Publications by authors named "Marco Mazzotta"

36 Publications

Circulating HPV DNA in the Management of Oropharyngeal and Cervical Cancers: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 6;10(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with invasive malignancies, including almost 100% of cervical cancers (CECs), and 35-70% of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs). HPV infection leads to clinical implications in related tumors by determining better prognosis and predicting treatment response, especially in OPC. Currently, specific and minimally invasive tests allow for detecting HPV-related cancer at an early phase, informing more appropriately therapeutical decisions, and allowing for timely disease monitoring. A blood-based biomarker detectable in liquid biopsy represents an ideal candidate, and the use of circulating HPV DNA (ct-DNA) itself could offer the highest specificity for such a scope. Circulating HPV DNA is detectable in the greatest part of patients affected by HPV-related cancers, and studies have demonstrated its potential usefulness for CEC and OPC clinical management. Unfortunately, when using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the detection rate of serum HPV DNA is low. Innovative techniques such as droplet-based digital PCR and next generation sequencing are becoming increasingly available for the purpose of boosting HPV ct-DNA detection rate. We herein review and critically discuss the most recent and representative literature, concerning the role of HPV ctDNA in OPC and CEC in the light of new technologies that could improve the potential of this biomarker in fulfilling many of the unmet needs in the clinical management of OPC and CEC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038737PMC
April 2021

Second-line Eribulin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer patients. Multicentre Retrospective Study: The TETRIS Trial.

Int J Med Sci 2021 27;18(10):2245-2250. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Bio-Statistics Unit, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Large and consistent evidence supports the use of eribulin mesylate in clinical practice in third or later line treatment of metastatic triple negative breast cancer (mTNBC). Conversely, there is paucity of data on eribulin efficacy in second line treatment. We investigated outcomes of 44 mTNBC patients treated from 2013 through 2019 with second line eribulin mesylate in a multicentre retrospective study involving 14 Italian oncologic centres. Median age was 51 years, with 11.4% of these patients being metastatic at diagnosis. Median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) from eribulin starting were 11.9 (95%CI: 8.4-15.5) and 3.5 months (95%CI: 1.7-5.3), respectively. We observed 8 (18.2%) partial responses and 10 (22.7%) patients had stable disease as best response. A longer PFS on previous first line treatment predicted a better OS (HR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.77-0.99, p= 0.038) and a longer PFS on eribulin treatment (HR=0.92, 95%CI: 0.85-0.98, p=0.018). Progression free survival to eribulin was also favorably influenced by prior adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.44, 95%CI: 0.22-0.88, p=0.02). Eribulin was generally well tolerated, with grade 3-4 adverse events being recorded in 15.9% of patients. The outcomes described for our cohort are consistent with those reported in the pivotal Study301 and subsequent observational studies. Further data from adequately-sized, ad hoc trials on eribulin use in second line for mTNBC are warranted to confirm our findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.54996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040412PMC
March 2021

Burnout of health care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic: Focus on Medical Oncologists.

Int J Med Sci 2021 26;18(10):2235-2238. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi, 00144 Rome, Italy.

The spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has challenged hard the national health system worldwide. At any level, the role of health care providers has been rapidly revisited and eventually modified to face the pandemic. The search of the balance between the provision of the most appropriate health-related services and safety of both patients and health care providers has become an indisputable necessity. The consequently increased work load, along with a widespread feeling of intellectual isolation, emotional overload, sense of inadequacy for involvement in tasks and disciplines which are not always familiar have all been proposed as factors related to the onset and/or worsening of the burnout phenomenon. This latter is sadly renown among care givers and is particularly common among medical oncologists. We herein share our perspectives on the burnout phenomenon over the course of the Covid-19 pandemic, with a specific focus on medical oncologists. Results from the most recent and inherent studies are presented and commented in light of hints provided by the experience matured by a quite restricted, still potentially representative, number of professionals figures from the medical oncologists' category. Reasons are proposed to explain the sense of inadequacy currently perceived in relation to the limits imposed by the current pandemic. In more detail, we illustrate the nature and extents of some of the most relevant difficulties in the optimal management of cancer patients and constant efforts towards the scientific upgrade which allows for the improvement of the professional performance. The need for a deeper understanding of the roots and consequences of the Covid-19 pandemic on the mental health of medical oncologists is finally stressed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.54025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040416PMC
April 2021

COVID-19 risk in breast cancer patients receiving CDK4/6 inhibitors: literature data and a monocentric experience.

Breast J 2021 04 6;27(4):359-362. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Substantial changes in the management of cancer patients have been required worldwide in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Beyond the due details on the primitive cancer site and setting at diagnosis, these latter adaptions are most commonly exemplified by a significant reduction in the screening of asymptomatic subjects, delays in elective surgery and radiotherapy for primary tumors, and dose reductions and/or delays in systemic therapy administration. Advanced breast cancer patients with hormonal receptor positive, HER2 negative tumors are usually treated with endocrine therapy combined with CDK 4/6 inhibitors as first- and second-line treatment. During the pandemic, experts' recommendations have suggested the omission or delay of CDK 4/6 inhibitors delivery, or a careful evaluation of their real need due to the hypothesized increased risk of SARS-Cov-2 infection and disease possibly related to neutropenia. The inherent literature is sparse and inconsistent. We herein present data on the use of CDK 4/6 inhibitors during the pandemic. The evidence reported punctually reflects the experience matured at our Institution, a comprehensive cancer centre, on the topic of interest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.14204DOI Listing
April 2021

Loss of HER2 and decreased T-DM1 efficacy in HER2 positive advanced breast cancer treated with dual HER2 blockade: the SePHER Study.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 10;39(1):279. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Medical Oncology, Paolo Giaccone University Hospital, Palermo, Italy.

