onset of disorder before the age of 14, 18, 25 and peak age were as follows: neurodevelopmental disorders: 61.5%, 83.2%, 95.8%, 5.5 years (k = 21, median=12, IQR = 7-16), anxiety/fear-related disorders: 38.1%, 51.8%, 73.3%, 5.5 years (k = 73, median = 17, IQR = 9-25), obsessive-compulsive/related disorders: 24.6%, 45.1%, 64.0%, 14.5 years (k = 20, median = 19, IQR = 14-29), feeding/eating disorders/problems: 15.8%, 48.1%, 82.4%, 15.5 years (k = 11, median = 18, IQR = 15-23), conditions specifically associated with stress disorders: 16.9%, 27.6%, 43.1%, 15.5 years (k = 16, median = 30, IQR = 17-48), substance use disorders/addictive behaviours: 2.9%, 15.2%, 48.8%, 19.5 years (k = 58, median = 25, IQR = 20-41), schizophrenia-spectrum disorders/primary psychotic states: 3%, 12.3%, 47.8%, 20.5 years (k = 36, median = 25, IQR = 20-34), personality disorders/related traits: 1.9%, 9.6%, 47.7%, 20.5 years (k = 6, median = 25, IQR = 20-33), and mood disorders: 2.5%, 11.5%, 34.5%, 20.5 years (k = 79, median = 31, IQR = 21-46). No significant difference emerged by sex, or definition of age of onset. Median age at onset for specific mental disorders mapped on a time continuum, from phobias/separation anxiety/autism spectrum disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/social anxiety (8-13 years) to anorexia nervosa/bulimia nervosa/obsessive-compulsive/binge eating/cannabis use disorders (17-22 years), followed by schizophrenia, personality, panic and alcohol use disorders (25-27 years), and finally post-traumatic/depressive/generalized anxiety/bipolar/acute and transient psychotic disorders (30-35 years), with overlap among groups and no significant clustering. These results inform the timing of good mental health promotion/preventive/early intervention, updating the current mental health system structured around a child/adult service schism at age 18.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01161-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Changes in Sitting Time, Screen Exposure and Physical Activity during COVID-19 Lockdown in South American Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 14;18(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK.

The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) and prolonged sedentary behavior (SB) were high before the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Measures that were taken by governments (such as home confinement) to control the spread of COVID-19 may have affected levels of PA and SB. This cross-sectional study among South American adults during the first months of COVID-19 aims to (i) compare sitting time (ST), screen exposure, moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) before and during lockdown to sociodemographic correlates and (ii) to assess the impact of lockdown on combinations of groups reporting meeting/not-meeting PA recommendations and engaging/not-engaging excessive ST (≥7 h/day). Bivariate associations, effect sizes, and multivariable linear regressions were used. Adults from Argentina ( = 575) and Chile ( = 730) completed an online survey with questions regarding demographics, lifestyle factors, and chronic diseases. Mean reductions of 42.7 and 22.0 min./day were shown in MPA and VPA, respectively; while increases of 212.4 and 164.3 min./day were observed in screen and ST, respectively. Those who met PA recommendations and spent <7 h/day of ST experienced greatest changes, reporting greater than 3 h/day higher ST and more than 1.5 h/day lower MVPA. Findings from the present study suggest that efforts to promote PA to South American adults during and after COVID-19 restrictions are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156285PMC
May 2021

Efficacy and acceptability of pharmacological, psychosocial, and brain stimulation interventions in children and adolescents with mental disorders: an umbrella review.

World Psychiatry 2021 Jun;20(2):244-275

Neurosciences Department, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Top-tier evidence on the safety/tolerability of 80 medications in children/adolescents with mental disorders has recently been reviewed in this jour-nal. To guide clinical practice, such data must be combined with evidence on efficacy and acceptability. Besides medications, psychosocial inter-ventions and brain stimulation techniques are treatment options for children/adolescents with mental disorders. For this umbrella review, we systematically searched network meta-analyses (NMAs) and meta-analyses (MAs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating 48 medications, 20 psychosocial interventions, and four brain stimulation techniques in children/adolescents with 52 different mental disorders or groups of mental disorders, reporting on 20 different efficacy/acceptability outcomes. Co-primary outcomes were disease-specific symptom reduction and all-cause discontinuation ("acceptability"). We included 14 NMAs and 90 MAs, reporting on 15 mental disorders or groups of mental disorders. Overall, 21 medications outperformed placebo regarding the co-primary outcomes, and three psychosocial interventions did so (while seven outperformed waiting list/no treatment). Based on the meta-analytic evidence, the most convincing efficacy profile emerged for amphetamines, methylphenidate and, to a smaller extent, behavioral therapy in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; aripiprazole, risperidone and several psychosocial interventions in autism; risperidone and behavioral interventions in disruptive behavior disorders; several antipsychotics in schizophrenia spectrum disorders; fluoxetine, the combination of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and interpersonal therapy in depression; aripiprazole in mania; fluoxetine and group CBT in anxiety disorders; fluoxetine/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, CBT, and behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention in obsessive-compulsive disorder; CBT in post-traumatic stress disorder; imipramine and alarm behavioral intervention in enuresis; behavioral therapy in encopresis; and family therapy in anorexia nervosa. Results from this umbrella review of interventions for mental disorders in children/adolescents provide evidence-based information for clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wps.20881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129843PMC
June 2021

Dizziness, psychological disorders, and cognitive decline.

Panminerva Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

ENT and Audiology Department, University Hospital of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy -

Introduction: Dizziness is a common disorder, particularly among the elderly population. Aim of this paper is to revise the current concepts surrounding the relationship between dizziness, psychological disorders and cognitive decline.

Evidence Acquisition: PRISMA-compliant systematic review, including observational studies in people with dizziness. Database inception, Medline/Cochrane/Embase/Web of Science/Scopus/NHS evidence, last search 30th October 2019.

Evidence Synthesis: Overall 22 studies, and 65730 participants were included. 11 studies were cross-sectional, 7 cross-sectional controlled, 2 prospective case-control, 1 retrospective case series, and 1 cohort study. The persistence of vestibular impairment (for 6 months or more) was correlated to the presence of psychological disorders affecting patient's quality of life and causing social anxiety, particularly in some conditions such as Ménière's Disease. Interestingly, vestibular loss has been also correlated to cognitive impairment, with certain vestibular dysfunctions reported to be more prevalent in cognitive impaired individuals.

