Publications by authors named "Marco Mignardi"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Single-cell transcriptomic atlas of the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle.

Nat Med 2020 10 14;26(10):1644-1653. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

In a human menstrual cycle the endometrium undergoes remodeling, shedding and regeneration, all of which are driven by substantial gene expression changes in the underlying cellular hierarchy. Despite its importance in human fertility and regenerative biology, our understanding of this unique type of tissue homeostasis remains rudimentary. We characterized the transcriptomic transformation of human endometrium at single-cell resolution across the menstrual cycle, resolving cellular heterogeneity in multiple dimensions. We profiled the behavior of seven endometrial cell types, including a previously uncharacterized ciliated cell type, during four major phases of endometrial transformation, and found characteristic signatures for each cell type and phase. We discovered that the human window of implantation opens with an abrupt and discontinuous transcriptomic activation in the epithelia, accompanied with a widespread decidualization feature in the stromal fibroblasts. Our study provides a high-resolution molecular and cellular characterization of human endometrial transformation across the menstrual cycle, providing insights into this essential physiological process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1040-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Modeling Spatial Correlation of Transcripts with Application to Developing Pancreas.

Sci Rep 2019 04 3;9(1):5592. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Recently high-throughput image-based transcriptomic methods were developed and enabled researchers to spatially resolve gene expression variation at the molecular level for the first time. In this work, we develop a general analysis tool to quantitatively study the spatial correlations of gene expression in fixed tissue sections. As an illustration, we analyze the spatial distribution of single mRNA molecules measured by in situ sequencing on human fetal pancreas at three developmental time points-80, 87 and 117 days post-fertilization. We develop a density profile-based method to capture the spatial relationship between gene expression and other morphological features of the tissue sample such as position of nuclei and endocrine cells of the pancreas. In addition, we build a statistical model to characterize correlations in the spatial distribution of the expression level among different genes. This model enables us to infer the inhibitory and clustering effects throughout different time points. Our analysis framework is applicable to a wide variety of spatially-resolved transcriptomic data to derive biological insights.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41951-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447534PMC
April 2019

RollFISH achieves robust quantification of single-molecule RNA biomarkers in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples.

Commun Biol 2018 28;1:209. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

1Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Tomtebodavägen 23a, 17165 Solna, Stockholm Sweden.

Single-molecule RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH) represents a promising approach to quantify the expression of clinically useful biomarkers in tumor samples. However, routine application of smFISH to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples is challenging due to the low signal intensity and high background noise. Here we present RollFISH, a method combining the specificity of smFISH with the signal boosting of rolling circle amplification. We apply RollFISH to quantify widely used breast cancer biomarkers in cell lines and FFPE samples. Thanks to the high signal-to-noise ratio, we can visualize selected biomarkers at low magnification (20 × ) across entire tissue sections, and thus assess their spatial heterogeneity. Lastly, we apply RollFISH to quantify HER2 mRNA in 150 samples on a single tissue microarray, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of detection of HER2-positive samples of ~90%. RollFISH is a robust method for quantifying the expression and intratumor heterogeneity of biomarkers in FFPE tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0218-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262000PMC
November 2018

Single-Cell RNA-Seq Analysis of Infiltrating Neoplastic Cells at the Migrating Front of Human Glioblastoma.

Cell Rep 2017 10;21(5):1399-1410

Departments of Bioengineering and Applied Physics, Stanford University and Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain cancer in adults and is notoriously difficult to treat because of its diffuse nature. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on 3,589 cells in a cohort of four patients. We obtained cells from the tumor core as well as surrounding peripheral tissue. Our analysis revealed cellular variation in the tumor's genome and transcriptome. We were also able to identify infiltrating neoplastic cells in regions peripheral to the core lesions. Despite the existence of significant heterogeneity among neoplastic cells, we found that infiltrating GBM cells share a consistent gene signature between patients, suggesting a common mechanism of infiltration. Additionally, in investigating the immunological response to the tumors, we found transcriptionally distinct myeloid cell populations residing in the tumor core and the surrounding peritumoral space. Our data provide a detailed dissection of GBM cell types, revealing an abundance of information about tumor formation and migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5810554PMC
October 2017

Single-Cell Analysis of Human Pancreas Reveals Transcriptional Signatures of Aging and Somatic Mutation Patterns.

