Publications by authors named "Marco Colombo"

107 Publications

Cytotoxicity of Different Composite Resins on Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell Lines.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Unit of Biochemestry, Departement of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of eight composite resins on immortalized human gingival fibroblasts. Composite resins were eluted in cell culture medium for 48 or 72 h at 37 °C. Immortalized human gingival fibroblast-1 (HGF-1) cell lines were seeded in 96-well (1 × 10) plates and incubated for 24 h at 37 °C with the obtained extraction medium. The percentage of viable cells in each well (MTT test) was calculated relative to control cells, which were set to 100%. Data observed were not normally distributed, and nonparametric statistical methods were used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used for intragroup comparison, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for intergroup multiple comparisons. Significance value was set as < 0.05. All materials tested showed cytotoxic effects on gingival fibroblasts, recordable as noncytotoxic, mildly cytotoxic or severely cytotoxic, depending on the percentage of cell viability. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparison showed that the percentage of viable cells decreased significantly for extracts, for all composite resins tested. The composite resins contained monomers that displayed cytotoxic properties. BisGMA, TEGDMA and UDMA had inhibitory effects and induced apoptotic proteins in pulp fibroblast. Composite resins that contained lower percentages of unbound free monomers-and that released less ions-possessed superior biocompatibility in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics6020026DOI Listing
April 2021

Risks of and risk factors for COVID-19 disease in people with diabetes: a cohort study of the total population of Scotland.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 02 23;9(2):82-93. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Health Protection Scotland, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: We aimed to ascertain the cumulative risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes and compare it with that of people without diabetes, and to investigate risk factors for and build a cross-validated predictive model of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 among people with diabetes.

Methods: In this cohort study, we captured the data encompassing the first wave of the pandemic in Scotland, from March 1, 2020, when the first case was identified, to July 31, 2020, when infection rates had dropped sufficiently that shielding measures were officially terminated. The participants were the total population of Scotland, including all people with diabetes who were alive 3 weeks before the start of the pandemic in Scotland (estimated Feb 7, 2020). We ascertained how many people developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in this period from the Electronic Communication of Surveillance in Scotland database (on virology), the RAPID database of daily hospitalisations, the Scottish Morbidity Records-01 of hospital discharges, the National Records of Scotland death registrations data, and the Scottish Intensive Care Society and Audit Group database (on critical care). Among people with fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19, diabetes status was ascertained by linkage to the national diabetes register, Scottish Care Information Diabetes. We compared the cumulative incidence of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with and without diabetes using logistic regression. For people with diabetes, we obtained data on potential risk factors for fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 from the national diabetes register and other linked health administrative databases. We tested the association of these factors with fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes, and constructed a prediction model using stepwise regression and 20-fold cross-validation.

Findings: Of the total Scottish population on March 1, 2020 (n=5 463 300), the population with diabetes was 319 349 (5·8%), 1082 (0·3%) of whom developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 by July 31, 2020, of whom 972 (89·8%) were aged 60 years or older. In the population without diabetes, 4081 (0·1%) of 5 143 951 people developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19. As of July 31, the overall odds ratio (OR) for diabetes, adjusted for age and sex, was 1·395 (95% CI 1·304-1·494; p<0·0001, compared with the risk in those without diabetes. The OR was 2·396 (1·815-3·163; p<0·0001) in type 1 diabetes and 1·369 (1·276-1·468; p<0·0001) in type 2 diabetes. Among people with diabetes, adjusted for age, sex, and diabetes duration and type, those who developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 were more likely to be male, live in residential care or a more deprived area, have a COVID-19 risk condition, retinopathy, reduced renal function, or worse glycaemic control, have had a diabetic ketoacidosis or hypoglycaemia hospitalisation in the past 5 years, be on more anti-diabetic and other medication (all p<0·0001), and have been a smoker (p=0·0011). The cross-validated predictive model of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 in people with diabetes had a C-statistic of 0·85 (0·83-0·86).

Interpretation: Overall risks of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 were substantially elevated in those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the background population. The risk of fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19, and therefore the need for special protective measures, varies widely among those with diabetes but can be predicted reasonably well using previous clinical history.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30405-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832778PMC
February 2021

Ontogeny of an arlequin: morphological and colour pattern changes from juvenile to adult in Gnathophyllum elegans (Risso, 1816) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae), traced through citizen science and social media data mining.

Zootaxa 2020 Nov 20;4881(3):zootaxa.4881.3.13. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Agriculture, University of Sassari, Viale Italia 39, I-07100 Sassari, Italy..

The spotted bumblebee shrimp Gnathophyllum elegans (Risso, 1816) is a caridean species of the family Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815 widely distributed in the eastern Atlantic and the entire Mediterranean Sea (Zariquiey Alvarez 1968; d'Udekem d'Acoz 1999; De Grave et al. 2015). It is a solitary sciaphilous taxon that grows up to 40 mm of total length, and at daytime hides under stones, in crevices or amidst Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus) Delile rhizomes from the intertidal to about 30 m depth, with some authors even considering it as preferring coralligenous environments (Pérès Picard 1964; Ledoyer 1968; d'Udekem d'Acoz 1999). Such a cryptic behavior makes the detection of G. elegans often difficult in the field, although the species is easily distinguishable by the other eastern Atlantic-Mediterranean shrimp species due to its colourful appearance and mostly due to its dark purple-brown body entirely covered by yellow-orange dots (Zariquiey Alvarez 1968; Falciai Minervini 1992).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4881.3.13DOI Listing
November 2020

Quantitative levels of serum N-glycans in type 1 diabetes and their association with kidney disease.

Glycobiology 2020 Nov 27. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.

