Publications by authors named "Marco Sarchiapone"

99 Publications

Excessive and pathological Internet use - Risk-behavior or psychopathology?

Addict Behav 2021 12 9;123:107045. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Pathological Internet use (but only with respect to gaming) is classified as mental disorder in the ICD-11. However, there is a large group of adolescents showing excessive Internet use, which may rather be considered adolescent risk-behavior. The aim was to test whether pathological and excessive Internet use should be considered as "psychopathology" or "risk-behavior". A representative, cross-sectional sample of 11.110 students from 10 European Union countries was analyzed. Structural equation models, including the factors "risk-behavior" and "psychopathology" and the variables excessive and pathological Internet use, were tested against each other. "Risk-behavior" was operationalized by several risk-behaviors (e.g. drug abuse, truancy, etc). "Psychopathology" included measures of several mental disorders (e.g. depression, hyperactivity, etc). Excessive Internet use was assessed as the duration and frequency of Internet use. Pathological Internet use was assessed with the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (i.e., presence of addiction criteria). Excessive Internet use loaded on "risk-behavior" (λ = 0.484, p < .001) and on "psychopathology" (λ = 0.071, p < .007). Pathological Internet use loaded on "risk-behavior" (λ = 0.333, p < .001) and on "psychopathology" (λ = 0.852, p < .001). Chi-square tests determined that the loadings of excessive Internet use (χ (1) = 81.98, p < .001) were significantly stronger on "risk-behavior" than "psychopathology". Vice versa, pathological Internet use loaded significantly stronger on "psychopathology" (χ (1) = 107.10, p < .001). The results indicate that pathological Internet use should rather be considered as psychopathology. Excessive Internet use on the other hand, should be classified as adolescent risk-behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.107045DOI Listing
December 2021

Longitudinal predictors of problematic alcohol use in adolescence: A 2-year follow-up study.

Addict Behav 2021 09 10;120:106952. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Alcohol consumption in adolescence is widespread. Several studies have investigated alcohol use in minors and its consequences in adulthood, but prospective findings on psychosocial predictors for problematic alcohol use (PAU) already in youth are still limited. Next to genetic aspects, psychosocial predictors appear to be particularly relevant. The objective of the present longitudinal survey was to explore psychosocial influences on PAU in adolescence. At baseline, 1,444 adolescents (52.1% girls, average age: 14.65 years) were surveyed. Two years later (at follow-up), we were able to re-assess 515 adolescents (mean age: 16.60 years). Both times, a standardized questionnaire was applied to explore PAU and various psychosocial aspects. We conducted multiple imputation, created 100 datasets with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm and calculated regression analyses to identify predictors for PAU. In a multivariable analysis, we found that female gender (protective factor), school-type 'Gymnasium' (highest level of school education, protective factor), PAU, more conduct problems and lower psychological well-being (all at baseline) predicted adolescent PAU at follow-up. In supplementary analyses for frequent alcohol use (regardless of quantity) and high alcohol consumption quantity (regardless of frequency), these predictors could only partially be found again. According to the findings of the present study, psychosocial aspects are relevant for PAU in adolescence, and particularly psychological well-being should be given more attention in primary prevention measures and treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106952DOI Listing
September 2021

Self-perceived workplace discrimination and mental health among immigrant workers in Italy: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 02 9;21(1):85. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP), Epidemiology Unit, Via di San Gallicano 25/a, 00153, Rome, Italy.

Background: The process of immigration is associated with poor mental and physical health. While the workplace represents an important context of social integration, previous studies evaluating the effect of discrimination experienced in the workplace found worse mental health status among immigrants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-perceived workplace discrimination has any role in the mental health status of immigrants living and working in Italy, evaluating the contribution of other personal experiences, such as loneliness and life satisfaction.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 12,408 immigrants (aged 15-64) living and working in Italy. Data were derived from the first national survey on immigrants carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). Mental health status was measured through the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the SF-12 questionnaire. A linear multivariate linear regression was carried out to evaluate the association between mental health status, self-perceived workplace discrimination, and sociodemographic factors; path analysis was used to quantify the mediation effect of self-perceived loneliness, level of life satisfaction, and the Physical Component Summary (PCS).

Results: Mental health status was inversely associated (p < 0.001) with self-perceived workplace discrimination (β:-1.737), self-perceived loneliness (β:-2.653), and physical health status (β:-0.089); it was directly associated with level of life satisfaction (β:1.122). As confirmed by the path analysis, the effect of self-perceived workplace discrimination on MCS was mediated by the other factors considered: self-perceived loneliness (11.9%), level of life satisfaction (20.7%), and physical health status (3.9%).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that self-perceived workplace discrimination is associated with worse mental health status in immigrant workers through personal experiences in the workplace and explains the effect of the exposure to workplace discrimination on immigrants' psychological well-being. Our findings suggest that an overall public health response is needed to facilitate the social integration of immigrants and their access to health services, particularly those services that address mental health issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03077-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871130PMC
February 2021

Self-perceived workplace discrimination and mental health among immigrant workers in Italy: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 02 9;21(1):85. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP), Epidemiology Unit, Via di San Gallicano 25/a, 00153, Rome, Italy.

Background: The process of immigration is associated with poor mental and physical health. While the workplace represents an important context of social integration, previous studies evaluating the effect of discrimination experienced in the workplace found worse mental health status among immigrants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-perceived workplace discrimination has any role in the mental health status of immigrants living and working in Italy, evaluating the contribution of other personal experiences, such as loneliness and life satisfaction.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 12,408 immigrants (aged 15-64) living and working in Italy. Data were derived from the first national survey on immigrants carried out by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). Mental health status was measured through the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the SF-12 questionnaire. A linear multivariate linear regression was carried out to evaluate the association between mental health status, self-perceived workplace discrimination, and sociodemographic factors; path analysis was used to quantify the mediation effect of self-perceived loneliness, level of life satisfaction, and the Physical Component Summary (PCS).