Cell 2017 Oct 28;171(2):321-330.e14. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Department of Bioengineering and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Institute of Cellular Therapeutics, Allegheny Health Network, 320 East North Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA. Electronic address:

As organisms age, cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic errors that eventually lead to impaired organ function or catastrophic transformation such as cancer. Because aging reflects a stochastic process of increasing disorder, cells in an organ will be individually affected in different ways, thus rendering bulk analyses of postmitotic adult cells difficult to interpret. Here, we directly measure the effects of aging in human tissue by performing single-cell transcriptome analysis of 2,544 human pancreas cells from eight donors spanning six decades of life. We find that islet endocrine cells from older donors display increased levels of transcriptional noise and potential fate drift. By determining the mutational history of individual cells, we uncover a novel mutational signature in healthy aging endocrine cells. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from primary cells to derive insights into genetic and transcriptional processes that operate on aging human tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047899PMC
October 2017

Fourth Generation of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies: Promise and Consequences.

Hum Mutat 2016 12 10;37(12):1363-1367. Epub 2016 Aug 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Science for Life Laboratory, Stockholm University, Solna, SE-171 21, Sweden.

In this review, we discuss the emergence of the fourth-generation sequencing technologies that preserve the spatial coordinates of RNA and DNA sequences with up to subcellular resolution, thus enabling back mapping of sequencing reads to the original histological context. This information is used, for example, in two current large-scale projects that aim to unravel the function of the brain. Also in cancer research, fourth-generation sequencing has the potential to revolutionize the field. Cancer Research UK has named "Mapping the molecular and cellular tumor microenvironment in order to define new targets for therapy and prognosis" one of the grand challenges in tumor biology. We discuss the advantages of sequencing nucleic acids directly in fixed cells over traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, the limitations and challenges that these new methods have to face to become broadly applicable, and the impact that the information generated by the combination of in situ sequencing and NGS methods will have in research and diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111608PMC
December 2016

New technologies for DNA analysis--a review of the READNA Project.

N Biotechnol 2016 May 26;33(3):311-30. Epub 2015 Oct 26.

FlexGen BV, Galileiweg 8, 2333 BD Leiden, The Netherlands.

The REvolutionary Approaches and Devices for Nucleic Acid analysis (READNA) project received funding from the European Commission for 41/2 years. The objectives of the project revolved around technological developments in nucleic acid analysis. The project partners have discovered, created and developed a huge body of insights into nucleic acid analysis, ranging from improvements and implementation of current technologies to the most promising sequencing technologies that constitute a 3(rd) and 4(th) generation of sequencing methods with nanopores and in situ sequencing, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2015.10.003DOI Listing
May 2016

Oligonucleotide gap-fill ligation for mutation detection and sequencing in situ.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Dec 3;43(22):e151. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, SE-17121 Sweden

In clinical diagnostics a great need exists for targeted in situ multiplex nucleic acid analysis as the mutational status can offer guidance for effective treatment. One well-established method uses padlock probes for mutation detection and multiplex expression analysis directly in cells and tissues. Here, we use oligonucleotide gap-fill ligation to further increase specificity and to capture molecular substrates for in situ sequencing. Short oligonucleotides are joined at both ends of a padlock gap probe by two ligation events and are then locally amplified by target-primed rolling circle amplification (RCA) preserving spatial information. We demonstrate the specific detection of the A3243G mutation of mitochondrial DNA and we successfully characterize a single nucleotide variant in the ACTB mRNA in cells by in situ sequencing of RCA products generated by padlock gap-fill ligation. To demonstrate the clinical applicability of our assay, we show specific detection of a point mutation in the EGFR gene in fresh frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung cancer samples and confirm the detected mutation by in situ sequencing. This approach presents several advantages over conventional padlock probes allowing simpler assay design for multiplexed mutation detection to screen for the presence of mutations in clinically relevant mutational hotspots directly in situ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678841PMC
December 2015

Fourth-generation sequencing in the cell and the clinic.