We investigated associations of quantitative levels of N-glycans with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), renal function and renal function decline in type 1 diabetes. We measured 46 total N-glycan peaks (GPs) on 1565 serum samples from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource Study (SDRNT1BIO) and a pool of healthy donors. Quantitation of absolute abundance of each GP used 2AB-labelled mannose-3 as standard. We studied cross-sectional associations of GPs and derived measures with HbA1c, albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and prospective associations with incident albuminuria and final eGFR. All GPs were 1.4 to 3.2 times more abundant in SDRTN1BIO than in the healthy samples. Absolute levels of all GPs were slightly higher with higher HbA1c, with strongest associations for triantennary trigalactosylated disialylated, triantennary trigalactosylated trisialylated structures with core or outer arm fucose, and tetraantennary tetragalactosylated trisialylated glycans. Most GPs showed increased abundance with worsening ACR. Lower eGFR was associated with higher absolute GP level, most significantly with biantennary digalactosylated disialylated glycans with and without bisect, triantennary trigalactosylated trisialylated glycans with and without outer arm fucose, and core fucosylated biantennary monogalactosylated monosialylated glycans. Although several GPs were inversely associated prospectively with final eGFR, cross-validated multivariable models did not improve prediction beyond clinical covariates. Elevated HbA1c is associated with an altered N-glycan profile in type 1 diabetes. Although we could not establish GPs to be prognostic of future renal function decline independently of HbA1c, further studies to evaluate their impact in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/glycob/cwaa106DOI Listing
November 2020

Exposure of Biomimetic Composite Materials to Acidic Challenges: Influence on Flexural Resistance and Elastic Modulus.

Biomimetics (Basel) 2020 Oct 28;5(4). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences-Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Acidic conditions of the oral cavity, including soft drinks and cariogenic bacteria, represent a damage for restorative biomimetic composite materials. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of two different acidic challenges on the flexural strength and elastic modulus of five composites: x-tra fil (Group 1, XTF), GrandioSO x-tra (Group 2, GXT), Admira Fusion x-tra (Group 3, AFX), VisCalor bulk (Group 4, VCB), and Enamel Plus HRi (Group 5, EPH). Thirty samples for each group were randomly divided and assigned to three different treatments: storage in distilled water as the controls (subgroups 1a-5a), 3 weeks distilled water + 1 week Coca-Cola (subgroups 1b-5b), and 4 weeks Coca-Cola (subgroups 1c-5c). For each subgroup, the flexural strength and elastic modulus were measured using an Instron universal testing machine, and data were submitted to statistical analysis. Considering subgroups B, no material showed a significant difference in the flexural strength with the controls ( > 0.05), whereas for subgroups C, only GXT and VCB showed significantly lower values ( < 0.05). AFX reported the lowest flexural strength among the materials tested. As regards the elastic modulus, no material showed a significant variation after acidic storages when compared with the respective control ( > 0.05). AFX and EPH reported the lowest elastic modulus compared to the other materials. All composites tested showed adequate flexural properties according to the standards, except for AFX. This biomimetic material, along with EPH, might be indicated for V class (cervical) restorations considering the lowest values of elasticity reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics5040056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709636PMC
October 2020

Biomarkers associated with early stages of kidney disease in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Pediatr Diabetes 2020 11 17;21(7):1322-1332. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: To identify biomarkers of renal disease in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare findings in adults with T1D.

Methods: Twenty-five serum biomarkers were measured, using a Luminex platform, in 553 adolescents (median [interquartile range] age: 13.9 [12.6, 15.2] years), recruited to the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial. Associations with baseline and final estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), rapid decliner and rapid increaser phenotypes (eGFR slopes <-3 and > 3 mL/min/1.73m /year, respectively), and albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed. Results were also compared with those obtained in 859 adults (age: 55.5 [46.1, 64.4) years) from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource.

Results: In the adolescent cohort, baseline eGFR was negatively associated with trefoil factor-3, cystatin C, and beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) (B coefficient[95%CI]: -0.19 [-0.27, -0.12], P = 7.0 × 10 ; -0.18 [-0.26, -0.11], P = 5.1 × 10 ; -0.12 [-0.20, -0.05], P = 1.6 × 10 ), in addition to clinical covariates. Final eGFR was negatively associated with osteopontin (-0.21 [-0.28, -0.14], P = 2.3 × 10 ) and cystatin C (-0.16 [-0.22, -0.09], P = 1.6 × 10 ). Rapid decliner phenotype was associated with osteopontin (OR: 1.83 [1.42, 2.41], P = 7.3 × 10 ), whereas rapid increaser phenotype was associated with fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) (1.59 [1.23, 2.04], P = 2.6 × 10 ). ACR was not associated with any of the biomarkers. In the adult cohort similar associations with eGFR were found; however, several additional biomarkers were associated with eGFR and ACR.

Conclusions: In this young population with T1D and high rates of hyperfiltration, osteopontin was the most consistent biomarker associated with prospective changes in eGFR. FGF-23 was associated with eGFR increases, whereas trefoil factor-3, cystatin C, and B2M were associated with baseline eGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13095DOI Listing
November 2020

Copper-Alloy Surfaces and Cleaning Regimens against the Spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Dentistry and Orthopedics. From Fomites to Anti-Infective Nanocoatings.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jul 22;13(15). Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences-Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The latest diffusion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has involved the whole world population. Even if huge efforts to control the pandemic have been done, the viral spread is still continuing. COVID-19 is reported as a zoonosis jumped from bats and pangolins to humans. After infection in humans, SARS-CoV-2 is found in the nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions. The virus has also been detected in the blood plasma of infected patients. The viral spread occurs through droplets exhaled from the nose and mouth of the infected people when they breath or talk, or through droplets propelled as a dense cloud by chough or sneeze. The virus can also be delivered as an aerosol from blood plasma, through surgical procedures. Following these ways, the virus can disperse in the air, then reaching and settling on the exposed surfaces. How long the virus will survive on a surface depends on the material the surface is made from. Infection via high-touch surfaces should be prevented. Copper alloy coatings, combined with efficient hygienic/disinfectant procedures and careful surgical practice, could be helpful to health protection in dental practice and can also be adopted in orthopedic traumatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13153244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7435369PMC
July 2020

Trueness of Intraoral Scanners Considering Operator Experience and Three Different Implant Scenarios: A Preliminary Report.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 March/April;34(2):250–253. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Purpose: To evaluate the trueness of two intraoral scanners in different clinical situations and considering operator experience.