Results: Mental health status was inversely associated (p < 0.001) with self-perceived workplace discrimination (β:-1.737), self-perceived loneliness (β:-2.653), and physical health status (β:-0.089); it was directly associated with level of life satisfaction (β:1.122). As confirmed by the path analysis, the effect of self-perceived workplace discrimination on MCS was mediated by the other factors considered: self-perceived loneliness (11.9%), level of life satisfaction (20.7%), and physical health status (3.9%).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that self-perceived workplace discrimination is associated with worse mental health status in immigrant workers through personal experiences in the workplace and explains the effect of the exposure to workplace discrimination on immigrants' psychological well-being. Our findings suggest that an overall public health response is needed to facilitate the social integration of immigrants and their access to health services, particularly those services that address mental health issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03077-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871130PMC
February 2021

Resilience, trauma, and hopelessness: protective or triggering factor for the development of psychopathology among migrants?

BMC Psychiatry 2020 07 8;20(1):358. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Translational Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, University of Western Piedmont, via Solaroli, 17, 28100, Novara, Italy.

Background: Recently, many studies have investigated the role of migration on mental health. Nonetheless, only few focused on the consequences of childhood trauma, hopelessness, and resilience on migrants' psychopathology, including psychiatric disorders and symptoms.

Method: 119 migrants were recruited between May 2017 and April 2018, among those applying for assessment to the Mental Health Operational Unit of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (NIHMP) in Rome, Italy. Assessment included the following: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck's Suicide Intent Scale (SIS), Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI).

Results: 53.39% of migrants scored above the PCL-5 cut-off score (mean score was 39.45). SDS scores below the cutoff suggested the presence of depression in 42.37%, while According to SAS scores anxiety levels were low in 38.98% of migrants. During childhood, physical abuse and neglect were reported respectively by 56.78 and 69.49% of migrants.

Conclusion: We found that Post Traumatic Stress Disorders play the role of mediators for the relation between the childhood traumatic experiences and aggressiveness, anxious and depressive symptomatology, while hopelessness is a mediator between the childhood traumatic experiences and the development of depression in adulthood. Hopelessness seems to influence the strength of the relation between childhood traumatic experiences and the individual's current intensity of suicidal attitudes, plans, and behaviors. Further developments and future perspectives of the research project are to address key gaps in the field of resilience by means of a longitudinal evaluation study in migrants, including a native population control group, acceding to NIHMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02729-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346618PMC
July 2020

Risk and protective factors for psychotic experiences in adolescence: a population-based study.

Psychol Med 2021 May 6;51(7):1220-1228. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Psychotic experiences (PEs) are reported by a significant minority of adolescents and are associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to examine associations between PEs and a range of factors including psychopathology, adversity and lifestyle, and to investigate mediating effects of coping style and parental support on associations between adversity and PEs in a general population adolescent sample.

Method: Cross-sectional data were drawn from the Irish centre of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. Students completed a self-report questionnaire and 973 adolescents, of whom 522 (53.6%) were boys, participated. PEs were assessed using the 7-item Adolescent Psychotic Symptom Screener.

Results: Of the total sample, 81 (8.7%) of the sample were found to be at risk of PEs. In multivariate analysis, associations were found between PEs and number of adverse events reported (OR 4.48, CI 1.41-14.25; p < 0.011), maladaptive/pathological internet use (OR 2.70, CI 1.30-5.58; p = 0.007), alcohol intoxication (OR 2.12, CI 1.10-4.12; p = 0.025) and anxiety symptoms (OR 4.03, CI 1.57-10.33; p = 0.004). There were small mediating effects of parental supervision, parental support and maladaptive coping on associations between adversity and PEs.

Conclusion: We have identified potential risk factors for PEs from multiple domains including adversity, mental health and lifestyle factors. The mediating effect of parental support on associations between adversity and PEs suggests that poor family relationships may account for some of this mechanism. These findings can inform the development of interventions for adolescents at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719004136DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk and protective factors for psychotic experiences in adolescence: a population-based study.

Psychol Med 2021 May 6;51(7):1220-1228. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Psychotic experiences (PEs) are reported by a significant minority of adolescents and are associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to examine associations between PEs and a range of factors including psychopathology, adversity and lifestyle, and to investigate mediating effects of coping style and parental support on associations between adversity and PEs in a general population adolescent sample.

Method: Cross-sectional data were drawn from the Irish centre of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. Students completed a self-report questionnaire and 973 adolescents, of whom 522 (53.6%) were boys, participated. PEs were assessed using the 7-item Adolescent Psychotic Symptom Screener.

Results: Of the total sample, 81 (8.7%) of the sample were found to be at risk of PEs. In multivariate analysis, associations were found between PEs and number of adverse events reported (OR 4.48, CI 1.41-14.25; p < 0.011), maladaptive/pathological internet use (OR 2.70, CI 1.30-5.58; p = 0.007), alcohol intoxication (OR 2.12, CI 1.10-4.12; p = 0.025) and anxiety symptoms (OR 4.03, CI 1.57-10.33; p = 0.004). There were small mediating effects of parental supervision, parental support and maladaptive coping on associations between adversity and PEs.