Genome Med 2014 28;6(4):31. Epub 2014 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Science for Life Laboratory, Stockholm University, Solna Se-171 21, Stockholm, Sweden.

Nearly 40 years ago, DNA was sequenced for the first time. Since then, DNA sequencing has undergone continuous development, passing through three generations of sequencing technology. We are now entering the beginning of a new phase of genomic analysis in which massively parallel sequencing is performed directly in the cell. Two methods have recently been described for in situ RNA sequencing, one targeted and one untargeted, that rely on ligation chemistry. This fourth generation of sequencing technology opens up prospects for transcriptomic analysis, biomarker validation, diagnosis and patient stratification for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gm548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4062057PMC
July 2014

In situ sequencing identifies TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts, somatic point mutations and gene expression levels in prostate cancers.

J Pathol 2014 Oct 4;234(2):253-61. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Translocations contribute to the genesis and progression of epithelial tumours and in particular to prostate cancer development. To better understand the contribution of fusion transcripts and visualize the clonal composition of multifocal tumours, we have developed a technology for multiplex in situ detection and identification of expressed fusion transcripts. When compared to immunohistochemistry, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-negative and fusion-positive prostate tumours were correctly classified. The most prevalent TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variants were visualized, identified, and quantitated in human prostate cancer tissues, and the ratio of the variant fusion transcripts could for the first time be directly determined by in situ sequencing. Further, we demonstrate concurrent in situ detection of gene expression, point mutations, and gene fusions of the prostate cancer relevant targets AMACR, AR, TP53, and TMPRSS2-ERG. This unified approach to in situ analyses of somatic mutations can empower studies of intra-tumoural heterogeneity and future tissue-based diagnostics of mutations and translocations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4392DOI Listing
October 2014

In situ mutation detection and visualization of intratumor heterogeneity for cancer research and diagnostics.

Oncotarget 2013 Dec;4(12):2407-18

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Rudbeck Laboratory.

Current assays for somatic mutation analysis are based on extracts from tissue sections that often contain morphologically heterogeneous neoplastic regions with variable contents of normal stromal and inflammatory cells, obscuring the results of the assays. We have developed an RNA-based in situ mutation assay that targets oncogenic mutations in a multiplex fashion that resolves the heterogeneity of the tissue sample. Activating oncogenic mutations are targets for a new generation of cancer drugs. For anti-EGFR therapy prediction, we demonstrate reliable in situ detection of KRAS mutations in codon 12 and 13 in colon and lung cancers in three different types of routinely processed tissue materials. High-throughput screening of KRAS mutation status was successfully performed on a tissue microarray. Moreover, we show how the patterns of expressed mutated and wild-type alleles can be studied in situ in tumors with complex combinations of mutated EGFR, KRAS and TP53. This in situ method holds great promise as a tool to investigate the role of somatic mutations during tumor progression and for prediction of response to targeted therapy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3926836PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.1527DOI Listing
December 2013

In situ sequencing for RNA analysis in preserved tissue and cells.

Nat Methods 2013 Sep 14;10(9):857-60. Epub 2013 Jul 14.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Tissue gene expression profiling is performed on homogenates or on populations of isolated single cells to resolve molecular states of different cell types. In both approaches, histological context is lost. We have developed an in situ sequencing method for parallel targeted analysis of short RNA fragments in morphologically preserved cells and tissue. We demonstrate in situ sequencing of point mutations and multiplexed gene expression profiling in human breast cancer tissue sections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2563DOI Listing
September 2013

In situ detection of individual mRNA molecules and protein complexes or post-translational modifications using padlock probes combined with the in situ proximity ligation assay.