Background: HER2-targeting agents have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of HER2+ advanced breast cancer (ABC). Within a short time frame, the rapid introduction of new therapeutics has led to the approval of pertuzumab combined with trastuzumab and a taxane in first-line, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in second-line. Thereby, evidence of T-DM1 efficacy following trastuzumab/pertuzumab combination is limited, with data from some retrospective reports suggesting lower activity. The purpose of the present study is to investigate T-DM1 efficacy in pertuzumab-pretreated and pertuzumab naïve HER2 positive ABC patients. We also aimed to provide evidence on the exposure to different drugs sequences including pertuzumab and T-DM1 in HER2 positive cell lines.

Methods: The biology of HER2 was investigated in vitro through sequential exposure of resistant HER2 + breast cancer cell lines to trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and their combination. In vitro experiments were paralleled by the analysis of data from 555 HER2 + ABC patients treated with T-DM1 and evaluation of T-DM1 efficacy in the 371 patients who received it in second line. Survival estimates were graphically displayed in Kaplan Meier curves, compared by log rank test and, when possibile, confirmed in multivariate models.

Results: We herein show evidence of lower activity of T-DM1 in two HER2+ breast cancer cell lines resistant to trastuzumab+pertuzumab, as compared to trastuzumab-resistant cells. Lower T-DM1 efficacy was associated with a marked reduction of HER2 expression on the cell membrane and its nuclear translocation. HER2 downregulation at the membrane level was confirmed in biopsies of four trastuzumab/pertuzumab-pretreated patients. Among the 371 patients treated with second-line T-DM1, median overall survival (mOS) from diagnosis of advanced disease and median progression-free survival to second-line treatment (mPFS2) were 52 and 6 months in 177 patients who received trastuzumab/pertuzumab in first-line, and 74 and 10 months in 194 pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.0006 and 0.03 for OS and PFS2, respectively).

Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab reduces the amount of available plasma membrane HER2 receptor, limiting the binding of T-DM1 in cancer cells. This may help interpret the less favorable outcomes of second-line T-DM1 in trastuzumab/pertuzumab pre-treated patients compared to their pertuzumab-naïve counterpart.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-01797-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731769PMC
December 2020

Palliative- and non-palliative indications for glucocorticoids use in course of immune-checkpoint inhibition. Current evidence and future perspectives.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2021 Jan 17;157:103176. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza - University of Rome, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors significantly reshaped treatment landscapes in several solid tumors. Concurrently with disease-oriented therapies, cancer patients often require proper management of drug-related adverse events and/or cancer-related symptoms. Glucocorticoids (GC) are a cornerstone of symptom management in advanced cancer care and in the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) due to immune-modulating therapies. Moreover, GC are often administered in patients with autoimmune diseases (AID), either alone or in combination with other treatments. While handling of irAEs with GC is supported by multiple guidelines, it is unclear whether GC administration because of pre-existing AID or because of palliative needs is associated with inferior outcomes in cancer patients treated with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). When globally considered, the available evidence seems to orient towards less favorable survival outcomes when GC administration is driven by a palliative intent. Conversely, steroid administration for non-palliative intent seems to be associated with stable or negligibly reduced survival outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2020.103176DOI Listing
January 2021

Neoadjuvant Immune-Checkpoint Blockade in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Current Evidence and Literature-Based Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 3;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Chemotherapy based on the sequential use of anthracyclines and taxanes has long represented the most efficacious approach in the management of early-stage, triple-negative breast cancer, whose aggressive behavior is widely renowned. This standard chemotherapy backbone was subsequently enriched by the use of carboplatin, based on its association with increased pathologic complete response and efficacy in the metastatic setting. Following the results from the IMpassion130 trial, the recent approval of the immunotherapic agent atezolizumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line treatment for programmed-death ligand 1-positive, unresectable locally advanced, or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer increasingly fueled the flourishing of trials of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in the early setting. In this work, we review the most recent inherent literature in light of key methodological issues and provide a quantitative summary of the results from phase II-III randomized trials of immunotherapic agents combined with chemotherapy in the setting of interest. Hints regarding future directions are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565914PMC
September 2020

Efficacy of immunotherapy in lung cancer with co-occurring mutations in NOTCH and homologous repair genes.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 08;8(2)

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) provide significant survival benefits in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, while some patients obtain a prolonged benefit, a non-negligible fraction of patients experiences an ultrarapid disease progression. Identifying specific molecular backgrounds predicting opposite outcomes is instrumental to optimize the use of these agents in clinical practice.

Methods: We carried out an observational study with prospective design envisioning targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) with an approved assay in 55 patients with metastatic NSCLC (Rome cohort), of whom 35 were treated with ICIs. Data from three clinically comparable datasets were collected and combined into a metadataset containing 779 patients. The datasets were related to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cohort (tissue-based NGS) and the randomized phase II and III POPLAR and OAK trials (blood-based NGS).