Materials And Methods: Two intraoral scanner systems were used to perform a total of 120 digital impressions of three master casts reproducing three scenarios (single implant, two implants, and four implants [full-arch]). Two operators, one experienced and one unexperienced, were selected.

Results: No differences were found between the two operators. A statistically significant correlation was found with regard to the scanning system used and the clinical scenario analyzed.

Conclusions: Within the limits of this preliminary report, operator experience seems not able to significantly influence the trueness of a digital impression; however, imprecision increased in the full-arch cases for both operators. The twoimplant scenario presented similar trueness values for both scanner systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ijp.6224DOI Listing
April 2021

Ozonized Gel Against Four Species: A Pilot Study and Clinical Perspectives.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Apr 8;13(7). Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Ozone therapy can display a wide range of clinical beneficial effects, including antimicrobial, immune-stimulant, analgesic, anti-hypoxic actions. However, there is still a paucity of data regarding the ozone fungicide activity. Oral is the most common fungal infection in the mouth among denture wearers and people with weakened immune systems. In the case of generalized candidiasis or immunocompromised patients, systemic therapy is needed, while localized infections are treated with topic medications. However, many strains are resistant to antifungal drugs. The aim of this preliminary analysis is to evaluate the antimycotic efficacy of a new ozonided oil (GeliO), as a possible terapeutic alternative in local treatments of these infections, compared to chlorhexidine digluconate (Plak gel®). Chlorhexidine is a chemical synthesis disinfectant with a broad-spectrum antiseptic action, active against bacteria and fungi. Antimycotic activity was tested against the following four species: , , , , through an agar diffusion method. No significant differences were found between the growth inhibition zone diameters of the ozonized gel and chlorhexidine. The results indicated that the ozonized gel may help to combat infections. Moreover, useful applications could be used to counteract colonization of endosseous implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13071731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178640PMC
April 2020

Growth and Characterization of CuZnFeSnS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 24;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Materials Science and Solar Energy Research Center (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano, Italy.

Photovoltaics is a promising technology to produce sustainable energy, thanks to the high amount of energy emitted by the sun. One way of having solar cells with low production costs is to apply thin-film technology and with earth-abundant raw materials. A keen interest is arising in kesterite compounds, which are chalcogenides composed of abundant and non-toxic elements. They have already achieved excellent performance at the laboratory level. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of mixed chalcogenides based on copper, zinc, iron, and tin. Solutions have been studied with different zinc and iron ratios. The distortion of the elementary cell of kesterite increases with the addition of iron until a phase transition to stannite occurs. The process of synthesis and deposition proposed herein is cheap and straightforward, based on the sol-gel technique. These thin films are particularly attractive for use in cheap and easily processable solar cells. The synthesized layers have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Vis absorption, and Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143291PMC
March 2020

New Resin-Based Bulk-Fill Composites: Evaluation of Micro-Hardness and Depth of Cure as Infection Risk Indexes.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 13;13(6). Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences - Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The current study evaluated the Vickers hardness number (VHN) and hardness ratio of four bulk-fill composites (VisCalor bulk; Admira Fusion x-tra; x-tra fil; and GrandioSO x-tra-Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) to assess the risk of bacterial colonization in comparison with standard composite materials. Thirty samples were prepared for each group. The VHN of both the external (top) and internal surface (bottom) was determined with a micro-hardness tester (200 g load for 15 s), and the hardness ratio was also calculated for each sample. Subsequently, storage in an acidic soft drink (Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Company, Milano, Italy) was performed; for each group, 10 samples were stored for 1 day, while another 10 were stored for 7 days and the remaining 10 were kept in water as controls. A significant reduction in VHN was shown for all the groups when comparing the external versus internal side (P < 0.05), although the hardness ratio was greater than 0.80, resulting in an adequate polymerization. Regarding the acid storage, all the groups showed a significant decrease of VHN when compared with the controls, both after 1 day (P < 0.05) and after 7 days (P < 0.001). All the products showed adequate depth of cure without further risk of bacterial colonization. However, acid exposure negatively affected micro-hardness values, which might promote subsequent colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13061308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143874PMC
March 2020

Expression quantitative trait loci-derived scores and white matter microstructure in UK Biobank: a novel approach to integrating genetics and neuroimaging.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 02 4;10(1):55. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Division of Psychiatry, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) are genetic variants associated with gene expression. Using genome-wide genotype data, it is now possible to impute gene expression using eQTL mapping efforts. This approach can be used to analyse previously unexplored relationships between gene expression and heritable in vivo measures of human brain structural connectivity. Using large-scale eQTL mapping studies, we computed 6457 gene expression scores (eQTL scores) using genome-wide genotype data in UK Biobank, where each score represents a genetic proxy measure of gene expression. These scores were then tested for associations with two diffusion tensor imaging measures, fractional anisotropy (N = 14,518) and mean diffusivity (N = 14,485), representing white matter structural integrity. We found FDR-corrected significant associations between 8 eQTL scores and structural connectivity phenotypes, including global and regional measures (β FA = 0.0339-0.0453; MD = 0.0308-0.0381) and individual tracts (β FA = 0.0320-0.0561; MD = 0.0295-0.0480). The loci within these eQTL scores have been reported to regulate expression of genes involved in various brain-related processes and disorders, such as neurite outgrowth and Parkinson's disease (DCAKD, SLC35A4, SEC14L4, SRA1, NMT1, CPNE1, PLEKHM1, UBE3C). Our findings indicate that eQTL scores are associated with measures of in vivo brain connectivity and provide novel information not previously found by conventional genome-wide association studies. Although the role of expression of these genes regarding white matter microstructural integrity is not yet clear, these results suggest it may be possible, in future, to map potential trait- and disease-associated eQTL to in vivo brain connectivity and better understand the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders and brain traits, and their associated imaging findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0724-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026054PMC
February 2020