Conclusion: We have identified potential risk factors for PEs from multiple domains including adversity, mental health and lifestyle factors. The mediating effect of parental support on associations between adversity and PEs suggests that poor family relationships may account for some of this mechanism. These findings can inform the development of interventions for adolescents at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719004136DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk and protective factors for psychotic experiences in adolescence: a population-based study.

Psychol Med 2021 May 6;51(7):1220-1228. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Psychotic experiences (PEs) are reported by a significant minority of adolescents and are associated with the development of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to examine associations between PEs and a range of factors including psychopathology, adversity and lifestyle, and to investigate mediating effects of coping style and parental support on associations between adversity and PEs in a general population adolescent sample.

Method: Cross-sectional data were drawn from the Irish centre of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. Students completed a self-report questionnaire and 973 adolescents, of whom 522 (53.6%) were boys, participated. PEs were assessed using the 7-item Adolescent Psychotic Symptom Screener.

Results: Of the total sample, 81 (8.7%) of the sample were found to be at risk of PEs. In multivariate analysis, associations were found between PEs and number of adverse events reported (OR 4.48, CI 1.41-14.25; p < 0.011), maladaptive/pathological internet use (OR 2.70, CI 1.30-5.58; p = 0.007), alcohol intoxication (OR 2.12, CI 1.10-4.12; p = 0.025) and anxiety symptoms (OR 4.03, CI 1.57-10.33; p = 0.004). There were small mediating effects of parental supervision, parental support and maladaptive coping on associations between adversity and PEs.

Conclusion: We have identified potential risk factors for PEs from multiple domains including adversity, mental health and lifestyle factors. The mediating effect of parental support on associations between adversity and PEs suggests that poor family relationships may account for some of this mechanism. These findings can inform the development of interventions for adolescents at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719004136DOI Listing
May 2021

Life Events Predicting the First Onset of Adolescent Direct Self-Injurious Behavior-A Prospective Multicenter Study.

J Adolesc Health 2020 02 31;66(2):195-201. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: Self-injurious behavior is a frequent phenomenon in adolescence. The present study prospectively examined life events as risk factors for the first onset of direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) in the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe school-based multicenter sample.

Methods: Longitudinal assessments with an interval of 1 year were performed within a sample of 1,933 adolescents (51.47% females; mean age 14.84 ± .9 years) from 10 European countries and Israel.

Results: The number of life events during the past 6 months predicted the first onset of D-SIB in the following year. Gender neither predicted the onset of D-SIB nor moderated the association with life events. Moreover, analyses of individual events identified a range of mainly interpersonal events within both family and peer group as proximal risk factors for first episode D-SIB.

Conclusions: The results support the critical role of interpersonal life events in the development of D-SIB for both genders and refine the conceptualization of proximal risk factors in terms of accumulated stressors and interpersonal events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2019.08.018DOI Listing
February 2020

No correlation among expressed emotion, anxiety, stress and weight loss in patients with overweight and obesity.

Food Nutr Res 2019 8;63. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Institute of Psychiatry, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy.

Background: The onset of some types of obesity may correlate with specific familial relational patterns, and expressed emotion (EE), the family life's 'emotional temperature', may play a role in obesity treatment compliance and outcome.

Objective: The aim of this study is to address the current gap in the literature about EE and obesity, assessing EE in a sample of patients with overweight or obesity and their relatives. A further objective is to assess patients' weight loss, patients' and relatives' anxiety, perceived stress and their possible correlation with EE and diet compliance.

Design: A total of 220 patients with overweight or obesity and 126 relatives were recruited; their socio-demographic and clinical features were collected; and Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (LEE), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 1 and 2 (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2) and Paykel Scale of Stressful Life Events were administered.

Results: Patients' baseline body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with educational level, but we failed to find any correlation between BMI and the other variables assessed. We found a positive correlation between EE median and stressful life events, as well as between median EE and state and trait anxiety.

Conclusions: Our results seem to suggest that other factors than the psychological ones we investigated may play a role in treatment adherence and outcome in patients with overweight and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v63.3522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787637PMC
October 2019

No correlation among expressed emotion, anxiety, stress and weight loss in patients with overweight and obesity.

Food Nutr Res 2019 8;63. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Institute of Psychiatry, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale, Novara, Italy.

Background: The onset of some types of obesity may correlate with specific familial relational patterns, and expressed emotion (EE), the family life's 'emotional temperature', may play a role in obesity treatment compliance and outcome.

Objective: The aim of this study is to address the current gap in the literature about EE and obesity, assessing EE in a sample of patients with overweight or obesity and their relatives. A further objective is to assess patients' weight loss, patients' and relatives' anxiety, perceived stress and their possible correlation with EE and diet compliance.

Design: A total of 220 patients with overweight or obesity and 126 relatives were recruited; their socio-demographic and clinical features were collected; and Level of Expressed Emotion Scale (LEE), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 1 and 2 (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2) and Paykel Scale of Stressful Life Events were administered.

Results: Patients' baseline body mass index (BMI) was negatively correlated with educational level, but we failed to find any correlation between BMI and the other variables assessed. We found a positive correlation between EE median and stressful life events, as well as between median EE and state and trait anxiety.

Conclusions: Our results seem to suggest that other factors than the psychological ones we investigated may play a role in treatment adherence and outcome in patients with overweight and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v63.3522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6787637PMC
October 2019

Orthorexia nervosa, eating patterns and personality traits: a cross-cultural comparison of Italian, Polish and Spanish university students.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 07 30;19(1):235. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Psychiatry Ward, Maggiore della Carità University Hospital, Novara, Italy.

