Publications by authors named "Marco Candela"

120 Publications

Impact of Marine Aquaculture on the Microbiome Associated with Nearby Holobionts: The Case of Living in Proximity of Sea Bream Aquaculture Cages.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Unit of Microbiome Science and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Aquaculture plays a major role in the coastal economy of the Mediterranean Sea. This raises the issue of the impact of fish cages on the surrounding environment. Here, we explore the impact of aquaculture on the composition of the digestive gland microbiome of a representative locally dwelling wild holobiont, the grazer gastropod , at an aquaculture facility located in Southern Sicily, Italy. The microbiome was assessed in individuals collected on sea bream aquaculture cages and on a rocky coastal tract located about 1.2 km from the cages, as the control site. microbiome variations were explained in the broad marine metacommunity context, assessing the water and sediment microbiome composition at both sites, and characterizing the microbiome associated with the farmed sea bream. The digestive gland microbiome at the aquaculture site was characterized by a lower diversity, the loss of microorganisms sensitive to heavy metal contamination, and by the acquisition of fish pathogens and parasites. However, we also observed possible adaptive responses of the digestive gland microbiome at the aquaculture site, including the acquisition of putative bacteria able to deal with metal and sulfide accumulation, highlighting the inherent microbiome potential to drive the host acclimation to stressful conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927081PMC
February 2021

Bile acids and oxo-metabolites as markers of human faecal input in the ancient Pompeii ruins.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3650. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Chemistry "G. Ciamician", University of Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Small organic molecules, lipids, proteins, and DNA fragments can remain stable over centuries. Powerful and sensitive chemical analysis can therefore be used to characterize ancient remains for classical archaeological studies. This bio-ecological dimension of archaeology can contribute knowledge about several aspects of ancient life, including social organization, daily habits, nutrition, and food storage. Faecal remains (i.e. coprolites) are particularly interesting in this regard, with scientists seeking to identify new faecal markers. Here, we report the analysis of faecal samples from modern-day humans and faecal samples from a discharge pit on the site of the ruins of ancient Pompeii. We propose that bile acids and their gut microbiota oxo-metabolites are the most specific steroid markers for detecting faecal inputs. This is due to their extreme chemical stability and their exclusive occurrence in vertebrate faeces, compared to other ubiquitous sterols and steroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82831-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878498PMC
February 2021

Elevated gut microbiome abundance of is associated with reduced visceral adipose tissue and healthier metabolic profile in Italian elderly.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-19

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna , Bologna, Italy.

Aging is accompanied by physiological changes affecting body composition and functionality, including accumulation of fat mass at the expense of muscle mass, with effects upon morbidity and quality of life. The gut microbiome has recently emerged as a key environmental modifier of human health that can modulate healthy aging and possibly longevity. However, its associations with adiposity in old age are still poorly understood. Here we profiled the gut microbiota in a well-characterized cohort of 201 Italian elderly subjects from the NU-AGE study, by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We then tested for association with body composition from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), with a focus on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Dietary patterns, serum metabolome and other health-related parameters were also assessed. This study identified distinct compositional structures of the elderly gut microbiota associated with DXA parameters, diet, metabolic profiles and cardio-metabolic risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1880221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889099PMC
February 2021

Components of a Neanderthal gut microbiome recovered from fecal sediments from El Salt.

Commun Biol 2021 Feb 5;4(1):169. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Unit of Microbiome Science and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, Bologna, Italy.

A comprehensive view of our evolutionary history cannot ignore the ancestral features of our gut microbiota. To provide some glimpse into the past, we searched for human gut microbiome components in ancient DNA from 14 archeological sediments spanning four stratigraphic units of El Salt Middle Paleolithic site (Spain), including layers of unit X, which has yielded well-preserved Neanderthal occupation deposits dating around 50 kya. According to our findings, bacterial genera belonging to families known to be part of the modern human gut microbiome are abundantly represented only across unit X samples, showing that well-known beneficial gut commensals, such as Blautia, Dorea, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium and Bifidobacterium already populated the intestinal microbiome of Homo since as far back as the last common ancestor between humans and Neanderthals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01689-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864912PMC
February 2021

