Publications by authors named "Marco De Vincentiis"

209 Publications

Association Between Severity of COVID-19 Respiratory Disease and Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jul 28:1455613211029783. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Intensive Care Unit, Morgagni-Pierantoni Hospital, AUSL of Romagna, Forlì, Italy.

Objectives: The purpose of this observational retrospective study was to evaluate, in patients with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, the association between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory illness and the risk of infected patients to develop obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Methods: Ninety-six patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were enrolled in the study. The STOP-BANG questionnaire to investigate the risk of the OSA syndrome was filled in by the patients at admission. The enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups according to the respiratory disease: group 1 (72 patients), hospitalized patients undergoing conventional oxygen therapy; group 2 (24 patients), patients requiring enhanced respiratory support. STOP-BANG results of these 2 groups were compared to observe whether patients with high OSA risk more frequently presented a severe form of COVID-19.

Results: 41.6% of the patients in group 2 had a STOP-BANG score between 5 and 8 (high risk of having apnea); in contrast, 20.8% of the patients in group 1 had a STOP-BANG score between 5 and 8, with a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups ( = .05). A complementary trend was observed regarding the proportion of patients in the range 0 to 2, which classifies patients at a low risk of OSA (48.6% vs 20.8% for groups 1 and 2, = .01).

Conclusions: According to our data, the chances of having a severe case of COVID-19 should be considered in patients at high risk of OSA.

Current Knowledge/study Rationale: Emerging research suggests that OSA could represent a potentially important risk factor for the severe forms of COVID-19. The purpose of this observational retrospective study was to evaluate the potential association between OSA and the severity of COVID-19 disease.

Study Impact: According to our data, the likelihood of contracting a severe form of COVID-19 disease should be considered in patients at high risk of OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211029783DOI Listing
July 2021

Weekly chemotherapy as first line treatment in frail head and neck cancer patients in the immunotherapy era.

J Transl Med 2021 07 12;19(1):303. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Oncology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, 00185, Rome, Italy.

Objective: First-line therapy for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M HNSCC) has been revolutionized by the introduction of anti-checkpoint monoclonal antibodies, which have shown a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) gaining approval in a first line setting. Efficacy and safety of first-line weekly chemotherapy, compared to 3-weeks treatment, was retrospectively evaluated in a frail patient population with R/M HNSCC with the aim to evaluate its role as part of a personalized first-line approach.

Methods: A total of 124 patients with locally incurable R/M HNSCC receiving weekly (21) or three-weekly (103) chemotherapy plus cetuximab in a first line setting from December 2010 to September 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment outcomes in terms of objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicities were analysed.

Results: Patients in the three-week subgroup were ECOG PS 0 (39) and 1 (64) while patients in weekly group (21) were all PS 2. No significant differences were reported in terms of age, sex, smoking and previous alcohol abuse considering the two distinct subgroups. Moreover, no statistically significant difference was found in PFS and OS between the two treatment subgroups. The response rate was 35% (36 patients) and 34% (7 patients) in three-week and weekly treatment group, respectively. Seventy patients (68%) in the three-week group experienced chemotherapy-related toxicities, predominantly G3. In the weekly group a predominantly low-grade toxicity was found in a lower number of patients (52%).

Conclusion: The weekly schedule appears to be an active and safe strategy in frail patients with R/M HNSCC. Based on these data, a weekly schedule could be considered as a first line treatment in all frail patients excluded from pembrolizumab treatment and a study on the combination of weekly chemotherapy and immunotherapy should be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02975-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274020PMC
July 2021

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of otitis media with effusion in adults and children: a multicenter study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 4. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Otolaryngology, Head-Neck and Oral Surgery Unit, Department of Head-Neck Surgery, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Via Carlo Forlanini, 34, 47121, Forli, Italy.

Purpose: To compare and analyze the incidence of otitis media with effusion (OME), before and during the COVID-19-related pandemic period, to evaluate the effects of the social changes (lockdown, continuous use of facial masks, social distancing, reduction of social activities) in the OME incidence in children and adults.

Methods: The number of diagnosed OME in e five referral centers, between 1 March 2018 and 1 March 2021, has been reviewed and collected. To estimate the reduction of OME incidence in children and adults during the COVID-19 pandemic period the OME incidence in three period of time were evaluated and compared: group 1-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2018 and 01/03/2019 (not pandemic period). Group 2-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2019 and 1/03/2020 (not pandemic period). Group 3-patients with OME diagnosis achieved between 1/03/2020 and 1/03/2021 (COVID-19 pandemic period).