Background: The amount of research about orthorexic attitudes and behaviours has increased in the last five years, but is still mainly based on descriptive and anecdotal data, yielding a variety of prevalence data and inconsistent results. The interplay between socio-cultural context and orthorexia has been poorly investigated and is still far from being understood.

Method: Multicentre, cross-sectional study involving Italian (N = 216), Polish (N = 206) and Spanish (N = 242) university students, assessed through a protocol including informed consent, socio-demographic and anamnestic data sheet and self-administered questionnaires (ORTO-15, Eating Attitudes Test- 26 [EAT-26], Temperament and Character Inventory [TCI]).

Results: Higher prevalence of orthorexia (as described by the ORTO-15 cutoff) was found in Poland. Female gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), current Eating Disorder, dieting, EAT-26 score ≥ 20 and low/medium Persistence were associated with orthorexia in the whole sample. The cross-cultural comparison showed several differences among the three subgroups of students.

Conclusions: The associations found between orthorexic attitudes, self-reported current eating disorder, BMI and adherence to a dieting need to be supported by further research. The differences among students from the three countries seem to suggest a possible rolve for cultural elements in the construct of orthorexia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2208-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6668093PMC
July 2019

Alcohol use and risk factors for self-harm behavior in Spanish adolescents.

Adicciones 2021 Jan 15;33(1):53-62. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Universidad de Oviedo.

Self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents constitute an important public health problem with prevalence figures in the clinical population between 40 and 80%. The objectives of the study were to analyze and compare the Spanish sub-samples of two studies, SEYLE and WE-STAY to determine prevalence, self-harm patterns and factors associated with self-harm behaviors, notably the use of alcohol or drugs. The questionnaires used in both studies were the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The self-harm behaviors were evaluated with a modified 6-item version of s the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI). The independence of the study's categorical variables was assessed using the Chi-square test. The change in the relative risk of self-harm between the SEYLE study and WE-STAY was evaluated through the odds ratio (OR) calculation. Two different logistic regression models were calculated in order to establish the factors associated with self-harm behaviors in each study. In the present study, the rates of DSH vary according to study and sex, ranging from 0.58% to 2.08%, and different patterns of self-harm are evidenced by sex, with males self-injuring more frequently by self-inflicted blows and burns, while young women more often cut themselves. The presence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use were the factors most strongly associated with an increased risk of DSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1239DOI Listing
January 2021

Alcohol use and risk factors for self-harm behavior in Spanish adolescents.

Adicciones 2021 Jan 15;33(1):53-62. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Universidad de Oviedo.

Self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents constitute an important public health problem with prevalence figures in the clinical population between 40 and 80%. The objectives of the study were to analyze and compare the Spanish sub-samples of two studies, SEYLE and WE-STAY to determine prevalence, self-harm patterns and factors associated with self-harm behaviors, notably the use of alcohol or drugs. The questionnaires used in both studies were the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The self-harm behaviors were evaluated with a modified 6-item version of s the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI). The independence of the study's categorical variables was assessed using the Chi-square test. The change in the relative risk of self-harm between the SEYLE study and WE-STAY was evaluated through the odds ratio (OR) calculation. Two different logistic regression models were calculated in order to establish the factors associated with self-harm behaviors in each study. In the present study, the rates of DSH vary according to study and sex, ranging from 0.58% to 2.08%, and different patterns of self-harm are evidenced by sex, with males self-injuring more frequently by self-inflicted blows and burns, while young women more often cut themselves. The presence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use were the factors most strongly associated with an increased risk of DSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1239DOI Listing
January 2021

Alcohol use and risk factors for self-harm behavior in Spanish adolescents.

Adicciones 2021 Jan 15;33(1):53-62. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Universidad de Oviedo.

Self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents constitute an important public health problem with prevalence figures in the clinical population between 40 and 80%. The objectives of the study were to analyze and compare the Spanish sub-samples of two studies, SEYLE and WE-STAY to determine prevalence, self-harm patterns and factors associated with self-harm behaviors, notably the use of alcohol or drugs. The questionnaires used in both studies were the Global School Health Survey (GSHS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The self-harm behaviors were evaluated with a modified 6-item version of s the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory (DSHI). The independence of the study's categorical variables was assessed using the Chi-square test. The change in the relative risk of self-harm between the SEYLE study and WE-STAY was evaluated through the odds ratio (OR) calculation. Two different logistic regression models were calculated in order to establish the factors associated with self-harm behaviors in each study. In the present study, the rates of DSH vary according to study and sex, ranging from 0.58% to 2.08%, and different patterns of self-harm are evidenced by sex, with males self-injuring more frequently by self-inflicted blows and burns, while young women more often cut themselves. The presence of depressive symptoms and alcohol use were the factors most strongly associated with an increased risk of DSH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.1239DOI Listing
January 2021

Longitudinal development of risk-taking and self-injurious behavior in association with late adolescent borderline personality disorder symptoms.