Results: In patients treated with ICIs in the Rome cohort, co-occurring mutations in NOTCH1-3 and homologous repair (HR) genes were associated with durable clinical benefit. Using the MSKCC/POPLAR/OAK metadaset, we confirmed the relationship between the NOTCH/HR signature and longer progression-free survival (PFS) in ICI-treated patients (multivariate Cox: HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76, p=0.001). The NOTCH/HR genomic predictor was also associated with longer survival (log-rank p=0.008), despite patients whose tumors carried the NOTCH/HR signature had higher metastatic burden as compared with their negative counterpart. Finally, we observed that this genomic predictor was also associated with longer survival in patients with other tumor types treated with ICIs (n=1311, log-rank p=0.002).

Conclusions: Co-occurring mutations in the NOTCH and HR pathways are associated with increased efficacy of immunotherapy in advanced NSCLC. This genomic predictor deserves further investigation to fully assess its potential in informing therapeutic decisions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-000946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409965PMC
August 2020

Case report: 5-year progression free survival and complete liver response in a patient with metastatic breast cancer treated with everolimus plus exemestane.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(31):e21211

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome.

Rationale: Within a rapidly expanding therapeutic armamentarium, the combination of everolimus (Eve) plus exemestane (Exe) utility needs to be reinstated in hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

Patient Concerns: We herein report on a patient affected by HR+ HER2- MBC treated with radical surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, who relapsed early on adjuvant tamoxifen, progressed rapidly on first line anastrozole, and failed treatment with third line capecitabine.

Diagnoses: Metastatic luminal breast cancer progressed under standard endocrine therapy and chemotherapy.

Interventions: Third line with Eve plus Exe was given after chemotherapy.

Outcomes: Patient experienced a 5-year progression free interval.

Lessons: Eve plus Exe remains a valid option in HR+HER2- MBC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402792PMC
July 2020

KEAP1-NFE2L2 Mutations in NSCLC: Increased Awareness Needed. Reply to "KEAP1-NFE2L2-Mutant NSCLC and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Large Database Analysis".

J Thorac Oncol 2020 06;15(6):e87-e88

Division of Medical Oncology 2, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.03.024DOI Listing
June 2020

Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 16;21(10). Epub 2020 May 16.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

In locally advanced (LA) breast cancer (BC), neoadjuvant treatments have led to major achievements, which hold particular relevance in HER2-positive and triple-negative BC. Conversely, their role in hormone receptor positive (HR+), hormone epidermal growth factor 2 negative (HER2-) BC is still under debate, mainly due to the generally low rates of pathological complete response (pCR) and lower accuracy of pCR as predictors of long-term outcomes in this patient subset. While administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) in LA, HR+, HER2- BC patients is widely used in clinical practice, neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (NET) still retains an unfulfilled potential in the management of these subgroups, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. In addition, NET has gained a central role as a platform to test new drugs and predictive biomarkers in previously untreated patients. We herein present historical data regarding Tamoxifen and/or Aromatase Inhibitors and a debate on recent evidence regarding agents such as CDK4/6 and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in the neoadjuvant setting. We also discuss key issues concerning the optimal treatment length, appropriate comparisons with NCT efficacy and use of NET in premenopausal patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278946PMC
May 2020

Observational Multicenter Study on the Prognostic Relevance of Coagulation Activation in Risk Assessment and Stratification in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer. Outline of the ARIAS Trial.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Apr 1;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi, 00144 Rome, Italy.

A hypercoagulable state may either underlie or frankly accompany cancer disease at its onset or emerge in course of cancer development. Whichever the case, hypercoagulation may severely limit administration of cancer therapies, impose integrative supporting treatments and finally have an impact on prognosis. Within a flourishing research pipeline, a recent study of stage I-IIA breast cancer patients has allowed the development of a prognostic model including biomarkers of coagulation activation, which efficiently stratified prognosis of patients in the study cohort. We are now validating our risk assessment tool in an independent cohort of 108 patients with locally advanced breast cancer with indication to neo-adjuvant therapy followed by breast surgery. Within this study population, we will use our tool for risk assessment and stratification in reference to 1. pathologic complete response rate at definitive surgery, intended as our primary endpoint, and 2. rate of thromboembolic events, intended as our secondary endpoint. Patients' screening and enrollment procedures are currently in place. The trial will be shortly enriched by experimental tasks centered on next-generation sequencing techniques for identifying additional molecular targets of treatments which may integrate current standards of therapy in high-risk patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226579PMC
April 2020

Impact of BMI on HER2+ metastatic breast cancer patients treated with pertuzumab and/or trastuzumab emtansine. Real-world evidence.

J Cell Physiol 2020 11 15;235(11):7900-7910. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Medical Oncology Unit, Belcolle Hospital, Viterbo, Italy.

Body mass index (BMI) is a main indicator of obesity and its association with breast cancer is well established. However, little is known in the metastatic setting, especially in HER2-positive patients. We assessed the influence of BMI on clinical outcomes of patients treated with pertuzumab and/or trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer (mBC). BMI was addressed as a categorical variable, being classified on the basis of the following ranges, that is, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and 30.0-34.9, namely, normal weight, overweight, and Class I obesity. The outcomes chosen were progression-free survival to first-line chemotherapy (PFS1) and overall survival (OS). Overall (N = 709), no impact of BMI was observed on PFS1 (p = .15), while BMI ≥ 30 was associated with worse OS (p = .003). In subjects who progressed to first line (N = 575), analyzing data across PFS1 quartiles and strata of disease burden, BMI predicted lower PFS1 in patients within the I PFS1 quartile and with the lowest disease burden (p = .001). Univariate analysis showed a detrimental effect of BMI ≥ 30 on OS for women within the I PFS1 quartile (p = .03). Results were confirmed in multivariate analysis. According to PFS1 quartiles a higher percentage of patients with high BMI and low disease burden progressed within 6 months of therapy. The effect of BMI on prognosis was also confirmed in multivariate analysis of OS for overall population. In our cohort, a BMI ≥ 30 correlated with worse OS in patients with HER2+ mBC who received pertuzumab and/or T-DM1 but had no impact on PFS to first line. BMI predicted worse I PFS1 quartile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29445DOI Listing
November 2020

Eribulin in Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: Critic Interpretation of Current Evidence and Projection for Future Scenarios.