Results: In the non-pandemic periods (group 1 and 2), the incidence of OME in the five referral centers considered was similar, with 482 and 555 diagnosed cases, respectively. In contrast, the OME incidence in the same centers, during the pandemic period (group 3) was clearly reduced with a lower total number of 177 cases of OME estimated. Percentage variation in OME incidence between the first non-pandemic year considered (group 1) and the pandemic period (group 3) was-63, 3%, with an absolute value decrease value of-305 cases. Similarly, comparing the second non-pandemic year (group 2) and the pandemic year (group 3) the percentage variation of OME incidence was-68, 1% with an absolute value of-305 cases decreased.

Conclusions: Our findings showed a lower incidence of OME during the pandemic period compared with 2 previous non pandemic years. The drastic restrictive anti-contagion measures taken by the Italian government to contain the spread of COVID-19 could have had a positive impact on the lower OME incidence during the last pandemic year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06958-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255053PMC
July 2021

Surgical Approach to Frontal and Ethmoid Sinus Osteomas: The Experience of 2 Metropolitan Italian Hospitals.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jun 28:1455613211016895. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Otolaryngology Unit, Ospedale Niguarda "Ca' Granda," Milano, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to report the surgical management experience of patients with osteomas of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses performed in 2 metropolitan Italian hospitals between 2012 and 2019.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of cases of frontal and ethmoid osteomas from the of Milan and the of Rome was performed. All patients underwent preoperative computed tomography and, when orbital or intracranial extension was suspected, magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical treatment was performed according to Chiu classification.

Results: A total of 38 cases of frontal and ethmoid sinus osteomas were included in the study; 22 patients were men and 16 were women. The mean age at diagnosis was 49 years. Seven (18.4%) patients were treated using an open approach; 3 (7.9%) patients underwent open and endoscopic approach; the remaining 28 (73.7%) patients were treated with endoscopic approach. Seven (18.4%) patients had a cerebrospinal fluid leak intraoperatively and were treated with the placement of tissue graft through the defect. The mean follow-up time was 18 months; no recurrence was observed at 12-month follow-up.

Conclusion: Osteomas of the frontal and ethmoid sinuses can be treated using different techniques, mostly endoscopically. The choice of surgical approach (endoscopic vs open) depends on the location and size of the osteoma, anatomical size, characteristic of the sinus, surgeon's experience, and available existing technical facilities. Cerebrospinal fluid leak is a possible complication of surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211016895DOI Listing
June 2021

Preoperative Multiparametric Ultrasound and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology evaluation of parotid gland tumors: which is the best technique?

Med Ultrason 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Policlinico Umberto I "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Aims: To evaluate the pre-surgical diagnostic value of Multiparametric Ultrasound (MPUS) and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in differentiating parotid gland tumors, comparing the results with histology.

Materials And Methods: The study enrolled 84 patients with parotid gland lesions surgically treated in a single tertiary center and evaluated by MPUS. Each patient underwent FNAC. Histological examination was considered the gold standard.

Results: Histology identified 62 benign tumors and 22 malignancies. In the differential diagnosis between malignant and benign lesions, B-mode Ultrasound (US), Color-Doppler US, Contrast-Enhanced US (CEUS), Elastography (USE) and FNAC showed the following values of sensitivity: 82%, 81%, 86%, 77%, 73% respectively; specificity: 97%, 61%, 95%, 71%, 97% respectively; PPV: 90%, 43%, 86%, 50%, 89% respectively; NPV: 93%, 90%, 95%, 88%, 91% respectively; and accuracy: 89%, 71%, 90%, 78%, 84% re-spectively.

Conclusions: CEUS proved to be a valid and accurate method for identifying malignant tumors of parotid gland; the combination of B-mode US with CEUS showed similar diagnostic accuracy, but better sensitivity than CEUS taken alone. USE did not improve the diagnostic performance of the B-mode US, alone or in association with CEUS; however, it revealed the highest diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation between benign lesions. FNAC demonstrated lower values in comparison with CEUS and with USE. Therefore, according to our study, MPUS could be proposed as a valid alternative to FNAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-3068DOI Listing
June 2021

Extraneural Sclerosing Perineurioma of the Tongue.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jun 1:1455613211020539. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pathology, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Perineurioma (PN) is an uncommon benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. For the rarity of this tumor in the oral cavity, otolaryngologists and oral surgeons might not be familiar with this entity. Perineuriomas are typically benign and complete excision is deemed adequate management. Thus, their histological recognition is mandatory to avoid unnecessary overtreatment. We report the clinicopathologic findings of an uncommon variant, the Extraneural Sclerosing PN, in an unusual and never described site, the tongue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211020539DOI Listing
June 2021

Otolaryngology activity in two hospitals in northern and central Italy differently affected by COVID-19 pandemic.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):36850421998487

Otolaryngology Unit, Ospedale Niguarda "Ca' Granda," Milano, Italy.