Conclusions: The current literature suggests that there is an association between vestibular function, psychological disorders and cognitive functions. The findings from this review could be useful in informing on the need for a multidimensional diagnostic and rehabilitative programs for patients with dizziness. More studies could explore the role of counselling or behavioral therapy with an aim to reduce the perceived dizziness-related disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04209-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Universal and Selective Interventions to Prevent Poor Mental Health Outcomes in Young People: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun 01;29(3):196-215

From the Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London (Drs. Salazar de Pablo, De Micheli, Catalan, Verdino, Di Maggio, Radua, Provenzani, Montealegre, Signorini, and Fusar-Poli, and Mr. Oliver); Departments of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Dr. Salazar de Pablo) and of Psychosis Studies (Drs. Bonoldi and Baccaredda Boy), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid (Drs. Salazar de Pablo and Arango); National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Drs. De Micheli and Fusar-Poli); Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia (Drs. Di Maggio, Provenzani, Ruzzi, Calorio, Nosari, Di Marco, Famularo, Molteni, Filosi, Mensi, Balottin, Politi, and Fusar-Poli); Neurosciences Department, University of Padova (Dr. Solmi); Mental Health Department, Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Basurto University Hospital, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Campus de Leioa, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain (Dr. Catalan); Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, Division of Psychiatry, University of Siena (Dr. Verdino); Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona (Dr. Radua); Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Dr. Radua); Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS) Mondino Foundation, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatric Unit (Dr. Mensi); Department of Paediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Dr. Shin); Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead, NY (Dr. Correll); Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY (Dr. Correll); Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Dr. Correll); OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London (Dr. Fusar-Poli).

Background: Much is not known about the efficacy of interventions to prevent poor mental health outcomes in young people by targeting either the general population (universal prevention) or asymptomatic individuals with high risk of developing a mental disorder (selective prevention).

Methods: We conducted a PRISMA/MOOSE-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis of Web of Science to identify studies comparing post-test efficacy (effect size [ES]; Hedges' g) of universal or selective interventions for poor mental health outcomes versus control groups, in samples with mean age <35 years (PROSPERO: CRD42018102143). Measurements included random-effects models, I2 statistics, publication bias, meta-regression, sensitivity analyses, quality assessments, number needed to treat, and population impact number.

Results: 295 articles (447,206 individuals; mean age = 15.4) appraising 17 poor mental health outcomes were included. Compared to control conditions, universal and selective interventions improved (in descending magnitude order) interpersonal violence, general psychological distress, alcohol use, anxiety features, affective symptoms, other emotional and behavioral problems, consequences of alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder features, conduct problems, tobacco use, externalizing behaviors, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder features, and cannabis use, but not eating-related problems, impaired functioning, internalizing behavior, or sleep-related problems. Psychoeducation had the highest effect size for ADHD features, affective symptoms, and interpersonal violence. Psychotherapy had the highest effect size for anxiety features.

Conclusion: Universal and selective preventive interventions for young individuals are feasible and can improve poor mental health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000294DOI Listing
May 2021

Reliability and validity of physical fitness tests in people with mental disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Physiother Res Int 2021 Mar 27:e1904. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Sports Methods and Techniques, Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.

Background: Several tests are available to assess the different components of physical fitness, including cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and flexibility. However, the reliability and validity of physical fitness tests in people with mental disorders has not been meta-analyzed.

Aims: To examine the reliability, concurrent, and convergent validity of physical fitness tests in people with mental disorders.

Methods: Studies evaluating the reliability, concurrent, and convergent validity of physical fitness tests in people with mental disorders were searched from major databases until January 20, 2020. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed pooling (1) reliability: test-retest correlations at two-time points, (2) convergent validity between submaximal tests and maximal protocols, or (3) concurrent validity between two submaximal tests. Associations are presented using r values and 95% confidence intervals. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies and the Critical Appraisal Tool.

Results: A total of 11 studies (N = 504; 34% females) were included. Reliability of the fitness tests, produced r values ranging from moderate (balance test-EUROFIT; [r = 0.75 (0.60-0.85); p = 0.0001]) to very strong (explosive leg power EUROFIT; [r = 0.96 (0.93-0.97); p = 0.0001]). Convergent validity between the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and submaximal cardiorespiratory tests was moderate (0.57 [0.26-0.77]; p = 0.0001). Concurrent validity between the 2-min walk test and 6MWT (r = 0.86 [0.39-0.97]; p = 0.0004) was strong.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that physical fitness tests are reliable and valid in people with mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pri.1904DOI Listing
March 2021

The need for holistic, longitudinal and comparable, real-time assessment of the emotional, behavioral and societal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic across nations.

Psychiatriki 2021 Apr 8;32(1):15-18. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Professor of Psychiatry 2nd Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