J Cancer 2019 12;10(24):5903-5914. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi, 53, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by distinctive biological features that confer an aggressive clinical behavior. In TNBC patients, the absence of well-defined driver pathways such as hormonal receptor expression or hyperactivation of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) significantly reduce the spectrum of therapeutic options, which are currently mainly confined to chemotherapy. Thus far, median overall survival for patients with metastatic TNBC is about 9-12 months with conventional cytotoxic agents. However, the heterogeneity recently revealed at a gene expression level inside the TNBC family may help inform therapeutic decisions concerning the use of chemotherapy and hopefully lead the way to novel targeted options that include immunotherapy. Eribulin, a halichondrin class antineoplastic drug, is currently recommended for treatment of HER2 negative metastatic or recurrent breast cancer (BC) previously exposed to anthracyclines and taxanes, also for patients with a TNBC. It is currently indicated from the second line of treatment. In this review, we aim to analyze a wide range of cumulated evidence on eribulin use in TNBC including preclinical studies, intervention and observational clinical trials. Data from the real-world setting and the emerging evidence increasingly substantiating the rationale for combinations with new generation treatment strategies, e.g., PARP-inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, will be also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.35109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6856581PMC
October 2019

Prognostic relevance of DNA damage and repair biomarkers in elderly patients with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant hormone therapy: evidence from the real-world setting.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2019 18;11:1758835919853192. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: The logic behind the outcome of endocrine therapy in breast cancer has long remained poorly understood. The prognostic role of DNA damage and repair biomarkers (DDR) was explored in postmenopausal, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NAHT).

Methods: Data on 55 patients were included. The phosphorylated ataxia-teleangectasia and Rad3-related protein (pATR), phosphorylated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, and phosphorylated H2A Histone Family Member X (γ-H2AX) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paired tissues collected at baseline and following NAHT. Biomarkers were considered both singularly and within signatures. Ki-67 percentage change was the primary biomarker endpoint. Classical endpoints were also considered.

Results: The most favorable Ki-67 outcome was associated with the γ-H2AX/pATM signature ( = 0.011). In models of Ki-67 reduction, 'luminal B' subtype, higher grade of anaplasia, and the γ-H2AX/pATM signature tested as significant ( < 0.05 for all). Results were confirmed in multivariate analysis. No association was observed with pathologic response. An increase of ∆γ-H2AX in paired breast tissues was associated with longer event-free survival ( = 0.027) and overall survival ( = 0.042). In Cox models, both survival outcomes were solely affected by grade of anaplasia, with less favorable prognosis in the highest grades ( < 0.05 for both).

Conclusions: We report novel evidence of the prognostic role of DDR biomarkers on important patient outcomes in postmenopausal hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with NAHT. If confirmed in future and adequately sized trials, our results may help inform therapeutic decisions and clarify underlying biological mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835919853192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700857PMC
August 2019

Distinct HR expression patterns significantly affect the clinical behavior of metastatic HER2+ breast cancer and degree of benefit from novel anti-HER2 agents in the real world setting.

Int J Cancer 2020 04 7;146(7):1917-1929. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Medical Oncology, Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli", Rome, Italy.

We analyzed data from 738 HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (mbc) patients treated with pertuzumab-based regimens and/or T-DM1 at 45 Italian centers. Outcomes were explored in relation to tumor subtype assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The median progression-free survival at first-line (mPFS1) was 12 months. Pertuzumab as first-line conferred longer mPFS1 compared to other first-line treatments (16 vs. 9 months, p = 0.0001), regardless of IHC subtype. Median PFS in second-line (mPFS2) was 7 months, with no difference by IHC subtype, but it was more favorable with T-DM1 compared to other agents (7 vs. 6 months, p = 0.03). There was no PFS2 gain in patients with tumors expressing both hormonal receptors (HRs; p = 0.17), while a trend emerged for tumors with one HR (p = 0.05). Conversely, PFS2 gain was significant in HRs-negative tumors (p = 0.04). Median overall survival (mOS) was 74 months, with no significant differences by IHC subtypes. Survival rates at 2 and 3 years in patients treated with T-DM1 in second-line after pertuzumab were significantly lower compared to pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.01). When analyzed by IHC subtype, the outcome was confirmed if both HRs or no HRs were expressed (p = 0.02 and p = 0.006, respectively). Our results confirm that HRs expression impacts the clinical behavior and novel treatment-related outcomes of HER2-positive tumors when treatment sequences are considered. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that HRs expression had no effect on PFS and OS. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the interplay between HER2 and estrogen receptor pathways in HER2-positive (mbc) patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027476PMC
April 2020

Mutations in the KEAP1-NFE2L2 Pathway Define a Molecular Subset of Rapidly Progressing Lung Adenocarcinoma.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 11 16;14(11):1924-1934. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Introduction: Molecular characterization studies revealed recurrent kelch like ECH associated protein 1 gene (KEAP1)/nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 gene (NFE2L2) alterations in NSCLC. These genes encode two interacting proteins (a stress response pathway [SRP]) that mediate a cytoprotective response to oxidative stress and xenobiotics. Nevertheless, whether KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations have an impact on clinical outcomes is unclear.