Psychiatry Res 2019 03 3;273:127-133. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Section for Translational Psychobiology in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; University Hospital of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Self-injurious behavior and risk-taking behaviors are associated with adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD). Developmental trajectories of self-injurious and risk-taking behavior in predicting BPD have not been fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine self-injurious and risk-taking behavior development and their prospective influence on BPD symptoms in adolescence. Data (n = 506; 62.06 % females, 14.53 years) from the German Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe cohort were analyzed. Self-injurious and risk-taking behaviors were assessed at baseline and one-year follow-up. BPD symptoms were assessed at two-year follow-up. In fully adjusted stepwise binominal regression analyses, recent onset, termination and maintenance of risky alcohol use and self-injurious behavior remained as significant predictors of BPD. Highest ORs were found for alcohol termination and maintenance of self-injurious behavior. Other facets of risk-taking behavior were not associated with increased ORs of BPD symptoms at two-year follow-up. These findings highlight the importance of self-injurious behavior and specific facets of risk-taking behavior in the development of adolescent BPD. Clinicians should focus on efforts in preventing adolescents from risk-taking and self-injurious behavior, since engaging in young age and therefore in potentially longer periods of these behaviors is associated with the highest risk of BPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.01.010DOI Listing
March 2019

Psychopathology is associated with reproductive health risk in European adolescents.

Reprod Health 2018 Nov 6;15(1):186. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Reproductive and mental health are key domains of adolescent wellbeing but possible interrelationships are poorly understood. This cross-sectional study evaluated the association between psychopathology and reproductive health risk among European adolescents.

Methods: A structured self-report questionnaire was delivered to 12,395 pupils of 179 randomly selected schools in 11 European countries within the EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) project. The questionnaire included items about sexual initiation and reproductive health risk factors, such as number of sexual partners, frequency of condom use, and pregnancy involvement. Psychopathology was evaluated with validated instruments and/or ad-hoc questions.

Results: Of 11,406 respondents (median age 15; interquartile range [IQR] 14-15; 57% females), 18.8% reported sexual initiation. Sixty percent of them also reported at least one reproductive risk factor. Sexual initiation was significantly more common among pupils older than 15 years (38% versus 13.2% younger pupils) and males (21.3% versus 16.9% females). It was also more common among pupils with depression (age/sex-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.871), anxiety (aOR 2.190), severe suicidal ideation (aOR 2.259), self-injurious behaviour (aOR 2.892), and suicide attempts (aOR 3.091). These associations were particularly strong among pupils ≤15 years old and, for overt psychopathology, among pupils with low non-sexual risk behaviour profile and females. Depression (aOR 1.937), anxiety (aOR 2.282), severe suicidal ideation (aOR 2.354), self-injurious behaviour (aOR 3.022), and suicide attempts (aOR 3.284) were associated with higher reproductive health risk, defined by an increasing number of coexisting reproductive risk factors.

Conclusions: These findings suggest an alignment between mental and reproductive health risk and support the value of cross-domain collaboration in adolescent health. The association between psychopathology and reproductive health risk, as well as its variations with age, sex, and associated risk behaviours, should be considered when designing health-promoting or disease-preventing interventions for adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-018-0618-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220505PMC
November 2018

Comorbidity of Physical and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescent: Functional Impairment, Self-Rated Health and Subjective Well-Being.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 08 9;15(8). Epub 2018 Aug 9.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

Physical disorders and anxiety are frequently comorbid. This study investigates the characteristics of physical disorders, self-rated heath, subjective well-being and anxiety in adolescents. Data were drawn from the cohort study. From 11 countries 11,230 adolescents, aged 14⁻16 years were included. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), WHO-5 Well-Being Index and five questions prepared for this study to evaluate physical illnesses and self-rated heath were administered. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in adolescents who reported having physical disability ( < 0.001, Cohen's = 0.40), suffering from chronic illnesses ( < 0.001, Cohen's = 0.40), impairments associated to health conditions ( < 0.001, Cohen's = 0.61), or reported poor to very poor self-rated health ( < 0.001, Cohen's = 1.11). Mediational analyses revealed no direct effect of having a chronic illness/physical disability on subjective well-being, but the indirect effects through higher levels of anxiety were significant. Functional impairment related to health conditions was both directly and indirectly (through higher levels of anxiety) associated with lower well-being. The co-occurrence of anxiety and physical disorders may confer a greater level of disability and lower levels of subjective well-being. Clinicians have to screen anxiety, even in a subthreshold level in patients with choric physical illness or with medically unexplained physical symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6121583PMC
August 2018

Predictive factors of alcohol consumption in adolescents: data from 1-year follow-up prospective study.

Adicciones 2019 Jan 1;31(1):52-63. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Área de Psiquiatría. Universidad de Oviedo.

Alcohol use/abuse is a health problem in adolescents. The last Survey on use of drugs in Secondary Schoolers carried out in Spain (ESTUDES 2014-2015), reveals that 76.8% of adolescents aged 14 to 18 years consumed alcohol in the previous year and 68.2% in the last month. The aim of this study is to determine the medium-term factors associated with alcohol consumption in a sample of Spanish adolescents. The present study was carried out as a part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives project in Europe (SEYLE) project. The final sample was composed of 708 students, assessed at two times [basal (T0) and one year later (T1)] [males: 51.98%, basal mean age (SD)=4.43 (0.67)]. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in order to investigate relationships between possible predictive variables found at time T0 and alcohol consumption at time T1. At basal time (T0) the prevalence of alcohol abuse was 25.56%, whereas the prevalence one year later was 49.72% (T1). Variables that significantly predict alcohol abuse within a year are: previous alcohol abuse at T0 (p<0.001), previous abuse of drugs (p=0.011), parents attending their sporting events (p=0.005), peer problems (p=0.019), and lack of prosocial behaviour (p=0.043). In the light of our results, it can be concluded that, in adolescents, externalizing disorders seem to be determining factors of medium-term alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.998DOI Listing
January 2019

Predictive factors of alcohol consumption in adolescents: data from 1-year follow-up prospective study.

Adicciones 2019 Jan 1;31(1):52-63. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Área de Psiquiatría. Universidad de Oviedo.