As of the end of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to over 82 million verified infections and almost 1.8 million COVID-19-related deaths worldwide,1 resulting to an unprecedented public health response around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic, together with the applied multi-level restrictive measures, has generated a unique combination of an unpredictable and stressful biomedical and socioeconomic environment (i.e., syndemic),2 introducing real-life threat, involuntary and drastic every-day life-style changes with uncertain financial and future prospects, alongside with minimized coping and stress management possibilities.3 This combination of so many different and vital stressors may lead to acute as well as long-term, direct, indirect and even transgenerational unfavourable effects on physical and mental health and functioning, which might even represent the most precarious and still unpredictable public-health-related part of the pandemic.4 Thereby, specific population groups could be at particular risk of poor health outcomes in relation to applied public health measures.4, 5 However, not every individual will experience the same level of negative impact on health and well-being during the pandemic, as several additional national, socioeconomic, environmental, behavioural, emotional and cognitive factors can moderate individual resilience and coping.6 Pandemic-related research should, thus, assess as many multidimensional risk and protective factors as possible in a longitudinal, large-scale and multi-national manner, enabling a profound and comprehensive understanding of the complex health and societal impact of the pandemic worldwide.7 Nevertheless, to date, most research findings are cross-sectional, report on small and non- representative samples from individual countries, or on specific population groups (e.g., health care workers, students, clinical populations) and usually assess only a very restricted set of outcomes and time-points. Thereby, only few studies assess coping strategies, medical history or detailed socioeconomic, demographic and environmental data. In addition, most studies leave behind linguistic differences, being available in one or at best two different languages. Such investigations of small outcome subsets within a narrow framework preclude a broader and clear understanding of the multifaceted pandemic impact on the general population and specific subgroups. Acknowledging these gaps in the existing literature, large- scale, collaborative research prospectively collecting and monitoring a broad range of real- time, multi-dimensional health-related, societal and behavioural outcome data from countries across the globe is currently explicitly needed. The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH- FIT) envisions to fill this gap. Based on an easy-to-access webpage (www.coh-fit.com), COH- FIT is the currently largest-scale known international collaborative study of over 200 researchers around the globe, prospectively collecting the biggest set of multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary data from 150 high, middle, and low-income countries in over 30 languages and in three different age groups (adults, adolescents, children) of the general population, focusing also on relevant at-risk subgroups. Albeit being a cross-sectional anonymous survey on an individual level, it is a longitudinal study on a population level, as data are collected continuously since April 2020 and until the WHO declares the end of the pandemic. In addition to snowball recruitment, this project also collects information from nationally representative samples. Furthermore, COH-FIT is the first study of this scale investigating pandemic effects on health and functioning measures between family members, while it also specifically assesses a large list of behavioral and coping factors (e.g., screen time, social media usage, physical activity, social interaction, religious practices, etc.) on outcomes of interest. COH-FIT also monitors changes in public health restrictive measures to enhance data harmonization across nations and time, and to better investigate their impact on physical and mental health, while it also collects information on changes in healthcare systems functioning. The COH-FIT project was worldwide first initiated in Greece after the ethics committee approval of the School of Medicine of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and is officially supported by the Hellenic Psychiatric Association, European Psychiatric Association, World Association of Social Psychiatry, ECNP Network on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion, among many other national and international scientific associations. To date, COH-FIT has already collected >115,000 participations worldwide (>8,000 in Greece), but more participants are still needed, both during the second and third wave of the pandemic, as in the future, after the pandemic has ended. Currently, the COH-FIT survey actively collects the largest sample on multifactorial data on the impact of the COVD-19 pandemic on health and functioning not only in Greece, but around the globe. The elaborated design of COH-FIT and similar studies may allow a better identification of key parameters and population groups at increased risk during the pandemic, as well as potential targets for acute and long-term prevention or intervention strategies in the current as in possible future pandemics. A profound understanding of the health and societal impact of the pandemic could facilitate an optimized governmental, social and individual health preparedness during infection times8 and the bridging of individuals', societal and systemic needs and actions through multi-level guideline development with the aim to improve mental health outcomes globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22365/jpsych.2021.010DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk and protective factors for cannabis, cocaine, and opioid use disorders: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jul 15;126:243-251. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Several meta-analyses of observational studies have addressed the association between risk and protective factors and cannabis/cocaine/opioid use disorders, but results are conflicting. No umbrella review has ever graded the credibility of this evidence (not significant/weak/suggestive/highly suggestive/convincing). We searched Pubmed-MEDLINE/PsycInfo, last search September 21, 2020. We assessed the quality of meta-analyses with the AMSTAR-2 tool. Out of 3,072 initial references, five were included, providing 19 associations between 12 putative risk/protective factors and cannabis/cocaine/opioid use disorders (cases: 4539; N = 1,118,872,721). While 84 % of the associations were statistically significant, none was convincing. One risk factor (smoking) had highly suggestive evidence for association with nonmedical use of prescription opioid medicines (OR = 3.07, 95 %CI:2.27 to 4.14). Convincing evidence emerged in sensitivity analyses on antisocial behavior and cannabis use disoder (OR 3.34, 95 %CI 2.53-4.41). Remaining associations had weak evidence. The quality of meta-analyses was rated as moderate in two (40 %), low in one (20 %), and critically low in two (40 %). Future research is needed to better profile risk/protective factors for cannabis/cocaine/opioid use disorders disorders informing preventive approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.03.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Metformin and health outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Mar 11:e13536. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Clinical and Experimental Medicine PhD Program, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Background: The objective was to capture the breadth of outcomes that have been associated with metformin use and to systematically assess the quality, strength and credibility of these associations using the umbrella review methodology.

Methods: Four major databases were searched until 31 May 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (including active and placebo control arms) were included.

Results: From 175 eligible publications, we identified 427 different meta-analyses, including 167 meta-analyses of observational studies, 147 meta-analyses of RCTs for metformin vs placebo/no treatment and 113 meta-analyses of RCTs for metformin vs active medications. There was no association classified as convincing or highly suggestive from meta-analyses of observational studies, but some suggestive/weak associations of metformin use with a lower mortality risk of CVD and cancer. In meta-analyses of RCTs, metformin was associated with a lower incidence of diabetes in people with prediabetes or no diabetes at baseline; lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidence (in women in controlled ovarian stimulation); higher success for clinical pregnancy rate in poly-cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); and significant reduction in body mass index in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in women who have obesity/overweight with PCOS and in obese/overweight women. Of 175 publications, 166 scored as low or critically low quality per AMSTAR 2 criteria.

Conclusions: Observational evidence on metformin seems largely unreliable. Randomized evidence shows benefits for preventing diabetes and in some gynaecological and obstetrical settings. However, almost all meta-analyses are of low or critically low quality according to AMSTAR 2 criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13536DOI Listing
March 2021

Exercise addiction in athletes: Comparing two assessment instruments and willingness to stop exercise after medical advice.

Psychol Assess 2021 Apr 22;33(4):326-337. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Padua.

Exercise is overwhelmingly beneficial for physical and mental health, but for some people exercise addiction (EA) can develop and negatively impact an individual. This study sought to (a) compare the latent structure of two instruments assessing EA and (b) examine differences in attitudes toward stopping exercise, if required to on medical grounds, among exercise-addicted and non-addicted athletes. In a cross-sectional study, 1,011 athletes competing at different levels completed an anonymous on-line survey. The survey contained Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R), Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), and questions on adherence to medical prescriptions to stop exercise. We tested the latent structure of EDS-R and EAI with multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), across gender and competition level. Finally, we measured the difference of athletes' attitudes toward stopping exercise, if prescribed by a physician. Both instruments showed good fit indexes, even across gender. CFAs on EAI scores showed some violations of measurement invariance across competition level (ΔCFI = .03; ΔRMSEA = .02). On the contrary, CFAs on EDS-R scores did not show invariance violations across competition level (ΔCFI = <.01; ΔRMSEA = <.01). Finally, athletes who reached thresholds for exercise addiction, by means of EDS-R, were more prone to not follow medical prescriptions to cease exercise, independently of the competition level. These results suggest that athletes' answers on the EDS-R seem to be less affected by competition level, compared to EAI. Moreover, EDS-R outcomes could be used to identify individuals who may be unlikely to cease exercise for medical reasons, independently of their competition level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000987DOI Listing
April 2021

Stigma and attitudes towards restrictive practices in psychiatry among psychology students: a network and path analysis study in an Italian sample.