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic had a significant impact on the Italian healthcare system, although geographical differences were present; regions in northern Italy have been the most severely affected while regions in the south of the country were relatively spared. Otolaryngologists were actively involved in the management of the pandemic. In this work, we analyzed and compared the otolaryngology surgical activity performed during the pandemic in two large public hospitals located in different Italian regions. In northern Italy, otolaryngologists were mainly involved in performing surgical tracheotomies in COVID-19 positive patients and contributed to the management of these patients in intensive care units. In central Italy, where the burden of the infection was significantly lower, otolaryngologists focused on diagnosis and treatment of emergency and oncology patients. This analysis confirms the important role of the otolaryngology specialists during the pandemic, but also highlights specific differences between two large hospitals in different Italian regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0036850421998487DOI Listing
May 2021

Laryngeal Obstruction due to Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Apr 28:1455613211013078. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, 9311Sapienza University of Rome, Roma, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211013078DOI Listing
April 2021

Role of Clinical-Demographic Data in Survival Rates of Advanced Laryngeal Cancer.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 15;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

: Laryngeal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the upper aerodigestive tract, and tobacco and alcohol habits are the most relevant risk factors. The role of these risk factors in the incidence of laryngeal carcinomas is well known, yet only a few studies have been conducted on their role as risk factors of prognosis. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of clinical-demographic data on overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with advanced-stage laryngeal cancer (Stage III-IV) who underwent total laryngectomy. : This retrospective study was carried out on patients with Stage III-IV laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with total laryngectomy between 2004 and 2014. For each patient, clinical and anamnestic data were collected and collated in a database, including alcohol and smoking habits. : Considering the variable age, family history, alcohol, grading, subsite, stage, pT stage, pN stage, and adjuvant therapy, no statistical significance was found for five-year OS. Smoking was the only variable that was statistically significant ( = 0.0043). A relevant difference was noted in the five-year DFS between pN-negative and pN-positive tumors (74.3% vs. 55.26%, respectively; = 0.056), and a statistically significant difference was found between non- and ≤20 cigarettes/day smokers and heavy smokers (77.78% vs. 53.66%, respectively; = 0.021). The five-year disease-specific survival rate was 68.83%, and a significant difference was detected for the smoking and pN stage variables. Heavy smokers (43.90% died vs. 16.67% of the non- and ≤20 cigarettes/day smokers; = 0.0057) and pN-positive (42.1% died vs. 20.51% of the pN-negative patients; = 0.042) patients had a worse prognosis. : Smoking in our study was found to be an important independent risk factor for worse OS and DSS in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57030267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001944PMC
March 2021

A New Montgomery® Salivary Bypass Tube Placement Technique: Report of Procedures Performed on Patients With Tracheoesophageal Fistula or Pharyngoesophageal Stenosis.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Mar 25:1455613211006002. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Salivary Bypass Tube is an important tool to prevent or treat some complications of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal surgery and its placement may prove difficult. In this article, we propose a new technique to simplify its management by using an Oral/Nasal Tracheal Tube Cuffed-Reinforced that allowed us to reduce operating times, complications related to prolonged general anesthesia, and the traumas on the tissues incurred during the forced positioning of the device with standard techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211006002DOI Listing
March 2021

Chronic obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction: CT assessment with Valsalva maneuver and ETS-7 score.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0247708. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of "Organi di Senso", Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Chronic obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a common disorder of the middle ear. In recent years, two main diagnostic tools have become available: Eustachian tube score (ETS-7) and computed tomography (CT) combined with Valsalva maneuver. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of ETS-7 and CT in a group of patients affected by middle ear atelectasis with a strong suspicion of ETD. Three males and nine females, affected by middle ear atelectasis with retraction of the TM were enrolled. Each patient underwent to Eustachian tube dysfunction evaluation adopting the ETS-7 score and a temporal bone CT with Valsalva maneuver. The ears analyzed at steady state were divided into 2 groups: ETS<7 group and ETS≥ 7 group. The same division was applied for the ears analyzed after the Valsalva maneuver: ETS<7 group and ETS≥ 7 group. ETs were categorized as "well defined" (WD) and "not defined" (ND). The results of the analysis of the ETS-7 score in all 24 ears showed that 42% presented ETS ≥7, while 58% had ETS <7, indicating a diagnosis of ETD. In the ETS<7 group after Valsalva, ET was visualized in 33% of patients. In the ETS≥7 group it was WD in 29% after the Valsalva manoeuver. In both groups the comparison between the visualization of the ET before and after the Valsalva manoeuver did not present a statistical difference. No correlation emerged between ET evaluation with CT scan during Valsalva maneuver and ETS-7 score. It confirms that there is not a gold standard for the study of ET dysfunction.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247708PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924743PMC
March 2021

Barbed suture Extrusion and Exposure in palatoplasty for OSA: What does it mean?