Methods: We performed amplicon-based next-generation sequencing to characterize the SRP in patients with metastatic NSCLC (Regina Elena National Cancer Institute cohort [n = 88]) treated with first-line chemotherapy. Mutations in the DNA damage response (tumor protein p53 gene [TP53], ATM serine/threonine kinase gene [ATM], and ATR serine/threonine kinase gene [ATR]) were concomitantly analyzed. In lung adenocarcinoma (LAC), we also determined the expression of phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein. Two independent cohorts (the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center cohort and The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort) with data from approximately 1400 patients with advanced LAC were used to assess the reproducibility of the results.

Results: In the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute cohort, patients whose tumors carried mutations in the KEAP1/NFE2L2 pathway had significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than their wild-type counterparts did (log-rank p = 0.006 and p = 0.018, respectively). This association was driven by LAC in which KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations were overrepresented in fast progressors and associated with an increased risk of disease progression and death. LACs carrying KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations were characterized by elevated expression of phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (pATM) kinase and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (pATR) protein in association with a pattern of mutual exclusivity with TP53 alterations. The relationship between KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations and shorter survival was validated in the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center cohort (n = 1256) (log-rank p < 0.001) and in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (n = 162) (log-rank p = 0.039).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that a mutant SRP represents a negative prognostic/predictive factor in metastatic LAC and that KEAP1/NFE2L2 mutations may define a molecular subtype of chemotherapy-resistant and rapidly progressing LAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.07.003DOI Listing
November 2019

Clinical and psychometric validation of the BreSAS questionnaire module for symptom assessment among breast cancer survivors.

Support Care Cancer 2020 Mar 8;28(3):1051-1058. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Medical Oncology Unit, S. Salvatore Hospital, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, AQ, Italy.

Background: The large number of women surviving many years post breast cancer (BC) diagnosis has heightened interest in studying long-term effects of cancer on quality of life (QoL). Several cancer-specific health-related measures have been developed, but these may not be appropriate for long survivors. This study evaluates the reliability and clinical and psychometric validity of the BreSAS questionnaire (BQ) among BC survivors.

Methods: The BQ is a quick, simple ten-item module for the assessment of long-term physical, psychological, sexual, and cognitive effects that may influence QoL. The total BreSAS score ranks from 0 to 100, with a low score indicating a better QoL. Patients complete the BQ, the FACT-ES questionnaire, and case report forms for clinical and socio-demographic data during follow-up visits. Reliability and clinical and psychometric validity of the questionnaires are assessed by correlation analyses and exploration of known group comparisons.

Results: From September 2015 to February 2016, 149 patients from three Italian oncology units were enrolled. Baseline questionnaires were returned from all, and 134 patients (89%) completed the BQ and FACT-ES in less than 15 min. For reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficients for each scale were greater than 0.70 in all analyzed symptoms. Convergent validity of BQ showed by Pearson's r demonstrated a high correlation between intensity of symptoms and QoL, especially for pain and depression. No data were provided about reproducibility with test-retest study.

Conclusion: The BQ demonstrates sufficient validity and reliability to support its use to assess patient-reported symptoms during planned follow-up clinical visits among BC survivors. Further full validation studies are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-019-04905-yDOI Listing
March 2020

A nomogram to predict survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with nivolumab.

J Transl Med 2019 03 27;17(1):99. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: The advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has considerably expanded the armamentarium against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) contributing to reshaping treatment paradigms in the advanced disease setting. While promising tissue- and plasma-based biomarkers are under investigation, no reliable predictive factor is currently available to aid in treatment selection.

Methods: Patients with stage IIIB-IV NSCLC receiving nivolumab at Sant'Andrea Hospital and Regina Elena National Cancer Institute from June 2016 to July 2017 were enrolled onto this study. Major clinicopathological parameters were retrieved and correlated with patients' survival outcomes in order to assess their prognostic value and build a useful tool to assist in the decision making process.

Results: A total of 102 patients were included in this study. The median age was 69 years (range 44-85 years), 69 (68%) were male and 52% had ECOG PS 0. Loco-regional/distant lymph nodes were the most commonly involved site of metastasis (71%), followed by lung parenchyma (67%) and bone (26%). Overall survival (OS) in the whole patients' population was 83.6%, 63.2% and 46.9% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively; while progression-free survival (PFS) was 66.5%, 44.4% and 26.4% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. At univariate analysis, age ≥ 69 years (P = 0.057), ECOG PS (P < 0.001), the presence of liver (P < 0.001), lung (P = 0.017) metastases, lymph nodes only involvement (P = 0.0145) were significantly associated with OS and ECOG PS (P < 0.001) and liver metastases (P < 0.001), retained statistical significance at multivariate analysis. A prognostic nomogram based on three variables (liver and lung metastases and ECOG PS) was built to assign survival probability at 3, 6, and 12 months after nivolumab treatment commencement.

Conclusion: We developed a nomogram based on easily available and inexpensive clinical factors showing a good performance in predicting individual OS probability among NSCLC patients treated with nivolumab. This prognostic device could be valuable to clinicians in more accurately driving treatment decision in daily practice as well as enrollment onto clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1847-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437908PMC
March 2019

Long-Term Safety and Real-World Effectiveness of Trastuzumab in Breast Cancer.