Alcohol use/abuse is a health problem in adolescents. The last Survey on use of drugs in Secondary Schoolers carried out in Spain (ESTUDES 2014-2015), reveals that 76.8% of adolescents aged 14 to 18 years consumed alcohol in the previous year and 68.2% in the last month. The aim of this study is to determine the medium-term factors associated with alcohol consumption in a sample of Spanish adolescents. The present study was carried out as a part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives project in Europe (SEYLE) project. The final sample was composed of 708 students, assessed at two times [basal (T0) and one year later (T1)] [males: 51.98%, basal mean age (SD)=4.43 (0.67)]. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed in order to investigate relationships between possible predictive variables found at time T0 and alcohol consumption at time T1. At basal time (T0) the prevalence of alcohol abuse was 25.56%, whereas the prevalence one year later was 49.72% (T1). Variables that significantly predict alcohol abuse within a year are: previous alcohol abuse at T0 (p<0.001), previous abuse of drugs (p=0.011), parents attending their sporting events (p=0.005), peer problems (p=0.019), and lack of prosocial behaviour (p=0.043). In the light of our results, it can be concluded that, in adolescents, externalizing disorders seem to be determining factors of medium-term alcohol consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20882/adicciones.998DOI Listing
January 2019

Direct Self-Injurious Behavior (D-SIB) and Life Events among Vocational School and High School Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 05 24;15(6). Epub 2018 May 24.

Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University, 1075 Budapest, Hungary.

Although several studies have recently assessed direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among adolescents, it is still understudied in adolescents attending vocational schools: an educational setting generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. After extending the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) project to a vocational school population, we examined their D-SIB and life event characteristics compared to the high school population. SEYLE's Hungarian randomly selected high school sample ( = 995) was completed with a randomly selected vocational school sample ( = 140) in Budapest, Hungary. Participants aged 14⁻17 years completed the SEYLE project's self-administered questionnaires. D-SIB lifetime prevalence was significantly higher (29.4%) in the vocational school group compared to the high school group (17.2%) (Χ²(1) = 12.231, < 0.001). D-SIB was associated with suicidal ideation in the vocational school group. Different life events were more frequent in the high school than in the vocational school group, and associations between D-SIB and life events differed in the vocational school group compared to the high school group. In conclusion, vocational school students are a vulnerable population with a higher prevalence of D-SIB compared to high school students. Life events and their association with D-SIB also differ in vocational school students compared to high school students. Taking all these into account might contribute to prevention/intervention designed for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025121PMC
May 2018

Direct Self-Injurious Behavior (D-SIB) and Life Events among Vocational School and High School Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 05 24;15(6). Epub 2018 May 24.

Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University, 1075 Budapest, Hungary.

Although several studies have recently assessed direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among adolescents, it is still understudied in adolescents attending vocational schools: an educational setting generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. After extending the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) project to a vocational school population, we examined their D-SIB and life event characteristics compared to the high school population. SEYLE's Hungarian randomly selected high school sample ( = 995) was completed with a randomly selected vocational school sample ( = 140) in Budapest, Hungary. Participants aged 14⁻17 years completed the SEYLE project's self-administered questionnaires. D-SIB lifetime prevalence was significantly higher (29.4%) in the vocational school group compared to the high school group (17.2%) (Χ²(1) = 12.231, < 0.001). D-SIB was associated with suicidal ideation in the vocational school group. Different life events were more frequent in the high school than in the vocational school group, and associations between D-SIB and life events differed in the vocational school group compared to the high school group. In conclusion, vocational school students are a vulnerable population with a higher prevalence of D-SIB compared to high school students. Life events and their association with D-SIB also differ in vocational school students compared to high school students. Taking all these into account might contribute to prevention/intervention designed for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025121PMC
May 2018

Direct Self-Injurious Behavior (D-SIB) and Life Events among Vocational School and High School Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 05 24;15(6). Epub 2018 May 24.

Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University, 1075 Budapest, Hungary.

Although several studies have recently assessed direct self-injurious behavior (D-SIB) among adolescents, it is still understudied in adolescents attending vocational schools: an educational setting generally associated with lower socioeconomic status. After extending the "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) project to a vocational school population, we examined their D-SIB and life event characteristics compared to the high school population. SEYLE's Hungarian randomly selected high school sample ( = 995) was completed with a randomly selected vocational school sample ( = 140) in Budapest, Hungary. Participants aged 14⁻17 years completed the SEYLE project's self-administered questionnaires. D-SIB lifetime prevalence was significantly higher (29.4%) in the vocational school group compared to the high school group (17.2%) (Χ²(1) = 12.231, < 0.001). D-SIB was associated with suicidal ideation in the vocational school group. Different life events were more frequent in the high school than in the vocational school group, and associations between D-SIB and life events differed in the vocational school group compared to the high school group. In conclusion, vocational school students are a vulnerable population with a higher prevalence of D-SIB compared to high school students. Life events and their association with D-SIB also differ in vocational school students compared to high school students. Taking all these into account might contribute to prevention/intervention designed for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025121PMC
May 2018

Correlates of sexual initiation among European adolescents.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(2):e0191451. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents.

Methods: A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011. A follow-up questionnaire was delivered after 12 months. The longitudinal association of baseline risk behaviors, psychological attributes and contextual vulnerabilities, with sexual initiation during follow-up was evaluated through simple and multivariable age/sex stratified logistic regression. Multinomial logistic regression measured the association between predictors and sexual initiation with or without coexisting reproductive risk factors, such as multiple partners or infrequent condom use.