In Vitro Re-Hardening of Bleached Enamel Using Mineralizing Pastes: Toward Preventing Bacterial Colonization.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 11;13(4). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of ClinicalSurgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric SciencesSection of Dentistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The search for materials able to remineralize human hard tissues is a modern medical challenge. In this study, the protective effect on the enamel microhardness by a paste based on hydroxyapatite and sodium fluoride (Remin Pro) was evaluated after two different enamel bleaching procedures. Forty sound human incisors were randomly assigned to different treatments: bleaching with an in-office agent (Perfect Bleach Office+); bleaching with an at-home agent (Perfect Bleach); bleaching with the in-office agent followed by the prophylaxis paste; bleaching with the athome agent followed by the prophylaxis paste; no treatment (control). Bleaching was performed at 0, 8, 24 and 32 h, followed by a 3min remineralizing treatment in the subgroups designed to receive it. Specimens underwent a microhardness tester and a mean Vickers Hardness number was considered for each specimen. ANOVA exhibited significant differences among groups. Posthoc Tukey testing showed significant microhardness decrease after the application of both the two bleaching agents. The treatment with prophylaxis paste significantly increased the microhardness values of bleached enamel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13040818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079603PMC
February 2020

Influence of Different Surface Pretreatments on Shear Bond Strength of an Adhesive Resin Cement to Various Zirconia Ceramics.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 1;13(3). Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Clinical, University of Pavia, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences - Section of Dentistry, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the influence of surface pretreatment on shear bond strength (SBS) of an adhesive resin cement (G-CEM Link Force TM, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to three different yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) ceramics: (1) Copran Zirconia Monolith HT, COP; (2) Katana ML Zirconia, KAT; and (3) Metoxit Z-CAD HTL Zirconia, MET. In total, 45 cylinders (5 mm in diameter, 1 mm height) for each type of zirconia ceramic were prepared used a computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machine (software CEREC 4.2). Each type of zirconia was subdivided into three groups and each group received a different surface pretreatment; 15 samples were not conditioned as control (groups COP 1, KAT 1, MET 1), 15 samples were air-borne particle abraded with aluminum dioxide particles of 50-μm size at 0.3 MPa for 20 s (groups COP 2, KAT 2, MET 2), and 15 samples were hot-etched with a solution of hydrochloric acid and ferric chloride (groups COP 3, KAT 3, MET 3). After specimen fabrication, the adhesive cement-ceramic interface was analyzed using an SBS test. Subsequently, the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was measured. Data were submitted to statistical analysis. Air-borne particle abraded specimens showed the highest SBS values for COP and KAT groups. For MET, no significant difference was reported between air-borne particle abraded specimens and untreated controls. The lowest values were detected for acid-etched groups. A higher frequency of ARI = "1" and ARI = "2" was reported in control and air-borne particle abraded groups, whereas ARI = "3" was detected in hot-etched groups. No correlation was found between ARI score and shear bond strength. Air-borne particle abrasion is considered the best treatment for Zirconia Copran and Zirconia Katana ML, if it is followed by using dual-curing resin cement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13030652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040603PMC
February 2020

Custom-made 3D printed subperiosteal titanium implants for the prosthetic restoration of the atrophic posterior mandible of elderly patients: a case series.

3D Print Med 2020 Jan 8;6(1). Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Prevention and Communal Dentistry, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 119991, Moscow, Russia.

Purpose: To present the application of custom-made 3D-printed subperiosteal implants for fixed prosthetic restoration of the atrophic posterior mandible of elderly patients.

Methods: Between January 2017 and June 2018, all partially edentulous patients aged over 65 years, with two or more missing teeth in the posterior atrophic mandible, and who did not want to undergo bone regenerative procedures, were included in this study. These patients were rehabilitated with custom-made subperiosteal implants, designed from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fabricated in titanium by means of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The outcome measures were fit and stability of the implants at placement, duration of the intervention, implant survival, and early and late complications. All patients were followed for 1 year after surgery.

Results: Ten patients (four males, six females; mean age 69.6, SD ± 2.8, median 69, 95% CI 67.9-71.6) were included in the study. The fit of the implants was satisfactory, with a mean rating of 7 out of 10 (SD ± 1.6, median 7, 95% CI 6-8). Only two implants had insufficient fit, because of the presence of scattering in the CBCT; however, they were adapted to the sites during the interventions. The mean duration of the intervention was 44.3 min (SD ± 19.4, median 37, 95% CI 32.3-56.3). At the one-year follow-up, no implants were lost (survival rate 100%). One implant presented immediate postoperative complications with pain, discomfort and swelling, and two patients experienced late complications, having their provisional restorations fractured during the temporisation phase. All these complications were minor in nature, but the final complication rate amounted to 30% (three of ten patients).

Conclusions: Although this study has limits (small patient sample and short follow-up), DMLS has proven to be an effective method for fabricating accurate subperiosteal implants, with high survival rates. This may represent an alternative treatment procedure in elderly patients with a severely atrophic posterior mandible, since it allows avoidance of regenerative bone therapies. Further studies are needed to confirm these outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41205-019-0055-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950914PMC
January 2020

Comparison of serum and urinary biomarker panels with albumin/creatinine ratio in the prediction of renal function decline in type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2020 04 8;63(4):788-798. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: We examined whether candidate biomarkers in serum or urine can improve the prediction of renal disease progression in type 1 diabetes beyond prior eGFR, comparing their performance with urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR).