J Clin Med 2019 Feb 18;8(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi, 53, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Trastuzumab is a milestone in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC), in both the early and metastatic settings. Over the last two decades, clinical trials have established the good safety profile of trastuzumab. Cardiotoxicity remains the most frequent adverse event, more commonly exemplified by an asymptomatic decline in the left ventricular ejection fraction rather than congestive heart failure. Results from several long-term (>5 years) safety analyses have been recently published, with the inherent evidence substantially confirming the findings from previous trials. The clinical experience gained over the years in the use of trastuzumab has also fueled a number of observational studies focused on the effectiveness of this drug in the real-world settings. We herein reviewed the evidence available from tree major databases, namely, PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), to explore and critically discuss key issues related to the long-term safety and effectiveness of trastuzumab in clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8020254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406268PMC
February 2019

Prophylactic use of antiemetics for prevention of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting: a survey about Italian physicians' practice.

Support Care Cancer 2019 Sep 26;27(9):3531-3535. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Medical Oncology, Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, St. Salvatore Hospital, L'Aquila, Italy.

Purpose: Antiemetics are being used both for the treatment and prophylaxis of opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) in clinical practice, despite the lack of evidence for the prophylactic benefit. Studies among Japanese physicians demonstrated over 80% prescribe antiemetics, with neuroleptic antipsychotics as the most commonly prescribed drugs. Our objective was to elucidate the current scenario of the prophylactic use of antiemetics for OINV among Italian physicians.

Methods: We conducted a web-based cross-sectional national survey. All the invited participants received an e-mail with an 11-item electronic questionnaire accessible through a direct link. Anonymity was guaranteed. According to the exploratory intent of the survey, we did not predefine any formal statistical hypothesis. Associations between variables were tested by the Pearson chi-square or the Fisher exact test.

Results: From January to March 2017, 112 completed the electronic questionnaire (112/256, overall response rate, 43.7%). Nearly half of the participants were oncologists (54; 48.2%). Sixty-one (54.4%) physicians worked in palliative care units. About 45% of the interviewed prescribed prophylactic antiemetics at the beginning of opioid prescription. The most commonly chosen drugs for this purpose were prokinetics such as metoclopramide and domperidone (84%), followed by 5-HT3 antagonists (8%), neuroleptic antipsychotics (6%), and corticosteroids (2%). Ninety-one physicians (81%) declared to prescribe antiemetics at the occurrence of OINV, mainly prokinetics (N = 70; 77%).

Conclusion: Italian physicians do not commonly prescribe prophylactic antiemetics for OINV. Unlike previously reported data, dopamine antagonists resulted the most commonly prescribed drugs. Prospective clinical trials are necessary to evaluate the real efficacy of this practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-019-4663-1DOI Listing
September 2019

Four lines of anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors and brain radiotherapy in a long-surviving non-small-cell lung cancer anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive patient with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.

Anticancer Drugs 2019 02;30(2):201-204

Department of Medical Oncology, Sant'Andrea Hospital of Rome.

Lung cancer is the most common tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Approximately 6.7% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) show anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement and could benefit from ALK-targeted treatment. Various anti-ALK drugs have been developed during the past years, but it is actually controversial which sequence and which ALK inhibitor is recommended for a single patient. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC) is associated with a poor prognosis, with an overall survival of 2-4 months for treated patients. The data about LC management derive mainly from retrospective studies, being an exclusion criterion for most trials. Intrathecal chemotherapy and whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), associated with a systemic treatment, are the most commonly used approach. Here we present a case of NSCLC harboring an ALK translocation treated with four lines of ALK inhibitors and receiving WBRT for LC, showing an overall survival of ∼5 years from the diagnosis of metastatic disease. This case report focuses mainly on several controversial clinical aspects, that is, the sequence of treatment in ALK-positive NSCLC, the ALK inhibitors' efficacy on brain disease and beyond progression, the management of LC, and the role of WBRT despite the risk of cognitive impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000000699DOI Listing
February 2019

Palbociclib plus endocrine therapy in HER2 negative, hormonal receptor-positive, advanced breast cancer: A real-world experience.

J Cell Physiol 2019 06 10;234(6):7708-7717. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Medical Oncology, Ospedale S. Maria Goretti, Latina, Italy.

Data from 423 human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (aBC) patients treated with palbociclib and endocrine therapy (ET) were provided by 35 Italian cancer centers and analyzed for treatment outcomes. Overall, 158 patients were treated in first line and 265 in second/later lines. We observed 19 complete responses and 112 partial responses. The overall response rate (ORR) was 31% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.6-35.4) and clinical benefit was 52.7% (95% CI, 48-57.5). ORR was negatively affected by prior exposure to everolimus/exemestane ( p = 0.002) and favorably influenced by early line-treatment ( p < 0.0001). At 6 months, median progression-free survival was 12 months (95% CI, 8-16) and median overall survival was 24 months (95% CI, 17-30). More favorable outcomes were associated with palbociclib in early lines, no visceral metastases and no prior everolimus/exemestane. The main toxicity reported was neutropenia. Our results provide further support to the use of palbociclib with ET in HER2-, HR+ aBC. Differences in outcomes across patients subsets remain largely unexplained.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27832DOI Listing
June 2019

A multicenter REtrospective observational study of first-line treatment with PERtuzumab, trastuzumab and taxanes for advanced HER2 positive breast cancer patients. RePer Study.