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Jul-Aug;42(4):102994. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Head-Neck Surgery, Otolaryngology, Head-Neck and Oral Surgery Unit, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Via Carlo Forlanini, 34-47121 Forlì, Italy; Ear-Nose-Throat & Audiology Unit, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: Analyze Extrusion&Exposion (E&E), its implications in the functional, anatomical results and subjective discomfort in OSA patients treated with Barbed Reposition Pharyngoplasty (BRP).

Materials And Methods: 488 patients treated with BRP or multilevel TORS. Stratafix wire was used in 230 patients, V-Loc in 258. E&E, timing and localization evaluated at follow-up. Polygraphy used to assess the impact of E&E on functional results, PPOPS questionnaire used for subjective discomfort.

Results: E&E in the entire group was 18,4%, with significant difference between Stratafix and V-Loc wire (p = 0,002), but not between BRP alone and multilevel surgery (p = 0,68). 28,9% of extrusion happened within the first seven days, 76,7% between seven days and two months, 5,5% after two months. Symptomatic clinical profile has been seen in 62,2%, asymptomatic one in 37,8% of patients. 35,5% of E&E were localized in tonsillar bed, 46,7% in soft palate and 20% in other sites. Mean delta-AHI of E&E patients was -15,87 ± 16.82 compared with one of those who did not have E&E was -16.34 ± 22,77 (p = 0,38). Mean PPOPS of 183 patients analyzed was 12,32 ± 4,96. Mean PPOPS of extruded group was 12,94 ± 4,68 and 11,92 ± 5,11 in not extruded one (p = 0,166).

Conclusions: E&E are suture-type sensitive (V-Loc > Stratafix), reported more frequent when BRP is performed alone than BRP-TORS with no statistical significance. 76,7% of the E&E occur after patient discharge and within 2 months. About half of the E&E were localized in soft palate. There is no need to fear Extrusion&Exposition because it does not affect in a negative way subjective and PSG outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2021.102994DOI Listing
February 2021

Interpretation of the mucous plug through sialendoscopy.

Oral Dis 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine Latina, Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, University of Rome La Sapienza, Latina, Italy.

Objective: The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the behaviour of mucus inside the ducts of the major salivary glands, in presence of typical pathologies, through images obtained with sialendoscopy.

Subject: The authors present and comment on some sialendoscopies that show mucous plug in the ducts of the major salivary glands.

Results: In primary Sjogren's syndrome, mucous plugs confirm the qualitative anomaly of the mucins and acidification saliva. Instead, salivary calculations behave like foreign bodies that generate mechanical pressure and friction on the duct walls of major salivary glands, so mucus deposits in the duct in its defence; in case of infected stone, mucous plugs are formed also with the function of protecting the ducts from the aggression of germs. During sialadenitis, there is a conflict between mucus and bacteria which explains sialendoscopic evidence such as white duct walls and mucous plugs.

Conclusions: The study of the salivary ducts through sialendoscopy often confirms the clinical diagnosis or hypothesize it. During its execution, it is necessary not only to liberate the ducts of the major salivary glands but also analyse the appearance of the mucous plugs and the ductal walls as they are useful to guide the physician towards diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13796DOI Listing
February 2021

A Rare Case of Extracranial Schwannoma of the Hypoglossal Nerve Located in the Parapharyngeal Space Mimicking a Deep Neck Abscess.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Jan 18:145561320988365. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Schwannomas are neurogenic benign tumors originating from the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, and hypoglossal Schwannomas account for 5% of nonvestibular ones. Extracranial localizations are substantially rare, especially those affecting exclusively the parapharyngeal space; for this reason, the retrostyloid neoformations could initially masquerade as a carotid tumor or deep organized neck abscess. The purpose of this report is to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the correct management of differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320988365DOI Listing
January 2021

The safety of sublingual immunotherapy, can the rare systemic reactions be prevented?