Methods: From the population-representative Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource (SDRNT1BIO) we sampled 50% and 25% of those with starting eGFR below and above 75 ml min [1.73 m], respectively (N = 1629), and with median 5.1 years of follow-up. Multiplexed ELISAs and single molecule array technology were used to measure nine serum biomarkers and 13 urine biomarkers based on our and others' prior work using large discovery and candidate studies. Associations with final eGFR and with progression to <30 ml min [1.73] m, both adjusted for baseline eGFR, were tested using linear and logistic regression models. Parsimonious biomarker panels were identified using a penalised Bayesian approach, and their performance was evaluated through tenfold cross-validation and compared with using urinary ACR and other clinical record data.

Results: Seven serum and seven urine biomarkers were strongly associated with either final eGFR or progression to <30 ml min [1.73 m], adjusting for baseline eGFR and other covariates (all at p<2.3 × 10). Of these, associations of four serum biomarkers were independent of ACR for both outcomes. The strongest associations with both final eGFR and progression to <30 ml min [1.73 m] were for serum TNF receptor 1, kidney injury molecule 1, CD27 antigen, α-1-microglobulin and syndecan-1. These serum associations were also significant in normoalbuminuric participants for both outcomes. On top of baseline covariates, the r for prediction of final eGFR increased from 0.702 to 0.743 for serum biomarkers, and from 0.702 to 0.721 for ACR alone. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for progression to <30 ml min [1.73 m] increased from 0.876 to 0.953 for serum biomarkers, and to 0.911 for ACR alone. Other urinary biomarkers did not outperform ACR.

Conclusions/interpretation: A parsimonious panel of serum biomarkers easily measurable along with serum creatinine may outperform ACR for predicting renal disease progression in type 1 diabetes, potentially obviating the need for urine testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-05081-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054370PMC
April 2020

Predicting renal disease progression in a large contemporary cohort with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetologia 2020 03 5;63(3):636-647. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

MRC Institute of Genetic and Molecular Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to provide data from a contemporary population-representative cohort on rates and predictors of renal decline in type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We used data from a cohort of 5777 people with type 1 diabetes aged 16 and older, diagnosed before the age of 50, and representative of the adult population with type 1 diabetes in Scotland (Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource; SDRNT1BIO). We measured serum creatinine and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) at recruitment and linked the data to the national electronic healthcare records.

Results: Median age was 44.1 years and diabetes duration 20.9 years. The prevalence of CKD stages G1, G2, G3 and G4 and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 64.0%, 29.3%, 5.4%, 0.6%, 0.7%, respectively. Micro/macroalbuminuria prevalence was 8.6% and 3.0%, respectively. The incidence rate of ESRD was 2.5 (95% CI 1.9, 3.2) per 1000 person-years. The majority (59%) of those with chronic kidney disease stages G3-G5 did not have albuminuria on the day of recruitment or previously. Over 11.6 years of observation, the median annual decline in eGFR was modest at -1.3 ml min [1.73 m] year (interquartile range [IQR]: -2.2, -0.4). However, 14% experienced a more significant loss of at least 3 ml min [1.73 m]. These decliners had more cardiovascular disease (OR 1.9, p = 5 × 10) and retinopathy (OR 1.3 p = 0.02). Adding HbA, prior cardiovascular disease, recent mean eGFR and prior trajectory of eGFR to a model with age, sex, diabetes duration, current eGFR and ACR maximised the prediction of final eGFR (r increment from 0.698 to 0.745, p < 10). Attempting to model nonlinearity in eGFR decline or to detect latent classes of decliners did not improve prediction.

Conclusions: These data show much lower levels of kidney disease than historical estimates. However, early identification of those destined to experience significant decline in eGFR remains challenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-05052-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997248PMC
March 2020

Persistent C-peptide secretion in Type 1 diabetes and its relationship to the genetic architecture of diabetes.

BMC Med 2019 08 23;17(1):165. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital Campus, Crewe Road, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship of detectable C-peptide secretion in type 1 diabetes to clinical features and to the genetic architecture of diabetes.

Methods: C-peptide was measured in an untimed serum sample in the SDRNT1BIO cohort of 6076 Scottish people with clinically diagnosed type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood. Risk scores at loci previously associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were calculated from publicly available summary statistics.

Results: Prevalence of detectable C-peptide varied from 19% in those with onset before age 15 and duration greater than 15 years to 92% in those with onset after age 35 and duration less than 5 years. Twenty-nine percent of variance in C-peptide levels was accounted for by associations with male gender, late age at onset and short duration. The SNP heritability of residual C-peptide secretion adjusted for gender, age at onset and duration was estimated as 26%. Genotypic risk score for type 1 diabetes was inversely associated with detectable C-peptide secretion: the most strongly associated loci were the HLA and INS gene regions. A risk score for type 1 diabetes based on the HLA DR3 and DQ8-DR4 serotypes was strongly associated with early age at onset and inversely associated with C-peptide persistence. For C-peptide but not age at onset, there were strong associations with risk scores for type 1 and type 2 diabetes that were based on SNPs in the HLA region but not accounted for by HLA serotype.

Conclusions: Persistence of C-peptide secretion varies widely in people clinically diagnosed as type 1 diabetes. C-peptide persistence is influenced by variants in the HLA region that are different from those determining risk of early-onset type 1 diabetes. Known risk loci for diabetes account for only a small proportion of the genetic effects on C-peptide persistence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-019-1392-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706940PMC
August 2019

Point-Combination Transect (PCT): Incorporation of small underwater cameras to study fish communities.

Methods Ecol Evol 2019 Jun 20;10(6):891-901. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Environmental Sciences Zoological Institute University of Basel Basel Switzerland.