Nat Protoc 2013 Feb 24;8(2):355-72. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Science for Life Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Analysis at the single-cell level is essential for the understanding of cellular responses in heterogeneous cell populations, but it has been difficult to perform because of the strict requirements put on detection methods with regard to selectivity and sensitivity (i.e., owing to the cross-reactivity of probes and limited signal amplification). Here we describe a 1.5-d protocol for enumerating and genotyping mRNA molecules in situ while simultaneously obtaining information on protein interactions or post-translational modifications; this is achieved by combining padlock probes with in situ proximity ligation assays (in situ PLA). In addition, we provide an example of how to design padlock probes and how to optimize staining conditions for fixed cells and tissue sections. Both padlock probes and in situ PLA provide the ability to directly visualize single molecules by standard microscopy in fixed cells or tissue sections, and these methods may thus be valuable for both research and diagnostic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2013.006DOI Listing
February 2013

Regeneration-associated WNT signaling is activated in long-term reconstituting AC133bright acute myeloid leukemia cells.

Neoplasia 2012 Dec;14(12):1236-48

Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically heterogeneous clonal disorder characterized by two molecularly distinct self-renewing leukemic stem cell (LSC) populations most closely related to normal progenitors and organized as a hierarchy. A requirement for WNT/β-catenin signaling in the pathogenesis of AML has recently been suggested by a mouse model. However, its relationship to a specific molecular function promoting retention of self-renewing leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in human remains elusive. To identify transcriptional programs involved in the maintenance of a self-renewing state in LICs, we performed the expression profiling in normal (n = 10) and leukemic (n = 33) human long-term reconstituting AC133(+) cells, which represent an expanded cell population in most AML patients. This study reveals the ligand-dependent WNT pathway activation in AC133(bright) AML cells and shows a diffuse expression and release of WNT10B, a hematopoietic stem cell regenerative-associated molecule. The establishment of a primary AC133(+) AML cell culture (A46) demonstrated that leukemia cells synthesize and secrete WNT ligands, increasing the levels of dephosphorylated β-catenin in vivo. We tested the LSC functional activity in AC133(+) cells and found significant levels of engraftment upon transplantation of A46 cells into irradiated Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice. Owing to the link between hematopoietic regeneration and developmental signaling, we transplanted A46 cells into developing zebrafish. This system revealed the formation of ectopic structures by activating dorsal organizer markers that act downstream of the WNT pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that AC133(bright) LSCs are promoted by misappropriating homeostatic WNT programs that control hematopoietic regeneration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3540948PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1593/neo.121480DOI Listing
December 2012

A mouse mammary epithelial cell line permissive for highly efficient human adenovirus growth.

Virology 2013 Jan 17;435(2):363-71. Epub 2012 Nov 17.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Although a few immunocompetent animal models to study the immune response against human adenoviruses (HAdV) are available, such as Syrian hamsters and cotton rats, HAdV replication is several logs lower compared to human control cells. We have identified a non-transformed mouse epithelial cell line (NMuMG) where HAdV-2 gene expression and progeny formation was as efficient as in the highly permissive human A549 cells. HAdV from species, D and E (HAdV-37 and HAdV-4, respectively) also caused a rapid cytopathic effect in NMuMG cells, while HAdV from species A, B1, B2 and F (HAdV-12, HAdV-3, HAdV-11 and HAdV-41, respectively) failed to do so. NMuMG cells might therefore be useful in virotherapy research and the analysis of antiviral defense mechanisms and the determination of toxicity, biodistribution and specific antitumour activity of oncolytic HAdV vectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2012.10.034DOI Listing
January 2013