J Ment Health 2021 Jan 27:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Developmental Psychology and Socialization, University of Padua, Padova, Italy.

: People suffering from mental disorders are affected by public stigma in many areas of daily life, including mental health services. Stigma among mental health professionals needs to be addressed.: This study explores the path leading to attitudes toward seclusion and restraint practices among future mental health professionals, considering the complex interplay among demographic variables, personality, stigma, and experience in psychiatric services. Network analysis and Structural Equation Modeling were used to explore 1512 Psychology students. The survey instrument included a form for demographic and academic variables, the Attribution Questionnaire-9, the Ten Items Personality Inventory, and few questions exploring attitudes toward open-door and restraint-free policies in Psychiatry. The personality trait of Openness and previous experience with psychiatric patients resulted to play a positive effect on stigma. Openness was also associated with a better disposition towards restraint-free policies. Conversely, higher levels of stigma predicted a negative attitude toward no restraint, decreasing the positive effect of Openness. In conclusion, some personality traits may be associated with lower levels of stigma and a more open view about treatment policies in Psychiatry. Direct educational or professional experience with patients suffering from mental disorders may be a crucial factor in reducing the risk of stigmatizing attitudes in future professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2021.1875405DOI Listing
January 2021

Factors influencing lithium versus valproate prescription preference in the maintenance treatment of bipolar patients: a report from the Italian Early Career Psychiatrists (SOPSI-GG).

Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract 2021 Mar 30;25(1):82-89. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania "L. Vanvitelli", Largo Madonna Delle Grazie, Naples, Italy.

Background: Objective of the present manuscript is to investigate, among Italian early career psychiatrists (ECPs), prescriber and patient-related factors associated with lithium or valproate preference to treat patients affected by Bipolar Disorder (BD).

Methods: An on-line survey was carried out among 252 ECPs, investigating their prescription patterns in relation to lithium and the differences with prescription of valproate. Collected data were compared according to lithium or valproate prescription preference in the long-term treatment of BD by tests for qualitative variables.

Results: Over two thirds of ECPs preferred lithium over valproate for the maintenance treatment of BD. Less than half of the sample used lithium as first-line agent for mania or major depression, and less than one third for mixed episodes. Factors associated with lithium preference as first-line maintenance treatment include perception of having a good knowledge of lithium ( < 0.001) and complete satisfaction with education on lithium ( < 0.001). One of the main factors to prefer valproate was the concern about long-term side effects of lithium ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: Type of education, source of information, clinical experience and safety concerns influence the choice of lithium versus valproate in the long-term treatment of BD. Present findings may guide educational training of ECPs.KEY POINTSLithium has been less prescribed in the last years for long-term treatment of Bipolar Disorder.Educational and clinical factors seem to influence the attitude to prescribe lithium.Only half of the Italian early career psychiatrists declare to have at least an adequate knowledge of lithium.Residency program in psychiatry should consider the implementation of education on lithium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13651501.2020.1865405DOI Listing
March 2021

Interventions for reducing loneliness: An umbrella review of intervention studies.

Health Soc Care Community 2020 Dec 5. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Clinical and Experimental Medicine PhD Program, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Loneliness is a common phenomenon associated with several negative health outcomes. Current knowledge regarding interventions for reducing loneliness in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is conflicting. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview of interventions to reduce loneliness, using an umbrella review of previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. We searched major databases from database inception to 31 March 2020 for RCTs comparing active versus non-active interventions for reducing loneliness. For each intervention, random-effects summary effect size and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. For significant outcomes (p-value < 0.05), the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) tool was used, grading the evidence from very low to high. From 211 studies initially evaluated, seven meta-analyses for seven different types of interventions were included (median number of RCTs: 8; median number of participants: 600). Three interventions were statistically significant for reducing loneliness, that is, meditation/mindfulness, social cognitive training and social support. When applying GRADE criteria, meditation/mindfulness (mean difference, MD = -6.03; 95% CI: -9.33 to -2.73; very low strength of the evidence), social cognitive training (8 RCTs; SMD = -0.49; 95% CI: -0.84 to -0.13; very low strength of the evidence) and social support (9 RCTs; SMD = -0.13; 95% CI: -0.25 to -0.01; low strength of the evidence) significantly decreased the perception of loneliness. In conclusion, three intervention types may be utilised for reducing loneliness, but they are supported by a low/very low certainty of evidence indicating the need for future large-scale RCTs to further investigate the efficacy of interventions for reducing loneliness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13248DOI Listing
December 2020

Risk and protective factors for alcohol and tobacco related disorders: An umbrella review of observational studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 02 25;121:20-28. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

IMPACT (Innovation in Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Treatment) Strategic Research Centre, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The credibility of evidence of various environmental risk factors for alcohol and tobacco use disorders (AUD/TUD) needs to be graded to identify groups to target with selective prevention. A systematic umbrella review was conducted (PubMed/PsycINFO), grading credibility of meta-analyses of prospective/retrospective observational cohort studies assessing risk/protective factors for AUD/TUD, applying established quantitative criteria. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Quality of eligible meta-analyses was assessed with AMSTAR-2. Out of 8464 unique references, 80 full text articles were scrutinized, and 12 meta-analyses, corresponding to 21 individual estimates of 12 putative risk/protective factors (n = 241,300), were included. In main analyses no association had convincing nor highly suggestive evidence for AUD/TUD. Six associations had suggestive evidence for AUD, two for TUD. Among these, in sensitivity analyses without >1000 cases criterion, convincing evidence emerged for parental alcohol supply, and impulsivity traits in college students for AUD, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for TUD. Other associations were supported by weak evidence/were not nominally significant. Few risk factors identified at-risk groups where selective preventative strategies could be developed to prevent AUD/TUD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.11.010DOI Listing
February 2021

Changes in telepsychiatry regulations during the COVID-19 pandemic: 17 countries and regions' approaches to an evolving healthcare landscape.

Psychol Med 2020 Nov 27:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telemedicine as a way to reduce COVID-19 infections was noted and consequently deregulated. However, the degree of telemedicine regulation varies from country to country, which may alter the widespread use of telemedicine. This study aimed to clarify the telepsychiatry regulations for each collaborating country/region before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We used snowball sampling within a global network of international telepsychiatry experts. Thirty collaborators from 17 different countries/regions responded to a questionnaire on barriers to the use and implementation of telepsychiatric care, including policy factors such as regulations and reimbursement at the end of 2019 and as of May 2020.