Available underwater visual census (UVC) methods such as line transects or point count observations are widely used to obtain community data of underwater species assemblages, despite their known pit-falls. As interest in the community structure of aquatic life is growing, there is need for more standardized and replicable methods for acquiring underwater census data.Here, we propose a novel approach, Point-Combination Transect (PCT), which makes use of automated image recording by small digital cameras to eliminate observer and identification biases associated with available UVC methods. We conducted a pilot study at Lake Tanganyika, demonstrating the applicability of PCT on a taxonomically and phenotypically highly diverse assemblage of fishes, the Tanganyikan cichlid species-flock.We conducted 17 PCTs consisting of five GoPro cameras each and identified 22,867 individual cichlids belonging to 61 species on the recorded images. These data were then used to evaluate our method and to compare it to traditional line transect studies conducted in close proximity to our study site at Lake Tanganyika.We show that the analysis of the second hour of PCT image recordings (equivalent to 360 images per camera) leads to reliable estimates of the benthic cichlid community composition in Lake Tanganyika according to species accumulation curves, while minimizing the effect of disturbance of the fish through SCUBA divers. We further show that PCT is robust against observer biases and outperforms traditional line transect methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582616PMC
June 2019

Biomarker panels associated with progression of renal disease in type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2019 09 20;62(9):1616-1627. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to identify a sparse panel of biomarkers for improving the prediction of renal disease progression in type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We considered 859 individuals recruited from the Scottish Diabetes Research Network Type 1 Bioresource (SDRNT1BIO) and 315 individuals from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study. All had an entry eGFR between 30 and 75 ml min[1.73 m], with those from FinnDiane being oversampled for albuminuria. A total of 297 circulating biomarkers (30 proteins, 121 metabolites, 146 tryptic peptides) were measured in non-fasting serum samples using the Luminex platform and LC electrospray tandem MS (LC-MS/MS). We investigated associations with final eGFR adjusted for baseline eGFR and with rapid progression (a loss of more than 3 ml min[1.73 m] year) using linear and logistic regression models. Panels of biomarkers were identified using a penalised Bayesian approach, and their performance was evaluated through 10-fold cross-validation and compared with using clinical record data alone.

Results: For final eGFR, 16 proteins and 30 metabolites or tryptic peptides showed significant association in SDRNT1BIO, and nine proteins and five metabolites or tryptic peptides in FinnDiane, beyond age, sex, diabetes duration, study day eGFR and length of follow-up (all at p < 10). The strongest associations were with CD27 antigen (CD27), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and α1-microglobulin. Including the Luminex biomarkers on top of baseline covariates increased the r for prediction of final eGFR from 0.47 to 0.58 in SDRNT1BIO and from 0.33 to 0.48 in FinnDiane. At least 75% of the increment in r was attributable to CD27 and KIM-1. However, using the weighted average of historical eGFR gave similar performance to biomarkers. The LC-MS/MS platform performed less well.

Conclusions/interpretation: Among a large set of associated biomarkers, a sparse panel of just CD27 and KIM-1 contains most of the predictive information for eGFR progression. The increment in prediction beyond clinical data was modest but potentially useful for oversampling individuals with rapid disease progression into clinical trials, especially where there is little information on prior eGFR trajectories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-019-4915-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677704PMC
September 2019

Association of response to TNF inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis with quantitative trait loci for and CD39.

Ann Rheum Dis 2019 08 29;78(8):1055-1061. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Centre for Experimental Medicine and Rheumatology, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Objectives: We sought to investigate whether genetic effects on response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be localised by considering known genetic susceptibility loci for relevant traits and to evaluate the usefulness of these genetic loci for stratifying drug response.

Methods: We studied the relation of TNFi response, quantified by change in swollen joint counts ( Δ SJC) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( Δ ESR) with locus-specific scores constructed from genome-wide assocation study summary statistics in 2938 genotyped individuals: 37 scores for RA; scores for 19 immune cell traits; scores for expression or methylation of 93 genes with previously reported associations between transcript level and drug response. Multivariate associations were evaluated in penalised regression models by cross-validation.

Results: We detected a statistically significant association between Δ SJC and the RA score at the locus (p=0.0004) and an inverse association between Δ SJC and the score for expression of CD39 on CD4 T cells (p=0.00005). A previously reported association between CD39 expression on regulatory T cells and response to methotrexate was in the opposite direction. In stratified analysis by concomitant methotrexate treatment, the inverse association was stronger in the combination therapy group and dissipated in the TNFi monotherapy group. Overall, ability to predict TNFi response from genotypic scores was limited, with models explaining less than 1% of phenotypic variance.

Conclusions: The association with the CD39 trait is difficult to interpret because patients with RA are often prescribed TNFi after failing to respond to methotrexate. The CD39 and pathways could be relevant for targeting drug therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669378PMC
August 2019

Vickers Micro-Hardness of New Restorative CAD/CAM Dental Materials: Evaluation and Comparison after Exposure to Acidic Drink.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;12(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) for indirect restorative materials has been recently introduced in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the change of the surface micro-hardness of different restorative CAD/CAM materials after exposure to a carbonated acidic drink (Coca-Cola, Coca-Cola Company, Milan, Italy). One hundred and eighty specimens of identical size (2 mm thickness) were obtained by sectioning each tested CAD/CAM block of four materials: a hybrid ceramic (CERASMART™, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), a resin nano ceramic (Lava™ Ultimate, 3M, Monrovia, CA, USA), a nanohybrid composite (Grandio blocs, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany), and a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic (VITA SUPRINITY PC; VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Sackingen, Germany). Forty-five specimens of each material were tested. Micro-hardness was measured at baseline, after 7 days and after 28 days. The data were analyzed. The micro-hardness of each material varied significantly after immersion in Coca-Cola. The nanohybrid composite had a high initial micro-hardness and the greatest percentage loss after acid exposure. The hybrid ceramic and the resin nano ceramic had similar percentage losses of micro-hardness values even if the second material had higher initial values. The zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass ceramic had the highest baseline values and the lowest percentage loss of micro-hardness. The different CAD/CAM materials presented different micro-hardness values before and after acid exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12081246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515223PMC
April 2019

Ratio between Height and Thickness of the Buccal Tissues: A Pilot Study on 32 Single Implants.

Dent J (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Milan, Via Commenda 10, 20154 Milan, Italy.