Particulate matter emission sources and meteorological parameters combine to shape the airborne bacteria communities in the Ligurian coast, Italy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 8;11(1):175. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Unit of Microbiome Science and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Aim of the present study is to explore how the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) and meteorological conditions combine in shaping the air microbiome in Savona (Italy), a medium-size, heavily inhabited urban settlement, hosting a wide range of industrial activities. In particular, the air microbiome and PM were monitored over six months in 2012. During that time, the air microbiome was highly dynamic, fluctuating between different compositional states, likely resulting from the aerosolization of different microbiomes emission sources. According to our findings, this dynamic process depends on the combination of local meteorological parameters and particle emission sources, which may affect the prevalent aerosolized microbiomes, thus representing further fundamental tools for source apportionment in a holistic approach encompassing chemical as well as microbiological pollution. In particular, we showed that, in the investigated area, industrial emissions and winds blowing from the inlands combine with an airborne microbiome which include faecal microbiomes components, suggesting multiple citizens' exposure to both chemicals and microorganisms of faecal origin, as related to landscape exploitation and population density. In conclusion, our findings support the need to include monitoring of the air microbiome compositional structure as a relevant factor for the final assessment of local air quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80642-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794459PMC
January 2021

Effects of dietary organic acids and nature identical compounds on growth, immune parameters and gut microbiota of European sea bass.

Sci Rep 2020 12 7;10(1):21321. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, Ozzano Emilia, 40064, Bologna, Italy.

A 71-day study was conducted to explore the effect of increasing dietary levels (0, 250, 500, 1000 mg kg feed; D0, D250, D500 and D1000, respectively) of a blend of microencapsulated organic acids (OA, specifically citric and sorbic acid) and nature identical compounds (NIC, specifically thymol and vanillin), on growth, intestinal immune parameters and gut microbiota (GM) of European sea bass juveniles reared under normal and subsequently suboptimal environmental conditions (high temperature, 30.0 ± 0.4 °C and low oxygen, 4.6 ± 0.6 mg L). OA and NIC did not promote growth, feed utilisation and feed intake at the inclusion tested but induced a significantly upregulation of IL-8, IL-10 and TGFβ. GM analyzed by next-generation sequencing showed that OA and NIC were able to exert prebiotic properties stimulating the development of beneficial bacteria taxa such as Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Bacillus sp. Picrust analyses displayed a significant potential functional reconfiguration of GM promoting a decrease in inflammation-promoting and homeostatic functions at increasing OA and NIC administration. For the first time on this species the exposure to suboptimal rearing conditions was able to modify GM structure reducing LAB and increasing Proteobacteria, findings which were consistent with the inflammatory process observed at mRNA level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78441-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721706PMC
December 2020

[Optimal therapeutic management in the clinical journey of patients with heart failure].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2020 Dec;21(12):3-15

Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Molecolare, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma - IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS).

Heart failure (HF) is still characterized by high mortality rates, despite the progress achieved in terms of treatment options. With regard to the treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the 2016 European Society of Cardiology guidelines included in the therapeutic algorithm the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor class, whose efficacy in modifying patient prognosis has been extensively proven in many clinical studies. Sacubitril/valsartan, the only representative of this drug class, can effectively affect the natural history of HF, thus reducing cardiovascular mortality (sudden death and death due to worsening cardiac function), total mortality, as well as first and recurrent hospitalization events, by improving renal function, cardiac remodeling, functional capacity and the patient's health-related quality of life.The purpose of this article is to analyze the different phases of the journey of patients with HFrEF (first general practitioner consultation; admission to the emergency department and subsequent hospitalization; referral to a specialist HF clinic) and promotion of a networking approach involving the general practitioner, the hospital and the HF specialist based on common pre-defined diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, that meets patient needs at all stages of the disease (case-specific dosing assessment, drug titration before follow-up and prevention of adverse events).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1714/3479.34615DOI Listing
December 2020

Tracking over time the developing gut microbiota in newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit during an outbreak caused by ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

New Microbiol 2020 Oct 31;43(4):186-190. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

UOC Microbiologia e Virologia, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