Results: Thirteen of 17 regions reported a relaxation of regulations due to the pandemic; consequently, all regions surveyed stated that telepsychiatry was now possible within their public healthcare systems. In some regions, restrictions on prescription medications allowed via telepsychiatry were eased, but in 11 of the 17 regions, there were still restrictions on prescribing medications via telepsychiatry. Lower insurance reimbursement amounts for telepsychiatry consultations v. in-person consultations were reevaluated in four regions, and consequently, in 15 regions telepsychiatry services were reimbursed at the same rate (or higher) than in-person consultations during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusions: Our results confirm that, due to COVID-19, the majority of countries surveyed are altering telemedicine regulations that had previously restricted the spread of telemedicine. These findings provide information that could guide future policy and regulatory decisions, which facilitate greater scale and spread of telepsychiatry globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720004584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750654PMC
November 2020

The prevalence, odds and predictors of lifespan comorbid eating disorder among people with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorders, and vice-versa: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 02 13;280(Pt A):409-431. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Centre for Addiction & Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: There are scarce and discrepant data about the prevalence and correlates of co-occurring eating disorders (EDs) among people with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD), and vice-versa, compelling a systematic review and meta-analysis on the matter.

Methods: MEDLINE/PsycINFO databases were systematically searched for original studies documenting BD⇌ED comorbidity across the lifespan, from inception up until April 20, 2020. Random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression analyses were conducted, accounting for multiple moderators.

Results: Thirty-six studies involved 15,084 primary BD patients. Eleven studies encompassed 15,146 people with primary EDs. Binge eating disorder (BED) occurred in 12.5% (95%C.I.=9.4-16.6%, I=93.48%) of BDs, while 9.1% (95%C.I.=3.3-22.6%) of BEDs endorsed BD. Bulimia Nervosa (BN) occurred in 7.4% (95%C.I.=6-10%) of people with BD, whereas 6.7% (95%C.I.=12-29.2%) of subjects with BN had a diagnosis of BD. Anorexia Nervosa (AN) occurred in 3.8% (95%C.I.=2-6%) of people with BDs; 2% (95%C.I.=1-2%) of BD patients had a diagnosis of AN. Overall, BD patients with EDs had higher odds of being female vs. non-ED controls. Several moderators yielded statistically significant differences both within- and between different types of BDs and EDs.

Limitations: Scant longitudinal studies, especially across different EDs and pediatric samples. High heterogeneity despite subgroup comparisons. Limited discrimination of the quality of the evidence.

Conclusions: The rates of BD⇌ED comorbidity vary across different diagnostic groups, more than they do according to the "direction" of BD⇌ED. Further primary studies should focus on the risks, chronology, clinical impact, and management of the onset of intertwined BD⇌ED across different ages, promoting a continuum approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.015DOI Listing
February 2021

Interventions to facilitate return to work in adults with chronic non-malignant pain: a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2020 11 16;10(11):e040962. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linkoping, Sweden

Introduction: Work absenteeism due to chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) is a major societal and individual cause of concern that requires effective treatments.

Objective: We present a protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) aiming to compare available interventions for return to work (RTW) in adults with CNMP.

Methods And Analysis: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases will be searched till 31 August 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining interventions for RTW outcomes among patients with CNMP. Two independent investigators will search the databases, perform data extraction and assess the methodological quality of the selected RCTs. The primary outcome will be RTW, if possible, full-time or part-time after work absence due to chronic pain from baseline to the last available follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include self-reported workability or work capacity, or self-reported physical functioning and quality of life as measured by any validated scale. Pairwise meta-analysis and NMA will be conducted for each outcome using a random-effects model. For the primary outcomes, we will also obtain the ranking of all competing interventions within each NMA using surface under the cumulative ranking curve. The assumption of coherence (ie, that direct and indirect evidence are in statistical agreement) will be examined using both a local and a global approach. We will also conduct subgroup and meta-regression analyses, whenever feasible, to investigate the unexplained variation in effect size. The comparison-adjusted funnel plot will be used to evaluate small-study effects. The overall quality of evidence will be rated with the Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis tool. Data analysis will be conducted using Stata V.16.0.

Ethics And Dissemination: This systematic review does not require ethical approval since it will not disseminate any private patient data. The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020171429.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670949PMC
November 2020

The rebirth of lithium as the archetypal mood stabilizer.

Bipolar Disord 2021 03 3;23(2):211-212. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Barcelona Bipolar Disorders Program, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bdi.13031DOI Listing
March 2021

Hippocampal volumes in anorexia nervosa at different stages of the disorder.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2021 Jan 13;29(1):112-122. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Padova, Italy.

Introduction: Hippocampus is involved in a range of cognitive and behavioural processes, and its volume has been found to be reduced in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aims at exploring hippocampal volumes in anorexia nervosa (AN) at different stages of the disorder (a few months after onset, more than 1 year after onset and after recovery).

Methods: Two samples were included in the present study. The first was composed of 58 patients (38 with present AN, 20 full recovered from AN) and 38 age-matched healthy women (HW); the second, recruited at a different site, included 20 patients with AN and 16 HW. Hippocampal volume has been estimated using an automated segmentation algorithm. Age, site of scanning and total intracranial volumes were used as covariates in the statistical analyses.

Results: AN patients showed a reduced hippocampal volume in comparison to HW, with no substantial differences between patients with recent onset and those with a longer duration of illness. Among patients, hippocampal volumes correlated with body mass index, anxiety and drive for thinness.

Discussion: Our findings suggest an early role of malnutrition in the morphologic alterations of the hippocampus in AN and a possible role of this brain structure in mediating specific psychopathological traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2806DOI Listing
January 2021

Multiple lifestyle factors and depressed mood: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the UK Biobank (N = 84,860).

BMC Med 2020 11 12;18(1):354. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

NICM Heath Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Background: There is now evolving data exploring the relationship between depression and various individual lifestyle factors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol intake, and tobacco smoking. While this data is compelling, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining how multiple lifestyle factors relate to depressed mood, and how these relations may differ in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) and those without a depressive disorder, as 'healthy controls' (HC).

Methods: To this end, we assessed the relationships between 6 key lifestyle factors (measured via self-report) and depressed mood (measured via a relevant item from the Patient Health Questionnaire) in individuals with a history of or current MDD and healthy controls (HCs). Cross-sectional analyses were performed in the UK Biobank baseline sample, and longitudinal analyses were conducted in those who completed the Mental Health Follow-up.