Background: Previous studies have suggested that mucosal height is related to the bone level and soft tissue thickness. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the ratio between the height and width of the tissues around single implants with a conical connection and platform switching.

Methods: All patients receiving single implants (Anyridge, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) and restored with single crowns, in a three-month period, were included in this study. After a provisionalization of 12 months, precision impressions were taken and stone casts were poured for measurements. For each implant, two values were collected at the buccal site: the mucosal height (MH), calculated from the vestibular shoulder of the implant to the upper gingival margin of the supra-implant tissue; and the mucosal thickness (MT), calculated from the vestibular shoulder of the analogue to the external mucosa point perpendicular to the implant major axis. Mean, standard deviation (SD), and confidence intervals (CI 95%) for MH and MT, as well as their ratios, were calculated. Correlation between MH and MT was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, with significance level set at 0.05.

Results: 32 single Anyridge implants were eligible for this evaluation. The mean MH was 3.44 mm (±1.28), the mean MT was 3.29 (±1.46). The average of the ratio between MH and MT of the supra-implant mucosa was therefore 1:1.19 (±0.55). The relation between MH and MT was statistically significant at p ≤ 0.01 (Pearson two-tailed 95% CI).

Conclusions: Our study found a constant relationship between width and height of the peri-implant mucosa. However, our results are different from those of Nozawa et al., who found a ratio of 1:1.5 between height and thickness of the peri-implant tissues. This may be determined by the different sample and follow-up period, as well as by the implants used in our study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj7020040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631890PMC
April 2019

Flexural Properties and Elastic Modulus of Different Esthetic Restorative Materials: Evaluation after Exposure to Acidic Drink.

Biomed Res Int 2019 4;2019:5109481. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Unit of Restorative Dentistry, Section of Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Acidic beverages, such as soft drinks, can produce erosion of resin composites. The purpose of the present study was to investigate mechanical properties of different esthetic restorative materials after exposure to acidic drink.

Methods: Nine different composites were tested: nanofilled (Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE), microfilled hybrid (G-ænial, GC Corporation), nanohybrid Ormocer (Admira Fusion, Voco), microfilled (Gradia Direct, GC Corporation), microfilled hybrid (Essentia, GC Corporation), nanoceramic (Ceram.X Universal, Dentsply De Trey), supranano spherical hybrid (Estelite Asteria, Tokuyama Dental Corporation), flowable microfilled hybrid (Gradia Direct Flo, GC Corporation), and bulk fill flowable (SureFil SDR flow, Dentsply De Trey). Thirty specimens of each esthetic restorative material were divided into 3 subgroups (n=10): specimens of subgroup 1 were used as control, specimens of subgroup 2 were immersed in 50 ml of Coca Cola for 1 week, and specimens of subgroup 3 were immersed in 50 ml of Coca Cola for 1 month. Flexural strength and elastic modulus were measured for each material with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Data were submitted to statistical analysis.

Results: After distilled water immersion, nanofilled composite showed the highest value of both flexural strength and elastic modulus, but its flexural values decreased after acidic drink immersion. No significant differences were reported between distilled water and acidic drink immersion for all other materials tested both for flexural and for elastic modulus values.

Conclusions: Even if nanofilled composite showed highest results, acidic drink immersion significantly reduced flexural values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5109481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378791PMC
June 2019

Validity of a two-component imaging-derived disease activity score for improved assessment of synovitis in early rheumatoid arthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds.

Objectives: Imaging of joint inflammation provides a standard against which to derive an updated DAS for RA. Our objectives were to develop and validate a DAS based on reweighting the DAS28 components to maximize association with US-assessed synovitis.

Methods: Early RA patients from two observational cohorts (n = 434 and n = 117) and a clinical trial (n = 59) were assessed at intervals up to 104 weeks from baseline; all US scans were within 1 week of clinical exam. There were 899, 163 and 183 visits in each cohort. Associations of combined US grey scale and power Doppler scores (GSPD) with 28 tender joint count and 28 swollen joint count (SJC28), CRP, ESR and general health visual analogue scale were examined in linear mixed model regressions. Cross-validation evaluated model predictive ability. Coefficients learned from training data defined a re-weighted DAS28 that was validated against radiographic progression in independent data (3037 observations; 717 patients).

Results: Of the conventional DAS28 components only SJC28 and CRP were associated with GSPD in all three development cohorts. A two-component model including SJC28 and CRP outperformed a four-component model (R2 = 0.235, 0.392, 0.380 vs 0.232, 0.380, 0.375, respectively). The re-weighted two-component DAS28CRP outperformed conventional DAS28 definitions in predicting GSPD (Δtest log-likelihood <-2.6, P < 0.01), Larsen score and presence of erosions.

Conclusion: A score based on SJC28 and CRP alone demonstrated stronger associations with synovitis and radiographic progression than the original DAS28 and should be considered in research on pathophysiological manifestations of early RA. Implications for clinical management of RA remain to be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649844PMC
March 2019

Effect of different protective agents on enamel erosion: An in vitro investigation.

J Clin Exp Dent 2019 Feb 1;11(2):e113-e118. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Unit of Biochemistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different protective agents on enamel erosion by measuring mean percentage weight loss.

Material And Methods: Extracted teeth were sectioned into uniform slabs and enamel specimens were randomly distributed to different groups. Initial weight of all enamel specimens was registered. The protective agents used in this study were Tooth Mousse, MI Paste Plus, Remin Pro and Remin Pro Forte. A control group was treated just with tap water. All the specimens were immersed in Coca-Cola for a total of 8 min at room temperature, dried and weighed. Enamel dissolution caused by acidic soft drink was analyzed: specimens were weighed after each immersion period and mean percent weight loss was calculated. Weight loss data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (One-way ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's post hoc tests.

Results: All the groups showed a statistically significant loss of weight (<0.01) during the testing periods, increased after 8 days (~55%) and 12 days (~70%) of exposure. Specimens treated with protective agents showed significantly lower % of weight loss especially with Remin Pro or Remin Pro Forte.