Results: Baseline sexual experience was reported by 19.2% of 10,757 respondents (median age 15; IQR 14-15; females 59.6%). This was significantly more frequent among pupils older than 15 (41%) and males (20.8%). Of 7,111 pupils without previous experience who were available at follow-up (response rate 81.8%), 17% reported sexual initiation, without differences between females and males. Baseline smoking (age/sex adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.63), alcohol use (aOR 2.95), illegal drugs use (aOR 2.72), and poor sleep (aOR 1.71) predicted sexual initiation. Stratified analyses showed a particularly strong association in case of younger and female pupils, and, among girls, when initiation was reported together with multiple partners and/or infrequent condom use. Externalizing (i.e. conduct and hyperactivity) symptoms independently predicted sexual initiation. Internalizing difficulties (i.e. emotional and peer problems) were negatively associated with early and risky sexual initiation among boys. Significant predictors included also being bullied, fighting, truancy, and low parental involvement.

Conclusions: Adolescent sexual behaviours are related to non-sexual risk behaviours, psychological difficulties and contextual vulnerabilities. While gateway effects explain some associations, a comprehensive model is needed to understand adolescent sexual behaviours, their physical, mental, and social health outcomes, and their potential positive effects on wellbeing. Tailored interventions may need to consider younger girls as a particularly vulnerable group in view of a strong association between non-sexual and sexual behaviors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191451PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805230PMC
March 2018

Correlates of sexual initiation among European adolescents.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(2):e0191451. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents.

Methods: A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011. A follow-up questionnaire was delivered after 12 months. The longitudinal association of baseline risk behaviors, psychological attributes and contextual vulnerabilities, with sexual initiation during follow-up was evaluated through simple and multivariable age/sex stratified logistic regression. Multinomial logistic regression measured the association between predictors and sexual initiation with or without coexisting reproductive risk factors, such as multiple partners or infrequent condom use.

Results: Baseline sexual experience was reported by 19.2% of 10,757 respondents (median age 15; IQR 14-15; females 59.6%). This was significantly more frequent among pupils older than 15 (41%) and males (20.8%). Of 7,111 pupils without previous experience who were available at follow-up (response rate 81.8%), 17% reported sexual initiation, without differences between females and males. Baseline smoking (age/sex adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.63), alcohol use (aOR 2.95), illegal drugs use (aOR 2.72), and poor sleep (aOR 1.71) predicted sexual initiation. Stratified analyses showed a particularly strong association in case of younger and female pupils, and, among girls, when initiation was reported together with multiple partners and/or infrequent condom use. Externalizing (i.e. conduct and hyperactivity) symptoms independently predicted sexual initiation. Internalizing difficulties (i.e. emotional and peer problems) were negatively associated with early and risky sexual initiation among boys. Significant predictors included also being bullied, fighting, truancy, and low parental involvement.

Conclusions: Adolescent sexual behaviours are related to non-sexual risk behaviours, psychological difficulties and contextual vulnerabilities. While gateway effects explain some associations, a comprehensive model is needed to understand adolescent sexual behaviours, their physical, mental, and social health outcomes, and their potential positive effects on wellbeing. Tailored interventions may need to consider younger girls as a particularly vulnerable group in view of a strong association between non-sexual and sexual behaviors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191451PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805230PMC
March 2018

Correlates of sexual initiation among European adolescents.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(2):e0191451. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Sexuality is a physiological component of adolescent development, though early initiation is associated with reproductive health risk. This study aimed at identifying correlates and predictors of sexual initiation in a large multinational cohort of European adolescents.

Methods: A questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, behaviours, mental health and sexual activity, was delivered to 11,110 adolescents recruited from 168 randomly selected schools in 10 European countries between 2009 and 2011. A follow-up questionnaire was delivered after 12 months. The longitudinal association of baseline risk behaviors, psychological attributes and contextual vulnerabilities, with sexual initiation during follow-up was evaluated through simple and multivariable age/sex stratified logistic regression. Multinomial logistic regression measured the association between predictors and sexual initiation with or without coexisting reproductive risk factors, such as multiple partners or infrequent condom use.

Results: Baseline sexual experience was reported by 19.2% of 10,757 respondents (median age 15; IQR 14-15; females 59.6%). This was significantly more frequent among pupils older than 15 (41%) and males (20.8%). Of 7,111 pupils without previous experience who were available at follow-up (response rate 81.8%), 17% reported sexual initiation, without differences between females and males. Baseline smoking (age/sex adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.63), alcohol use (aOR 2.95), illegal drugs use (aOR 2.72), and poor sleep (aOR 1.71) predicted sexual initiation. Stratified analyses showed a particularly strong association in case of younger and female pupils, and, among girls, when initiation was reported together with multiple partners and/or infrequent condom use. Externalizing (i.e. conduct and hyperactivity) symptoms independently predicted sexual initiation. Internalizing difficulties (i.e. emotional and peer problems) were negatively associated with early and risky sexual initiation among boys. Significant predictors included also being bullied, fighting, truancy, and low parental involvement.

Conclusions: Adolescent sexual behaviours are related to non-sexual risk behaviours, psychological difficulties and contextual vulnerabilities. While gateway effects explain some associations, a comprehensive model is needed to understand adolescent sexual behaviours, their physical, mental, and social health outcomes, and their potential positive effects on wellbeing. Tailored interventions may need to consider younger girls as a particularly vulnerable group in view of a strong association between non-sexual and sexual behaviors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191451PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5805230PMC
March 2018

Explicit Motives, Antecedents, and Consequences of Direct Self-Injurious Behaviors.