Results: Cross-sectional analysis of 84,860 participants showed that in both MDD and HCs, physical activity, healthy diet, and optimal sleep duration were associated with less frequency of depressed mood (all p < 0.001; ORs 0.62 to 0.94), whereas screen time and also tobacco smoking were associated with higher frequency of depressed mood (both p < 0.0001; ORs 1.09 to 1.36). In the longitudinal analysis, the lifestyle factors which were protective of depressed mood in both MDD and HCs were optimal sleep duration (MDD OR = 1.10; p < 0.001, HC OR = 1.08; p < 0.001) and lower screen time (MDD OR = 0.71; p < 0.001, HC OR = 0.80; p < 0.001). There was also a significant interaction between healthy diet and MDD status (p = 0.024), while a better-quality diet was indicated to be protective of depressed mood in HCs (OR = 0.92; p = 0.045) but was not associated with depressed mood in the MDD sample. In a cross-sectional (OR = 0.91; p < 0.0001) analysis, higher frequency of alcohol consumption was surprisingly associated with reduced frequency of depressed mood in MDD, but not in HCs.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that several lifestyle factors are associated with depressed mood, and in particular, it calls into consideration habits involving increased screen time and a poor sleep and dietary pattern as being partly implicated in the germination or exacerbation of depressed mood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01813-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661271PMC
November 2020

Universal and selective interventions to promote good mental health in young people: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 12 6;41:28-39. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Promotion of good mental health in young people is important. Our aim was to evaluate the consistency and magnitude of the efficacy of universal/selective interventions to promote good mental health. A systematic PRISMA/RIGHT-compliant meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42018088708) search of Web of Science until 04/31/2019 identified original studies comparing the efficacy of universal/selective interventions for good mental health vs a control group, in samples with a mean age <35 years. Meta-analytical random-effects model, heterogeneity statistics, assessment of publication bias, study quality and sensitivity analyses investigated the efficacy (Hedges' g=effect size, ES) of universal/selective interventions to promote 14 good mental health outcomes defined a-priori. 276 studies were included (total participants: 159,508, 79,142 interventions and 80,366 controls), mean age=15.0 (SD=7.4); female=56.0%. There was a significant overall improvement in 10/13 good mental health outcome categories that could be meta-analysed: compared to controls, interventions significantly improved (in descending order of magnitude) mental health literacy (ES=0.685, p<0.001), emotions (ES=0.541, p<0.001), self-perceptions and values (ES=0.49, p<0.001), quality of life (ES=0.457, p=0.001), cognitive skills (ES=0.428, p<0.001), social skills (ES=0.371, p<0.001), physical health (ES=0.285, p<0.001), sexual health (ES=0.257, p=0.017), academic/occupational performance (ES=0.211, p<0.001) and attitude towards mental disorders (ES=0.177, p=0.006). Psychoeducation was the most effective intervention for promoting mental health literacy (ES=0.774, p<0.001) and cognitive skills (ES=1.153, p=0.03). Physical therapy, exercise and relaxation were more effective than psychoeducation and psychotherapy for promoting physical health (ES=0.498, p<0.001). In conclusion, several universal/selective interventions can be effective to promote good mental health in young people. Future research should consolidate and extend these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.10.007DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical correlates of seasonality in bipolar disorder: A specifier that needs specification?

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2021 02 25;143(2):162-171. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Seasonal pattern (SP) is a bipolar disorder (BD) specifier that indicates a tendency towards affective relapses during specific moments of the year. SP affects 15%-25% of BD patients. In the past, SP was applied only to depressive relapses while, in DSM-5, SP may be applied to both depressive and (hypo)manic episodes. We examined the association between different clinical correlates of BD and SP according to its current definition in a cohort of patients with BD type I (BDI) and II (BDII).

Methods: Patients were recruited from a specialized unit and assessed according to the season of relapse and type of episode per season. SP and non-SP patients were compared looking into sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Significant variables at univariate comparisons were included in multivariate logistic regression with SP as the dependent variable.

Results: 708 patients were enrolled (503 BDI, 205 BDII), and 117 (16.5%) fulfilled DSM-5 criteria for SP. The mean age was 45.3 years (SD = 14.18), and 389 were female (54.9%). The logistic regression model included a significant contribution of BDII (OR = 2.23, CI 1.4-3.55), family history of mood disorder (OR = 1.97, CI 1.29-3.01), undetermined predominant polarity (OR = 0.44, CI 0.28-0.70), and aggressive behavior (OR = 0.42, CI 0.23-0.75).

Conclusion: Our results outline a novel positive association of SP with undetermined predominant polarity, BDII, family history of mood disorder, and with fewer aggressiveness-related symptoms. Seasonality is associated with a biphasic pattern with similar dominance of (hypo)mania and depression and is more frequent in BDII as compared to BDI. Seasonal episodes may be easier to predict, but difficult to prevent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acps.13251DOI Listing
February 2021

Appraising the effectiveness of electrical and magnetic brain stimulation techniques in acute major depressive episodes: an umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Serviço Interdisciplinar de Neuromodulação, Laboratório de Neurociências (LIM27), Departamento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Electrical and magnetic brain stimulation techniques present distinct mechanisms and efficacy in the acute treatment of depression. This was an umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of brain stimulation techniques for managing acute major depressive episodes. A systematic review was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE databases from inception until March 2020. We included the English language meta-analysis with the most randomized controlled trials on the effects of any brain stimulation technique vs. control in adults with an acute depressive episode. Continuous and dichotomous outcomes were assessed. A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews-2 was applied and the credibility of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Seven meta-analyses were included (5,615 patients), providing evidence for different modalities of brain stimulation techniques. Three meta-analyses were evaluated as having high methodological quality, three as moderate, and one as low. The highest quality of evidence was found for high frequency-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), transcranial direct current stimulation, and bilateral rTMS. There is strong clinical research evidence to guide future clinical use of some techniques. Our results confirm the heterogeneity of the effects across these techniques, indicating that different mechanisms of action lead to different efficacy profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1169DOI Listing
October 2020

Aripiprazole monotherapy as transdiagnostic intervention for the treatment of mental disorders: An umbrella review according to TRANSD criteria.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 12 16;41:16-27. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; OASIS Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK.