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2021 Mar 21;20(3):259-264. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

: The safety of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), and particularly the dramatic issue of fatal reactions, has been an obstacle that limited the implementation of a therapy with unique characteristics of action on the causes of allergy. The introduction of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was aimed at solving safety problems while maintaining clinical efficacy.: For more than 20 years, SLIT has been based on allergen extracts in drops at low average doses. As evidenced by meta-analyses, the typical adverse events (AE) have consisted of local reactions in the mouth and throat. Unlike the injection route, no correlation was observed between the administered dose and AEs. The development of SLIT products in tablets, based on higher doses than drops, has somewhat changed the concept of SLIT safety. Although large trials, performed to obtain regulatory agency approval, have shown overall high safety, rare anaphylactic reactions have been described.: SLIT is globally safe, and no fatal reactions have ever been reported, but with currently available high biological potency products it is necessary to follow prudential rules, such as the administration of the first dose under medical supervision and the thorough education of patients to avoid taking of higher doses than recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2021.1874917DOI Listing
March 2021

Carcinoma Cuniculatum of the Larynx.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare clinicopathologic variant of squamous cell carcinoma. Histologically, it is characterized by invasive growth of bland, acanthotic, and keratinizing squamous epithelium that forms multiple rabbit burrow-like, keratin-filled crypts and sinuses. We present a 51-year-old male smoker with CC of the left vocal cord. The tumor was staged T1a and the patient was disease-free 12 months after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the fourth case of CC of the larynx reported in the English literature and the first, due to its early diagnosis, where radical surgery was not performed. We highlight the necessity for awareness of this entity and coordination between otolaryngologists, radiologists, and pathologists for early diagnosis and organ-sparing surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12105-020-01264-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Upright BPPV Protocol: Feasibility of a New Diagnostic Paradigm for Lateral Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Compared to Standard Diagnostic Maneuvers.

Front Neurol 2020 19;11:578305. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Vestibology and ENT Unit, Giovanni Paolo II Hospital, Matera, Italy.

The diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) involving the lateral semicircular canal (LSC) is traditionally entrusted to the supine head roll test, also known as supine head yaw test (SHYT), which usually allows identification of the pathologic side and BPPV form (geotropic vs. apogeotropic). Nevertheless, SHYT may not always allow easy detection of the affected canal, resulting in similar responses on both sides and intense autonomic symptoms in patients with recent onset of vertigo. The newly introduced upright head roll test (UHRT) represents a diagnostic maneuver for LSC-BPPV, supplementing the already-known head pitch test (HPT) in the sitting position. The combination of these two tests should enable clinicians to determine the precise location of debris within LSC, avoiding disturbing symptoms related to supine positionings. Therefore, we proposed the upright BPPV protocol (UBP), a test battery exclusively performed in the upright position, including the evaluation of pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus (PSN), HPT and UHRT. The purpose of this multicenter study is to determine the feasibility of UBP in the diagnosis of LSC-BPPV. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 134 consecutive patients diagnosed with LSC-BPPV. All of them received both UBP and the complete diagnostic protocol (CDP), including the evaluation of PSN and data resulting from HPT, UHRT, seated-supine positioning test (SSPT), and SHYT. A correct diagnosis for LSC-BPPV was achieved in 95.5% of cases using exclusively the UBP, with a highly significant concordance with the CDP ( < 0.000, Cohen's kappa = 0.94), regardless of the time elapsed from symptom onset to diagnosis. The concordance between UBP and CDP was not impaired even when cases in which HPT and/or UHRT provided incomplete results were included ( < 0.000). Correct diagnosis using the supine diagnostic protocol (SDP, including SSPT + SHYT) or the sole SHYT was achieved in 85.1% of cases, with similar statistical concordance ( < 0.000) and weaker strength of relationship (Cohen's kappa = 0.80). UBP allows correct diagnosis in LSC-BPPV from the sitting position in most cases, sparing the patient supine positionings and related symptoms. UBP could also allow clinicians to proceed directly with repositioning maneuvers from the upright position.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.578305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711159PMC
November 2020

Spider Angioma of the Nasal Mucosa.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 Dec 10:145561320980202. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, 9311Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Spider angioma is a benign vascular lesion reminiscent of a spider's body characterized by peculiar dilatation of end vasculature. The lesion is characterized by a central spot and extensions which radiate outward like a spider's body. Spider angiomas may appear as a solitary or multiple lesion that arises on the skin surface of the face, neck, chest, and arms; these lesions have been rarely observed in the sublingual mucosa and in the gut, and to date, they have never been reported in the nasal mucosa. In this article, we report a spider angioma of the nasal cavity found as an occasional finding during a narrow band imaging nasopharyngeal endoscopy in a 70-year-old male patient with hepatitis C virus-related liver cirrhosis and a history of total laryngectomy in 2013 due to laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The lesion was located in the mucosa of the pavement of the posterior portion of the left nostril; it was painless and asymptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320980202DOI Listing
December 2020

Role of Narrow Band Imaging Endoscopy in Preoperative Evaluation of Laryngeal Leukoplakia: A Review of the Literature.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 Nov 20:145561320973770. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Leukoplakia is a precancerous lesion considered to be within the spectrum of histopathological results from parakeratosis, through stages of dysplasia to invasive cancer. Narrow band imaging (NBI) endoscopy has been introduced to improve early diagnosis of benign and malignant laryngeal lesions. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the accuracy of preoperative evaluation of vocal fold leukoplakia with NBI endoscopy in comparison with histology.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, using 3 different databases: PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. The included articles in the systematic review were identified combining each of the following terms: "narrow band imaging" OR "NBI," [AND] with each of these terms: "laryngeal leukoplakia," OR "vocal fold leukoplakia," OR "vocal cord leukoplakia."