Crisis 2018 Jul 8;39(4):255-266. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

3 National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Self-injurious behaviors in adolescence are a serious public health concern.

Aims: The current study aims to expand our understanding of motives for direct self-injurious behaviors (D-SIB). We examined the explicit motives but also the actual antecedents and consequences of D-SIB over time.

Method: As part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years from Israel completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-ups.

Results: Decreases in social support predicted later increases in D-SIB, an effect mediated by negative affect. Both peer and parental support also exerted quadratic effects on D-SIB. Thus, low as well as high support predicted subsequent D-SIB. In turn, D-SIB was followed by increased peer and parental support.

Limitations: Our methodology relies on self-reports, affected by social desirability and recall biases.

Conclusion: The findings support a causal path for the development of D-SIB: from interpersonal distress to emotional distress and then to D-SIB. They also point to interesting avenues regarding subgroupings of adolescents who self-injure depending on their motives. Finally, our results reveal that D-SIB, although of negative import, might paradoxically be effective in serving certain functions such as gaining support from parents and peers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000493DOI Listing
July 2018

Explicit Motives, Antecedents, and Consequences of Direct Self-Injurious Behaviors.

Crisis 2018 Jul 8;39(4):255-266. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

3 National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Self-injurious behaviors in adolescence are a serious public health concern.

Aims: The current study aims to expand our understanding of motives for direct self-injurious behaviors (D-SIB). We examined the explicit motives but also the actual antecedents and consequences of D-SIB over time.

Method: As part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years from Israel completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-ups.

Results: Decreases in social support predicted later increases in D-SIB, an effect mediated by negative affect. Both peer and parental support also exerted quadratic effects on D-SIB. Thus, low as well as high support predicted subsequent D-SIB. In turn, D-SIB was followed by increased peer and parental support.

Limitations: Our methodology relies on self-reports, affected by social desirability and recall biases.

Conclusion: The findings support a causal path for the development of D-SIB: from interpersonal distress to emotional distress and then to D-SIB. They also point to interesting avenues regarding subgroupings of adolescents who self-injure depending on their motives. Finally, our results reveal that D-SIB, although of negative import, might paradoxically be effective in serving certain functions such as gaining support from parents and peers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000493DOI Listing
July 2018

Explicit Motives, Antecedents, and Consequences of Direct Self-Injurious Behaviors.

Crisis 2018 Jul 8;39(4):255-266. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

3 National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Self-injurious behaviors in adolescence are a serious public health concern.

Aims: The current study aims to expand our understanding of motives for direct self-injurious behaviors (D-SIB). We examined the explicit motives but also the actual antecedents and consequences of D-SIB over time.

Method: As part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) study, adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years from Israel completed self-report questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-ups.

Results: Decreases in social support predicted later increases in D-SIB, an effect mediated by negative affect. Both peer and parental support also exerted quadratic effects on D-SIB. Thus, low as well as high support predicted subsequent D-SIB. In turn, D-SIB was followed by increased peer and parental support.

Limitations: Our methodology relies on self-reports, affected by social desirability and recall biases.

Conclusion: The findings support a causal path for the development of D-SIB: from interpersonal distress to emotional distress and then to D-SIB. They also point to interesting avenues regarding subgroupings of adolescents who self-injure depending on their motives. Finally, our results reveal that D-SIB, although of negative import, might paradoxically be effective in serving certain functions such as gaining support from parents and peers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0227-5910/a000493DOI Listing
July 2018

EUDOR-A multi-centre research program: A naturalistic, European Multi-centre Clinical study of EDOR Test in adult patients with primary depression.

BMC Psychiatry 2017 03 23;17(1):108. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

EMOTRA AB, Sävedalen, Sweden.

Background: Electrodermal reactivity has been successfully used as indicator of interest, curiosity as well as depressive states. The measured reactivity depends on the quantity of sweat secreted by those eccrine sweat glands that are located in the hypodermis of palmar and plantar regions. Electrodermal hyporeactive individuals are those who show an unusual rapid habituation to identical non-significant stimuli. Previous findings suggested that electrodermal hyporeactivity has a high sensitivity and a high specificity for suicide. The aims of the present study are to test the effectiveness and the usefulness of the EDOR (ElectroDermal Orienting Reactivity) Test as a support in the suicide risk assessment of depressed patients and to assess the predictive value of electrodermal hyporeactivity, measured through the EDOR Test, for suicide and suicide attempt in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of depression.

Methods And Design: 1573 patients with a primary diagnosis of depression, whether currently depressed or in remission, have been recruited at 15 centres in 9 different European countries. Depressive symptomatology was evaluated through the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. Previous suicide attempts were registered and the suicide intent of the worst attempt was rated according to the first eight items of the Beck Suicide Intent Scale. The suicide risk was also assessed according to rules and traditions at the centre. The EDOR Test was finally performed. During the EDOR Test, two fingers are put on gold electrodes and direct current of 0.5 V is passed through the epidermis of the fingers according to standards. A moderately strong tone is presented through headphones now and then during the test. The electrodermal responses to the stimuli represent an increase in the conductance due to the increased number of filled sweat ducts that act as conductors through the electrically highly resistant epidermis. Each patient is followed up for one year in order to assess the occurrence of intentional self-harm.

Discussion: Based on previous studies, expected results would be that patients realizing a suicide attempt with a strong intent or committing suicide should be electrodermally hyporeactive in most cases and non-hyporeactive patients should show only few indications of death intent or suicides.

Trial Registration: The German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00010082 . Registered May 31, 2016. Retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1246-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5363034PMC
March 2017
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