The establishment of gut microbiota is reportedly aberrant in newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), with detrimental long-term health impacts. Here, we vertically tracked the developing gut bacterial communities of newborns hosted in an NICU during an outbreak sustained by ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae and compared colonized and non-colonized patients. Most communities were highly variable from one sampling point to the next, and dominated by few taxa, often Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, with marked interindividual variability. This picture was retrieved independently of colonization status or clinical covariates. Our data support the emerging idea of preterm infants as a population in which no defined microbial signatures are clearly associated to clinical status. Instead, the strong pressure of the nosocomial environment, antibiotics and, in this case, the ongoing outbreak, possibly drive the evolution of microbiota patterns according to individual conditions, also in non-colonized patients.
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October 2020

Effects of increasing dietary level of organic acids and nature-identical compounds on growth, intestinal cytokine gene expression and gut microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at normal and high temperature.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Dec 21;107(Pt A):324-335. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064, Ozzano Emilia, Bologna, Italy.

Organic acids (OA) and nature-identical compounds (NIC) such as monoterpenes and aldehydes are well-known growth and health promoters in terrestrial livestock while their application for fish production is recent and their mechanisms of action require further study. Hence, this study tested the increasing dietary level (D0, D250, D500, D1000; 0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg feed respectively) of a microencapsulated blend containing citric and sorbic acid, thymol and vanillin over 82 days on rainbow trout to assess the effects on growth, feed utilization, intestine cytokine gene expression and gut microbiota (GM). Furthermore, the effects on intestinal cytokine gene expression and GM were also explored after one week at high water temperature (23 °C). OA and NIC improved specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion rate (FCR) during the second half (day 40-82) of the feeding trial, while at the end of the trial protein (PER) and lipid efficiency (LER) increased with increasing dietary level. GM diversity and composition and cytokine gene expression analysis showed no significant differences in fish fed with increasing doses of OA and NIC (82 days) demonstrating the absence of inflammatory activity in the intestinal mucosa. Although there were no statistical differences, GM structure showed a tendency in clustering D0 group separately from the other dietary groups and a trend towards reduction of Streptococcus spp. was observed in the D250 and D1000 groups. After exposure to high water temperature, lower GM diversity and increased gene expression of inflammatory intestinal cytokines were observed for both inclusions (D0 vs. D1000) compared to groups in standard condition. However, the gene up-regulation involved a limited number of cytokines showing the absence of a substantial inflammation process able to compromise the functional activity of the intestine. Despite further study should be conducted to fully clarify this mechanism, cytokines up-regulation seems to be concomitant to the reduction of the GM diversity and, particularly, to the reduction of specific lactic acid bacteria such as Leuconostoc. The application of the microencapsulate blend tested can be a useful strategy to improve growth and feed utilization in rainbow trout under normal temperature conditions. According to the results organic acids and nature-identical compounds did not revert the effects triggered by the increased temperature of water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.10.021DOI Listing
December 2020

Do the human gut metagenomic species possess the minimal set of core functionalities necessary for life?

BMC Genomics 2020 Sep 30;21(1):678. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Advances in bioinformatics recently allowed for the recovery of 'metagenomes assembled genomes' from human microbiome studies carried on with shotgun sequencing techniques. Such approach is used as a mean to discover new unclassified metagenomic species, putative biological entities having distinct metabolic traits.

Results: In the present analysis we compare 400 genomes from isolates available on NCBI database and 10,000 human gut metagenomic species, screening all of them for the presence of a minimal set of core functionalities necessary, but not sufficient, for life. As a result, the metagenome-assembled genomes resulted systematically depleted in genes encoding for essential functions apparently needed to support autonomous bacterial life.

Conclusions: The relevant degree of lacking core functionalities that we observed in metagenome-assembled genomes raises some concerns about the effective completeness of metagenome-assembled genomes, suggesting caution in extrapolating biological information about their metabolic propensity and ecology in a complex environment like the human gastrointestinal tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07087-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525937PMC
September 2020

Effects of Vitamin B2 Supplementation in Broilers Microbiota and Metabolome.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 27;8(8). Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (DIMEVET), Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.