Cancer Biol Ther 2019 7;20(2):192-200. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

r HPV Unit, Department of Gynaecologic Oncology , IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute , Rome , Italy.

We carried out a retrospective observational study of 264 HER2-positive advanced breast cancer (ABC) patients to explore the efficacy of first-line treatment with pertuzumab/trastuzumab/taxane in real-world setting. Survival data were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves and log rank test. Median follow-up, length of pertuzumab/trastuzumab/taxane treatment and of pertuzumab, trastuzumab maintenance were 21, 4 and 15 months, respectively. The response rate was 77.3%, and the clinical benefit rate 93.6%. Median progression-free survival (mPFS) was 21 months, and median overall survival (mOS) was not reached. When comparing patients by trastuzumab-pretreatment, similar PFS were observed, although a longer OS was reached in trastuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.02). Brain metastases at baseline and their development in course of therapy were associated with significantly shorter PFS (p = 0.0006) and shorter OS, although at a not fully statistically relevant extent (p = 0.06). The addition of maintenance endocrine therapy (ET) to pertuzumab/trastuzumab maintenance was associated with longer PFS (p = 0.0001), although no significant differences were detected in OS (p = 0.31). Results were confirmed by propensity score analysis (p = 0.003 and p = 0.46, respectively). In multivariate models, longer PFS was related to lower Performance Status (PS) (p = 0.07), metastatic stage at diagnosis (p = 0.006) and single metastatic site (p < 0.0001). An OS advantage was observed with lower PS (p < 0.0001), single metastatic site (p = 0.004), no prior exposure to trastuzumab (p = 0.004) and response to pertuzumab-based treatment (p = 0.003). Our results confirm that trastuzumab/pertuzumab/taxane is the standard of care as first-line treatment of patients with HER2-positive ABC even in the real-world setting. Moreover, the double-maintenance therapy (HER2 block and ET) is strongly recommended when feasible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384047.2018.1523095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343690PMC
April 2020

The Incidence of Alcoholism in Patients with Advanced Cancer Receiving Active Treatment in Two Tertiary Care Centers in Italy.

Alcohol Alcohol 2019 Jan;54(1):47-50

Medical Oncology Unit, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

Introduction: Substance abuse is frequently under-diagnosed among cancer patients. Alcoholism is a problem afflicting about 18% of the general population. This percentage is higher in hospitalized patients. Previous studies conducted on advanced cancer patients admitted in palliative care units have highlighted this problem only for a small percentage of cases. The objective of the study was to evaluate the incidence of alcoholism in patients with advanced cancer admitted to two Italian Oncology Units for active cancer treatment, using a recognized and validated assessment tool.

Short Summary: To evaluate the incidence of alcoholism in cancer patients and its impact on symptoms, the CAGE questionnaire was completed by 117 patients in active anticancer treatment. The percentage of CAGE-positive patients was higher than previously detected in palliative settings and was associated to male sex and lower ESAS score.

Methods: All eligible patients were enrolled consecutively during a 12-month recruitment period. Clinical and demographic data were collected. Each enrolled patient completed the Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener (CAGE) questionnaire.

Results: Hundred and seventeen consecutive patients were surveyed in the 12-month period. The mean age was 63.3 (SD 12.0) years and 66 were males. The mean Karnofsky level was 68.3 (SD 16.0). Twelve patients were CAGE positive (10.3%). Males (P = 0.05) and patients with low Edmonton Symptom Assessment System score (P = 0.03) proved to be CAGE positive.

Conclusions: Alcoholism is widespread and under-diagnosed among patients undergoing active cancer treatment. Compared with other experience in palliative settings among European population, percentage of CAGE-positive patients was double. CAGE-positive patients were more likely to be male, with lower ESAS score. It is possible to hypothesize an effect of alcohol consumption on patients' perception of symptoms. This data has never been reported in the literature and will certainly need confirmation studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agy070DOI Listing
January 2019

The clinical significance of PD-L1 in advanced gastric cancer is dependent on mutations and ATM expression.

Oncoimmunology 2018;7(8):e1457602. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, Rome, Italy.

Whether PD-L1 expression is associated with survival outcomes in gastric cancer (GC) is controversial. The inhibition of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is effective against genomically unstable tumors. Hypothesizing that also the clinical significance of PD-L1 might be dependent on the activation of molecular circuits ensuring genomic stability, we evaluated PD-L1 expression in tissue samples from 72 advanced GC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. Samples were already characterized for DNA damage repair (DDR) component expression (pATM, pChk1, pWee1, γ-H2AX and pRPA2) along with mutations in DDR-linked genes ( and ). Overall, PD-L1 expression was not associated with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), independently on whether we considered its expression in tumor cells (PD-L1-TCs) or in the immune infiltrate (PD-L1-TILs). In subgroup analysis, positive PD-L1-TC immunostaining was associated with better PFS in patients whose tumors did not carry DDR activation (multivariate Cox: HR 0.34, 95%CI: 0.15-0.76, p = 0.008). This subset (DDR) was characterized by negative pATM expression or the presence of mutations. Conversely, the relationship between PD-L1-TC expression and PFS was lost in a molecular scenario denoting DDR activation (DDR), as defined by concomitant pATM expression and wild-type form. Surprisingly, while PD-L1-TC expression was associated with better OS in the DDR subset (multivariate Cox: HR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96, p = 0.039), in the DDR subgroup we observed an opposite impact on OS (multivariate Cox: HR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.06-6.16, p = 0.036). Thus, PD-L1-TC expression may impact survival outcomes in GC on the basis of the activation/inactivation of genome-safeguarding pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2018.1457602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136851PMC
April 2018

Coexisting YAP expression and TP53 missense mutations delineates a molecular scenario unexpectedly associated with better survival outcomes in advanced gastric cancer.