Conclusions: Soft drinks can cause enamel erosion, but protective agents tested may enhance enamel resistance against erosion. Enamel, erosion, protective agents, soft drinks, toothpastes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.55278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383899PMC
February 2019

Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of a new ozonized olive oil against oral and periodontal pathogens.

J Clin Exp Dent 2018 Nov 1;10(11):e1103-e1108. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences - Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: In the present study, the antimicrobial properties of a new ozonized olive oil (O-zone gel) against oral and periodontal pathogens will be evaluated and compared with that of common CHX-based agents.

Material And Methods: O-zone gel was compared with two agents based on chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX): Corsodyl Dental Gel and Plak Gel. A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia and S. mutans, were selected and the antibacterial capability of the compounds was tested by using direct contact agar diffusion test (DCT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) evaluations. Differences between specific means were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Group means were compared using a one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (<0.05).

Results: O-zone gel reported inhibition zones which correspond to 33% and 43% of that achieved by the CHX agents. No inhibition of bacterial growth (MIC) on the Gram-positive strain by using O-zone gel was found and no antimicrobial effect (MBC) was observed by using O-zone gel on both Gram-negative and -positive strains.

Conclusions: The new ozonated oil was a relatively moderate antiseptic. Gram-negative bacteria proved to be more sensitive to ozonized olive oil than Gram-positive ones. The ozonized olive oil demonstrated a lower antibacterial activity if compared to the CHX-based agents tested. Agar diffusion test, antibacterial activity, direct contact test, ozone, ozonized olive oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.54929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311406PMC
November 2018

Brief resolved unexplained events: Retrospective validation of diagnostic criteria and risk stratification.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 01;54(1):61-65

University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Background And Objectives: This study retrospectively evaluated the AAP guidelines for diagnosis and risk stratification of Brief Resolved Unexplained Events (BRUE) in a well-characterized cohort of infants admitted with an Apparent Life Threatening Event (ALTE). Further, using prospective follow-up, we endeavored to determine the safety of implementing ambulatory care for the lower risk BRUE population (LR-BRUE) and estimate the cost-savings of this practice.

Methods: Retrospective application of the BRUE criteria on infants younger than 12 months of age who had been admitted with an ALTE from 2006 to 2016 at a single tertiary care center in Lombardy, Italy. ALTE patients were classified into three groups; (1) Not a BRUE; (2) Lower-risk (LR)-BRUE; and (3) Higher-risk (HR)-BRUE. Patients were contacted prospectively to obtain long-term follow-up outcomes and medical records and billing databases were reviewed.

Results: Among the 84 infants admitted for an ALTE, 35 (42%) were not a BRUE, 16 (19%) were a LR-BRUE, and 33 (39%) were a HR-BRUE. Only one of the LR-BRUE patients had a subsequent LR-BRUE event, and was later diagnosed with a seizure disorder. Two HR-BRUE babies had also previously presented with a LR-BRUE. Application of the LR-BRUE guidelines would have decreased health expenditure by 20%. There were no deaths or significant morbidities in either BRUE group.

Conclusions: Applying the recent AAP BRUE guidelines and risk stratification to a well-characterized cohort of admitted ALTE patients is a safe and cost-effective approach. Careful out-patient follow-up is recommended as one of our patients with a LR-BRUE had a recurrence, and was subsequently diagnosed with a seizure disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24195DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of different finishing/polishing procedures on surface roughness of Ormocer-based and different resin composites.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2018 Nov-Dec;15(6):404-410

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Section of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the surface roughness of six esthetic restorative materials (Gradia Direct Anterior, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; Filtek Supreme XTE, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA; Ceram.X Universal, Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany; Essentia enamel, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan; Admira Fusion, Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany; and Estelite, Tokuyama Dental corporation, Taitou-ku, Tokyo, Japan) achieved using three different finishing and polishing techniques.

Materials And Methods: In this study Forty specimens of each material (6 mm in diameter, 2 mm high) were created and divided into four groups, one per each finishing and polishing procedure and a control group, only cured and not polished. All specimen preparation and finishing and polishing procedures were performed by the same investigator, to reduce variability, following strictly the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analyzed using a profilometer to measure the mean surface roughness (Ra, μm), and microscopy images were taken during the measurements through the microscope of the profilometer. Two-way ANOVA test was applied to determine significant differences with respect to material, finishing/polishing technique, and interaction between both variables. comparison was done using Tukey's honestly significant difference test. Significance for statistical tests was predetermined at < 0.05.

Results: Finishing and polishing procedure using tungsten carbide burs provided the best values in terms of surface roughness. All materials of this study treated with this method have provided superimposable values, and no material can be considered more performing than the others. Similar values were also found in the control group.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the finishing technique with carbide burs produced an excellent surface smoothness, even if the best surface smoothness is achieved curing the restorative material under a polyester matrix.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243812PMC
December 2018

Cytotoxicity evaluation of a new ozonized olive oil.

Eur J Dent 2018 Oct-Dec;12(4):585-589

Departement of Molecular Medicine, Unit of Biochemistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Objective: The cytocompatibility of a new ozonized olive oil toward immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) was evaluated and compared with two common antimicrobial agents based on chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX).

Materials And Methods: The cytocompatibility of the samples was tested on immortalized HGF-1 cells by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The cells were incubated for 2 or 24 h with increasing dilution of ozonized olive oil or CHX agents. The percentage of viable cells was calculated relative to control cells set to 100%.

Results: The ozonized olive oil is cytocompatible, and the viability values of the cells treated for 2 or 24 h with increasing concentrations of ozonized olive oil were significantly higher ( < 0.01) compared with the values obtained using CHX.

Conclusions: The present data demonstrate that due to its cytocompatibility, the new ozonized olive oil could be considered an alternative antibacterial agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ejd.ejd_422_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178687PMC
October 2018