Results: The articles that fully met the inclusion criteria were 5 case series, conducted between January 2010 and February 2018, and published between 2017 and 2019. The selected articles included 312 patients (86% males and 14% females), affected by 382 vocal cord leukoplakia, evaluated with NBI endoscopy and that underwent surgical microlaryngoscopy with biopsy. Based on the studies included in the review, accuracy of NBI in predicting malignancy within leukoplakia ranged from 81% to 97.8%, demonstrating to be an accurate method to predict the risk of malignant transformation of vocal fold leukoplakia.

Conclusion: Narrow band imaging can help otolaryngologists in the decision-making process on the necessity to perform a biopsy and transoral surgery or long-term follow-up. Larger studies are necessary to confirm the high association of NBI evaluation of the epithelium surrounding the leukoplakia with the histological diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320973770DOI Listing
November 2020

Bimodal cochlear implantation in elderly patients.

Int J Audiol 2021 Jun 11;60(6):469-478. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Otolaryngology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Objective: Bimodal stimulation is a standard option for asymmetric hearing loss in adults. Questions have been raised whether receiving two stimulations may conflict in elderly listeners where the central integration of an acoustic/electrical signal may be very important to obtain benefit in terms of speech perception.

Design: Clinical retrospective study.

Study Sample: The outcomes from 17 bimodal cochlear implant (CI) users were analysed. The test material consisted of speech audiometry in quiet and in noise (STARR and Matrix).

Results: Bimodal PTA and speech perception both in quiet and in noise were significantly better than CI or HA alone. Age showed a significant effect on bimodal STARR outcomes. Similarly, bimodal STARR scores improved significantly in comparison to Better Ear.

Conclusion: Both Matrix and STARR tests were very difficult for many elderly CI listeners from the present study group, especially in unilateral listening condition. The performance improved significantly, emphasising a good integration of acoustic and electric hearing in this group of elderly bimodal listeners. Overall results highlighted how a specific study, based on speech perception in noise in the elderly listeners, might shed light on the effect of speech test modality on bimodal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14992027.2020.1843080DOI Listing
June 2021

fMRI in Bell's Palsy: Cortical Activation is Associated with Clinical Status in the Acute and Recovery Phases.

J Neuroimaging 2021 01 4;31(1):90-97. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Neuroradiology Unit, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we explored cortical activation in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP) and analyzed its correlates with clinical status in the acute phase, and with 6-month outcome.

Methods: Twenty-four right-handed patients with acute BP within 15 days of onset and 24 healthy controls underwent fMRI during performance of unilateral active (hemi-smiling) and passive lip movement tasks with both the paretic and the normal lip. The degree of paresis was evaluated during the acute stage and at the 6-month follow up using the House-Brackmann (HB) grading scale. Complete recovery was defined as HB grade II or less at the end of the 6-month period. The difference in the HB grade (ΔHB) between the acute stage and the 6-month follow up was used to evaluate clinical improvement.

Results: There were 24 patients with unilateral acute BP. HB grades ranged from III to VI. At 6 months, 11 patients (46%) had completely recovered and 12 (50%) were partially improved. Compared with healthy subjects, BP patients had a significantly greater activation of the frontal areas and the insula ipsilateral to the paretic side. In BP patients, there was an inverse correlation between the activation of the ipsilateral hemisphere when moving the paretic side and the degree of paresis at baseline. An association was also observed between activation and clinical outcome (both complete recovery and ΔHB).

Conclusions: In patients with BP, fMRI may represent a useful tool to predict long-term outcome, guide therapeutic approach, and monitor treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12798DOI Listing
January 2021

Montgomery Salivary Bypass Tube in Head and Neck Cancer: The Experience of Our Otolaryngology Clinic.

Ear Nose Throat J 2020 Oct 12:145561320961754. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University Sapienza of Rome, Italy.

Introduction: One of the most common complications in the immediate and late postoperative period following total laryngectomy or pharyngolaryngectomy is pharyngocutaneous fistulae (PCF) formation and pharyngoesophageal stenosis (PES), causing significant mortality and morbidity. Since 1978, Montgomery salivary bypass tube (MSBT) has been used to reduce the incidence of PCF and PES. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the outcomes of using MSBT both as a tool to prevent PCF and PES and to treat these complications in the postoperative period.