J Transl Med 2018 09 4;16(1):247. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144, Rome, Italy.

We have previously reported that nuclear expression of the Hippo transducer TAZ in association with Wnt pathway mutations negatively impacts survival outcomes in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients. Here, we extended these previous findings by investigating another oncogenic cooperation, namely, the interplay between YAP, the TAZ paralogue, and p53. The molecular output of the YAP-p53 cooperation is dependent on TP53 mutational status. In the absence of mutations, the YAP-p53 crosstalk elicits a pro-apoptotic response, whereas in the presence of TP53 mutations it activates a pro-proliferative transcriptional program. In order to study this phenomenon, we re-analyzed data from 83 advanced GC patients treated with chemotherapy whose tissue samples had been characterized for YAP expression (immunohistochemistry, IHC) and TP53 mutations (deep sequencing). In doing so, we generated a molecular model combining nuclear YAP expression in association with TP53 missense variants (YAP+/TP53). Surprisingly, this signature was associated with a decreased risk of disease progression (multivariate Cox for progression-free survival: HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.91, p = 0.022). The YAP+/TP53 model was also associated with better OS in the subgroup of patients who received chemotherapy beyond the first-line setting (multivariate Cox: HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.81, p = 0.013). Collectively, our findings suggest that the oncogenic cooperation between YAP and mutant p53 may translate into better survival outcomes. This apparent paradox can be explained by the pro-proliferative program triggered by YAP and mutant p53, that supposedly renders cancer cells more vulnerable to cytotoxic therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-018-1607-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6122687PMC
September 2018

The use of fentanyl in pain management in head and neck cancer patients: a narrative review.

Br J Pain 2018 Aug 10;12(3):155-162. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Medical Oncology Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Head and neck (H&N) cancers account for about 5% of all malignant tumours. Pain is one of the most feared consequences of H&N neoplasms and is experienced by up to 80% of patients and worsens their quality of life inhibiting speaking, eating, drinking or swallowing. Nevertheless, pain is still often underestimated and undertreated.

Objectives: The role of opioids in cancer pain has been well established but evidences about the role and the relative effectiveness of opioids such as fentanyl in the context of H&N cancer pain remains unclear.

Methods: A literature review based on the guidance of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination was conducted. An iterative approach was used starting with an electronic search in the MEDLINE database. The search terms were used.

Results: A total of 18 publications were found by the first performed search on PubMed. Other publications concordant with our aim were found by cross-reference. Considering inclusion and exclusion criteria for our review, eight papers resulted eligible for analysis.

Conclusion: Fentanyl transdermal therapeutic system (TTS) seems to be an important option, thanks to the way of administration, the good safety and tolerability profiles to control baseline pain. For breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP), several formulations of transmucosal fentanyl are available. All the formulations seem to be active and safety but we lack head-to-head studies of fentanyl versus other strong opioids, as well as with different formulation of fentanyl, particularly for BTcP where H&N cancer population is very poorly represented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2049463717736787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6058455PMC
August 2018

Deep sequencing and pathway-focused analysis revealed multigene oncodriver signatures predicting survival outcomes in advanced colorectal cancer.

Oncogenesis 2018 Jul 22;7(7):55. Epub 2018 Jul 22.

Division of Medical Oncology 2, IRCCS "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144, Rome, Italy.

Genomic technologies are reshaping the molecular landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC), revealing that oncogenic driver mutations (APC and TP53) coexist with still underappreciated genetic events. We hypothesized that mutational analysis of CRC-linked genes may provide novel information on the connection between genetically-deregulated pathways and clinical outcomes. We performed next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 16 recurrently mutated genes in CRC exploiting tissue specimens from 98 advanced CRC patients. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to identify gene sets characterizing negative and positive outliers (patients in the lowest and highest quartile of progression-free survival, PFS). Variables potentially affecting PFS and overall survival (OS) were tested in univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Sensitivity analyses and resampling were used to assess the robustness of genomic predictors. MCA revealed that APC and TP53 mutations were close to the negative outlier group, whereas mutations in other WNT pathway genes were in proximity of the positive outliers. Reasoning that genetic alterations interact epistatically, producing greater or weaker consequences in combination than when individually considered, we tested whether patients whose tumors carried a genetic background characterized by APC and TP53 mutations without coexisting mutations in other WNT genes (AMER1, FBXW7, TCF7L2, CTNNB1, SOX9) had adverse survival outcomes. With this approach, we identified two oncodriver signatures (ODS1 and ODS2) associated with shorter PFS (ODS1 multivariate Cox for PFS: HR 2.16, 95%CI: 1.28-3.64, p = 0.004; ODS2 multivariate Cox for PFS: HR 2.61, 95%CI: 1.49-4.58, p = 0.001). Clinically-focused and molecularly-focused sensitivity analyses, resampling, and reclassification of mutations confirmed the stability of ODS1/2. Moreover, ODS1/2 negatively impacted OS. Collectively, our results point to co-occurring driver mutations as an adverse molecular factor in advanced CRC. This relationship depends on a broader genetic context highlighting the importance of genetic interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-018-0066-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054833PMC
July 2018