Aripiprazole is approved in different countries as treatment for several mental disorders, but its transdiagnostic potential has not yet been assessed according to established criteria such as the recently proposed TRANSD criteria. The present work aims to test whether aripiprazole monotherapy could be considered a transdiagnostic intervention. An umbrella review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of aripiprazole monotherapy vs placebo was conducted for any disorder defined according to standard diagnostic criteria. Primary outcomes were levels of psychiatric disease-specific symptoms. TRANSD criteria were applied to assess transdiagnosticity, while the AMSTAR -2 tool was used to assess the quality of eligible meta-analyses. Four pairwise meta-analyses and three network meta-analyses were included, consisting of 25 RCTs of aripiprazole monotherapy vs. placebo (N=5469). Aripiprazole outperformed placebo on primary outcomes in Alzheimer's disease with behavioral disturbance (AD) (neuropsychiatric symptoms SMD 0.20, 95%CI 0.05-0.35, max 15 mg/day), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (severity of symptoms SMD 0.39, 95%CI 0.30-0.48, max 15 mg/day), bipolar I disorder (BD) (severity of manic symptoms SMD 0.30, 95%CI 0.12-0.47, max 30 mg/day), and schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (response rate RR 0.84, 95%CI 0.78-0.92, max 30 mg/day). TRANSD criteria were met (pooled SMD 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.41) across these disorders Quality was high in all the included meta-analyses according to AMSTAR-2. According to TRANSD criteria, aripiprazole monotherapy is a (dose-specific) transdiagnostic intervention to treat psychiatric disease-specific symptoms across 5 diagnoses (AD, ASD, BD (mania), schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder), across four DSM-5 diagnostic groups (neurocognitive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, bipolar and related disorders, schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.09.635DOI Listing
December 2020

Environmental risk factors, protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD: an umbrella review.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 11;7(11):955-970

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, UK; Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute of Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Many potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, and peripheral biomarkers for ADHD have been investigated, but the consistency and magnitude of their effects are unclear. We aimed to systematically appraise the published evidence of association between potential risk factors, protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers, and ADHD.

Methods: In this umbrella review of meta-analyses, we searched PubMed including MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from database inception to Oct 31, 2019, and screened the references of relevant articles. We included systematic reviews that provided meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations of potential environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers with diagnosis of ADHD. We included meta-analyses that used categorical ADHD diagnosis criteria according to DSM, hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD, or criteria that were less rigorous than DSM or ICD, such as self-report. We excluded articles that did not examine environmental risk factors, environmental protective factors, or peripheral biomarkers of ADHD; articles that did not include a meta-analysis; and articles that did not present enough data for re-analysis. We excluded non-human studies, primary studies, genetic studies, and conference abstracts. We calculated summary effect estimates (odds ratio [OR], relative risk [RR], weighted mean difference [WMD], Cohen's d, and Hedges' g), 95% CI, heterogeneity I statistic, 95% prediction interval, small study effects, and excess significance biases. We did analyses under credibility ceilings, and assessed the quality of the meta-analyses with AMSTAR 2 (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2). This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42019145032.

Findings: We identified 1839 articles, of which 35 were eligible for inclusion. These 35 articles yielded 63 meta-analyses encompassing 40 environmental risk factors and environmental protective factors (median cases 16 850, median population 91 954) and 23 peripheral biomarkers (median cases 175, median controls 187). Evidence of association was convincing (class I) for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR 1·63, 95% CI 1·49 to 1·77), childhood eczema (1·31, 1·20 to 1·44), hypertensive disorders during pregnancy (1·29, 1·22 to 1·36), pre-eclampsia (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and maternal acetaminophen exposure during pregnancy (RR 1·25, 95% CI 1·17 to 1·34). Evidence of association was highly suggestive (class II) for maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·45 to 1·76), childhood asthma (1·51, 1·4 to 1·63), maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (1·28, 1·21 to 1·35), and serum vitamin D (WMD -6·93, 95% CI -9·34 to -4·51).

Interpretation: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight; pre-eclampsia, hypertension, acetaminophen exposure, and smoking during pregnancy; and childhood atopic diseases were strongly associated with ADHD. Previous familial studies suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, overweight, and smoking during pregnancy are confounded by familial or genetic factors, and further high-quality studies are therefore required to establish causality.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30312-6DOI Listing
November 2020

Emergency department and early detection of adolescents and young adults at risk of developing mental disorders: an exploratory study.

Res Psychother 2020 Sep 18;23(2):459. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Padua University Hospital, Psychiatry Unit, Padua, Italy.

The objective of this study is to assess the potential role of Emergency Department (ED) for early detection of mental disorders. Two cohorts (6,759 subjects aged 14 to 24 accessing ED, 165 subjects with mental disorders) were matched by ID and merged. Primary outcome was the proportion of individuals accessing ED before receiving a diagnosis of mental disorder in Mental Health Service (MHS). Secondary outcomes were age of first access to ED in subjects later accessing to MHS, and time from first ED access to receiving a diagnosis of mental disorder at MHS. We assessed whether gender, severity of ED presentation, and number of ED accesses predicted primary outcome. Almost half of individuals who later developed mental disorders (49.7%) accessed ED before access to MHS. Mean age of first ED contact among those later accessing to MHS was 17.34 (2.1), and ED access preceded access to MHS by 3.68 (2.11) years. Gender and severity of ED presentation were not associated with the access to MHS, while higher number of ED accesses was associated with later access to MHS (OR range: 1.17-1.36, p<0.05). Despite its limitations, the present study suggests ED might represent a contact point for individuals who later access to MHS. Future early detection programs should involve ED in their outreach and screening approaches. Additional studies are needed to assess if subjects earlier accessing to ED are at risk-of-developing or already suffer from a mental disorder, and to validate screening instruments specifically designed for ED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ripppo.2020.459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513608PMC
September 2020

Longitudinal Course of Depressive, Anxiety, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms After Heart Surgery: A Meta-Analysis of 94 Studies.

Psychosom Med 2021 01;83(1):85-93

From the Neurosciences Department (Rosson, Miola, Gentile, Favaro, Solmi), University of Padua, Padua; Department of Mental Health (Monaco), Residential Eating Disorder Unit "Mariconda," ASL Salerno; Department of Medicine (Cascino, Marciello), Surgery and Dentistry "Scuola Medica Salernitana," Section of Neurosciences, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy; Physiotherapy Department (Stubbs), South London and Maudsley National Health Services Foundation Trust; Department of Psychological Medicine (Stubbs), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom; Department of Psychiatry (Correll), The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks; Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine (Correll), Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Hempstead; The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research (Correll), Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Manhasset, New York; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Correll), Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Division of Psychology and Mental Health, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health (Firth), University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; NICM Health Research Institute, School of Science and Health (Firth), University of Western Sydney, Sydney; Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne (Firth), Melbourne, Australia; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Ermis), Dokuz Eylul University, İzmir, Turkey; Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Department (Perrotti), University Hospital Jean Minjoz; EA 3920, University of Franche-Comté (Perrotti), Besançon, France; Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) (Carvalho); Department of Psychiatry (Carvalho), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (Brunoni), University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany; Service of Interdisciplinary Neuromodulation, Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Neurosciences (LIM-27) and National Institute of Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatry (INBioN), Institute of Psychiatry (Brunoni), University of Sao Paulo; Hospital Universitario, Departamento de Clínica Médica (Brunoni), Faculdade de Medicina da USP, São Paulo, Brazil; Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Laboratory, Department of Psychosis Studies (Fusar-Poli, Solmi), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London; OASIS Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (Fusar-Poli), London, United Kingdom; Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences (Fusar-Poli), University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; National Institute for Health Research, Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (Fusar-Poli), London, United Kingdom; Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and Odontostolmatology, Section of Psychiatry (Fornaro), University School of Medicine Federico II, Naples; Neuroscience Centre (Favaro, Solmi) and Department of General Psychology (Granziol), University of Padua; and Psychiatry Unit (Pigato), Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the longitudinal course of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in patients with cardiac disease after heart surgery (HS).