Methods: Between January 2013 and December 2019, we inserted 109 MSBT in 87 patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer treated in the Unit of Otolaryngology of our University Hospital.

Results: Sixty (86.9%) patients healed from complications with primary and secondary placement of MSBT. Seven patients presented a persistence of PCF and 2 presented a recurrence of PES. Secondary placement of MSBT allowed treating successfully 15 (83%) of 18 patients. Only 3 of them presented a PCF at the end of the follow-up period.

Conclusion: According to our experience, the MSBT is an affordable, easy to apply and well-tolerated tool. Although it is generally used for PCF treatment, it can also be used intraoperatively for PCF and PES prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145561320961754DOI Listing
October 2020

Minimally Invasive Intraoral Approach to Submandibular Lodge.

J Clin Med 2020 Sep 14;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Sensory Organs, Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale del Policlinico 161, 00185 Rome, Italy.

The purpose of this study is to describe the Minimally Invasive Intraoral Approach (MIIA) performed on selected cases of abscesses and neck phlegmons of odontogenic origin when the infection has not spread beyond the inferior mandibular margin. This technique allows us to avoid cervicotomy by a direct approach to the abscess, draining it through the oral cavity. If the limits have already been crossed, then cervicotomy is necessary. The aim of the study is to show the surgical outcomes that we have achieved during a time span of two years, and to show the effectiveness of the MIIA and its results. We selected 66 patients with abscesses and neck phlegmons, from January 2018 to June 2020. Among these cases, five patients were excluded as it was not possible to recover medical records from database. The MIIA technique has been performed on 16 patients (26.2%) when a successful dental extraction and drainage of the submandibular lodge were accomplished. The patients who underwent the MIIA surgery have all perfectly healed and did not suffer from relapses during the follow-up. The results show the achievement of excellent healing, underlining the lower impact required by MIIA when compared to a more traditional approach through cervicotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563973PMC
September 2020

Induction chemotherapy in nonlaryngeal human papilloma virus-negative high-risk head and neck cancer: a real-world experience.

Anticancer Drugs 2020 11;31(10):1074-1083

Clinical and Molecular Medicine.

The role of induction chemotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of locally advanced, nonlaryngeal high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-negative head and neck squamous cells carcinoma (HNSCC) is uncertain in terms of overall survival (OS). The primary objective of this study was to identify possible predictive factors of survival and outcome in patients with HNSCC who were treated with induction chemotherapy. Fifty-nine patients with stage IVa/b HPV-negative non-laryngeal HNSCC (mostly originating from the oral cavity) who underwent induction chemotherapy at Policlinico Umberto I were reviewed. Treatment outcomes in term of objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), OS and toxicities were analyzed. A significant association between nodal status, ORR, ongoing smoking use, toxicities and OS was demonstrated. ORR (obtained in 61% of patients) was associated with a reduction in mortality of 80% (P< 0.0001). Early discontinuation after just one cycle of induction chemotherapy was associated to a significantly shorter OS. In oral cavity radical surgery with negative margins was obtained in 15/16 patients. In 42% of patients G3-G4 toxicity occurred. Toxicity requiring hospitalization occurred in 42% and 21% of patients with oropharyngeal and oral cavity carcinoma, respectively. Five patients died of treatment-related causes. No treatment-related mortality occurred in oral cavity patients. G5 toxicities were different according to the sub-sites of disease (P = 0.05). Induction chemotherapy in non-laryngeal high-risk HNSCC is an active strategy, most importantly in oral cavity cancer, even though burdened with a high (G ≥ 3) toxicity and early discontinuation rate. These data will however need to be confirmed in further and larger studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000000977DOI Listing
November 2020

Variables influencing executive functioning in preschool hearing-impaired children implanted within 24 months of age: an observational cohort study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Aug 11;278(8):2733-2743. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Sensorial Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale dell'Università, 31, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Executive Functions (EFs) are fundamental to every aspect of life. The present study was implemented to evaluate factors influencing their development in a group of preschools orally educated profoundly deaf children of hearing parents, who received CI within 2 years of age.

Methods: Twenty-five preschool CI children were tested using the Battery for Assessment of Executive Functions (BAFE) to assess their flexibility, inhibition, and non-verbal visuo-spatial working memory skills. The percentage of children performing in normal range was reported for each of the EF subtests. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were performed to assess differences between gender, listening mode, and degree of parents' education subgroups. The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient was calculated to investigate the relationship between EF scores of audiological and linguistic variables.