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of cohort studies in patients undergoing HS, measuring anxiety, depressive, and PTSD symptoms before and at least 30 days thereafter. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses, investigation of publication bias, and quality assessment were undertaken.

Results: We included 94 studies relating to 15,561 patients. HS included coronary artery bypass graft surgery, valve replacement, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, left ventricular assist device placement, heart transplantation, and other types of HS. Across studies, symptoms of depression (g = 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25 to 0.39; p < .001) and anxiety improved after HS (g = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.43 to 0.62; p < .001), whereas PTSD symptoms worsened (g = -0.42; 95% CI = -0.80 to -0.04; p = .032). The reduction of depression and anxiety levels was more pronounced for patients with underlying coronary artery disease and heart failure and persisted for 1 year after HS, whereas the increase in PTSD symptoms returned to baseline after 6 months. Depression improvement was inversely associated with older age, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia and positively with baseline heart failure. No additional clinical or demographic variables were associated with the course of anxiety symptoms. Quality of included studies was low overall. Publication bias was nonsignificant.

Conclusions: Depressive and anxiety symptoms improve for 1 year after HS, whereas PTSD symptoms might worsen. Older patients and those with metabolic comorbidities, valve disease, or ventricular arrhythmias are at higher risk for continued depressive and anxiety symptoms and should be monitored closely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000872DOI Listing
January 2021

Genetic Variation and Autism: A Field Synopsis and Systematic Meta-Analysis.

Brain Sci 2020 Sep 30;10(10). Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London SE5 8AB, UK.

This study aimed to verify noteworthy findings between genetic risk factors and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by employing the false positive report probability (FPRP) and the Bayesian false-discovery probability (BFDP). PubMed and the Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) catalog were searched from inception to 1 August, 2019. We included meta-analyses on genetic factors of ASD of any study design. Overall, twenty-seven meta-analyses articles from literature searches, and four manually added articles from the GWAS catalog were re-analyzed. This showed that five of 31 comparisons for meta-analyses of observational studies, 40 out of 203 comparisons for the GWAS meta-analyses, and 18 out of 20 comparisons for the GWAS catalog, respectively, had noteworthy estimations under both Bayesian approaches. In this study, we found noteworthy genetic comparisons highly related to an increased risk of ASD. Multiple genetic comparisons were shown to be associated with ASD risk; however, genuine associations should be carefully verified and understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600188PMC
September 2020

Risk factors for eating disorders: an umbrella review of published meta-analyses.

Braz J Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;43(3):314-323

Unità di Psichiatria, Dipartimento Scienze della Salute, Università degli studi di Firenze, Firenze, Italy.

Objective: To grade the evidence about risk factors for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder) with an umbrella review approach.

Methods: This was a systematic review of observational studies on risk factors for eating disorders published in PubMed/PsycInfo/Embase until December 11th, 2019. We recalculated random-effect meta-analyses, heterogeneity, small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals, grading significant evidence (p < 0.05) from convincing to weak according to established criteria. Quality was assessed with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2) tool.

Results: Of 2,197 meta-analyses, nine were included, providing evidence on 50 risk factors, 29,272 subjects with eating disorders, and 1,679,385 controls. Although no association was supported by convincing evidence, highly suggestive evidence supported the association between childhood sexual abuse and bulimia nervosa (k = 29, 1,103 cases with eating disorders, 8,496 controls, OR, 2.73, 95%CI 1.96-3.79, p = 2.1 x 10-9, AMSTAR-2 moderate quality) and between appearance-related teasing victimization and any eating disorder (k = 10, 1,341 cases with eating disorders, 3,295 controls, OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.05-4.12, p = 1.8x10-9, AMSTAR-2 moderate quality). Suggestive, weak, or no evidence supported 11, 29, and 8 associations, respectively.

Conclusions: The most credible evidence indicates that early traumatic and stressful events are risk factors for eating disorders. Larger collaborative prospective cohort studies are needed to identify risk factors for eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136381PMC
June 2021

Assessing the quality of studies in meta-research: Review/guidelines on the most important quality assessment tools.

Pharm Stat 2021 01 15;20(1):185-195. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses pool data from individual studies to generate a higher level of evidence to be evaluated by guidelines. These reviews ultimately guide clinicians and stakeholders in health-related decisions. However, the informativeness and quality of evidence synthesis inherently depend on the quality of what has been pooled into meta-research projects. Moreover, beyond the quality of included individual studies, only a methodologically correct process, in relation to systematic reviews and meta-analyses themselves, can produce a reliable and valid evidence synthesis. Hence, quality of meta-research projects also affects evidence synthesis reliability. In this overview, the authors provide a synthesis of advantages and disadvantages and main characteristics of some of the most frequently used tools to assess quality of individual studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Specifically, the tools considered in this work are the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) and the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) for observational studies, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT), the Jadad scale, the Cochrane risk of bias tool 2 (RoB2) for randomized controlled trials, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR2), and AMSTAR-PLUS for meta-analyses. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN?: The informativeness and quality of evidence synthesis inherently depend on the quality of what has been pooled into meta-research projects. Beyond the quality of included individual studies, only a methodologically correct process, in relation to systematic reviews and meta-analyses themselves, can produce a reliable and valid evidence synthesis. WHAT IS NEW?: In this overview, the authors provide a synthesis of advantages and disadvantages and main characteristics of some of the most frequently used tools to assess quality of individual studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. POTENTIAL IMPACT: This overview serves as a starting point and a brief guide to identify and understand the main and most frequently used tools for assessing the quality of studies included in meta-research. The authors here share their experience in publishing several meta-research-related articles covering different areas of medical sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pst.2068DOI Listing
January 2021