Results: Percentages ranging from 76 to 92% of the children reached adequate EF scores at BAFE. Significant relations (p < 0.05) were found between EFs and early intervention, listening, and linguistic skills. Furthermore, CI children from families with higher education level performed better at the response shifting, inhibitory control, and attention flexibility tasks. Economic income correlated significantly with flexibility and inhibitory skills. Females performed better than males only in the attention flexibility task.

Conclusions: The present study is one of the first to focus attention on the development of EFs in preschool CI children, providing an initial understanding of the characteristics of EFs at the age when these skills emerge. Clinical practice must pay increasing attention to these aspects which are becoming the new emerging challenge of rehabilitation programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06343-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266786PMC
August 2021

Immunohistochemical detection of IL-17 and IL-23 improves the identification of patients with a possible diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome.

Pathol Res Pract 2020 Nov 16;216(11):153137. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, Latina 04100, Italy.

Objectives: The diagnosis of primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) continues to be difficult and several patients keep symptomatic for years with different diagnoses before confirmation of pSS. Since the IL-23-IL-17 axis is involved in the etiopathogenesis of pSS we evaluated by immunohistochemistry and morphometric methods the presence of IL-17 as well as IL-23 within minor salivary glands (MSG) obtained from patients with uncertain diagnosis of pSS.

Materials And Methods: 42 patients, with symptoms attributable to pSS, and 8 patients used as a control, were enrolled for the study. Autoantibody detection, histological analysis for the presence of Germinal Centers (GC+), immunohistochemistry to detect IL-23 and IL-17 were performed.

Results: The detection of GC + anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody in parallel with the detection of IL-17 and IL-23, displays only a diagnostic reinforcement value. Instead, the detection of a positive reaction for both IL-17 and IL-23 without GC + or autoantibody within minor salivary glands, as detected in 36 % of patients with uncertain diagnosis, may be hold as a sensitive and specific marker to identify those patients who are likely to evolve into pSS.

Conclusion: we suggest to use the IL-17/ IL-23 immunohistochemical detection to improve the identification of patients with a possible diagnosis in all cases which do not fully meet the American-European criteria for pSS, in particular when the GC + are not present at histopathological analysis and anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody are undetectable in the serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2020.153137DOI Listing
November 2020

Hashimoto's thyroiditis: An update on pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic protocols, therapeutic strategies, and potential malignant transformation.

Autoimmun Rev 2020 Oct 15;19(10):102649. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Hashimoto's thyroiditis, characterized by thyroid-specific autoantibodies, is one of the commonest autoimmune disorders. Although the exact etiology has not been fully elucidated, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is related to an interaction among genetic elements, environmental factors and epigenetic influences. Cellular and humoral immunity play a key role in the development of the disease; thus, a T and B cells inflammatory infiltration is frequently found. Histopathologic features of the disease include lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, lymphoid follicle formation with germinal centers, and parenchymal atrophy. Moreover, the occurrence of large follicular cells and oxyphilic or Askanazy cells is frequently associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Clinically, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is characterized mainly by systemic manifestations due to the damage of the thyroid gland, developing a primary hypothyroidism. Diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is clinical and based on clinical characteristics, positivity to serum antibodies against thyroid antigens (thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin), and lymphocytic infiltration on cytological examination. The mainstream of treatment is based on the management of the hypothyroidism with a substitution therapy. A relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a possible malignant transformation has been proposed in several studies and involves immunological/hormonal pathogenic links although specific correlation is still debated and needs to be further investigated with prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102649DOI Listing
October 2020

Long-term omalizumab efficacy in allergic rhinitis.

Immunol Lett 2020 11 13;227:81-87. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Background: Omalizumab therapy was found to be safe and effective as an add-on therapy for patients with poorly controlled severe asthma. Although several studies over the last decade have demonstrated its efficacy in other Immunoglobulin E related diseases, its use in such conditions is off-label.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of long-term therapy with Omalizumab in patients with persistent severe allergic rhinitis and inadequately controlled severe asthma.

Methods: Patients with poorly controlled severe asthma and persistent allergic rhinitis were enrolled and treated with Omalizumab for 36 months with every four-week subcutaneous administration. The efficacy assessment included the severity of AR symptoms every six months using Visual Analogue Scale, Asthma Control Test, nasal endoscopy, spirometry, and biomarkers (blood eosinophils and neutrophils, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, total IgE).

Results: Eleven patients aged between 26 and 70 years were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. A significant improvement of allergic rhinitis symptoms, Asthma Control Test, and lung function was observed. There was also a reduction in the status of the biomarkers at the end of the study.

Conclusion: Long-term therapy with Omalizumab was effective and safe in treating severe persistent allergic rhinitis and concomitant asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2020.08.002DOI Listing
November 2020
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