The study of the microbiome in broiler chickens holds great promise for the development of strategies for health maintenance and performance improvement. Nutritional strategies aimed at modulating the microbiota-host relationship can improve chickens' immunological status and metabolic fitness. Here, we present the results of a pilot trial aimed at analyzing the effects of a nutritional strategy involving vitamin B2 supplementation on the ileum, caeca and litter microbiota of Ross 308 broilers, as well as on the metabolic profile of the caecal content. Three groups of chickens were administered control diets and diets supplemented with two different dosages of vitamin B2. Ileum, caeca, and litter samples were obtained from subgroups of birds at three time points along the productive cycle. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA V3-V4 region and NMR metabolomics were used to explore microbiota composition and the concentration of metabolites of interest, including short-chain fatty acids. Vitamin B2 supplementation significantly modulated caeca microbiota, with the highest dosage being more effective in increasing the abundance of health-promoting bacterial groups, including , resulting in boosted production of butyrate, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in the caeca environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8081134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464963PMC
July 2020

Enteral nutrition protects children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from blood stream infections.

Nutr J 2020 04 10;19(1):29. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Paediatric Oncology and Haematology Unit 'Lalla Seràgnoli', Department of Paediatrics, University of Bologna, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti, 11, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Enteral Nutrition (EN) is recommended as first line nutritional support for patients undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (allo-HSCT), but only few studies exist in the literature which compare EN to Parenteral Nutrition (PN) in the paediatric population.Forty-two consecutive paediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT at our referral centre between January 2016 and July 2019 were evaluated. Post-transplant and nutritional outcomes of patients receiving EN for more than 7 days (EN group, n = 14) were compared with those of patients receiving EN for fewer than 7 days or receiving only PN (PN group, n = 28). In the EN group, a reduced incidence of Blood Stream Infections (BSI) was observed (p = 0.02) (n = 2 vs. n = 15; 14.3% vs. 53.6%). The type of nutritional support was also the only variable independently associated with BSI in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.03). Platelet engraftment was shorter in the PN group than in the EN group for a threshold of > 20*10/L (p = 0.04) (23.1 vs 35.7 days), but this correlation was not confirmed with a threshold of > 50*10/L. The Body Mass Index (BMI) and the BMI Z-score were no different in the two groups from admission to discharge.Our results highlight that EN is a feasible and nutritionally adequate method of nutritional support for children undergoing allo-HSCT in line with the present literature. Future functional studies are needed to better address the hypothesis that greater intestinal eubyosis maintained with EN may explain the observed reduction in BSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-020-00537-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7149876PMC
April 2020

Patterns in microbiome composition differ with ocean acidification in anatomic compartments of the Mediterranean coral Astroides calycularis living at CO vents.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 19;724:138048. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Unit of Holobiont Microbiome and Microbiome Engineering (HolobioME), Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy; Fano Marine Center, The Inter-Institute Center for Research on Marine Biodiversity, Resources and Biotechnologies, viale Adriatico 1/N, 61032 Fano, Pesaro Urbino, Italy. Electronic address:

Coral microbiomes, the complex microbial communities associated with the different anatomic compartments of the coral, provide important functions for the host's survival, such as nutrient cycling at the host's surface, prevention of pathogens colonization, and promotion of nutrient uptake. Microbiomes are generally referred to as plastic entities, able to adapt their composition and functionality in response to environmental change, with a possible impact on coral acclimatization to phenomena related to climate change, such as ocean acidification. Ocean sites characterized by natural gradients of pCO provide models for investigating the ability of marine organisms to acclimatize to decreasing seawater pH. Here we compared the microbiome of the temperate, shallow water, non-symbiotic solitary coral Astroides calycularis that naturally lives at a volcanic CO vent in Ischia Island (Naples, Italy), with that of corals living in non-acidified sites at the same island. Bacterial DNA associated with the different anatomic compartments (mucus, tissue and skeleton) of A. calycularis was differentially extracted and a total of 68 samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In terms of phylogenetic composition, the microbiomes associated with the different coral anatomic compartments were different from each other and from the microbial communities of the surrounding seawater. Of all the anatomic compartments, the mucus-associated microbiome differed the most between the control and acidified sites. The differences detected in the microbial communities associated to the three anatomic compartments included a general increase in subdominant bacterial groups, some of which are known to be involved in different stages of the nitrogen cycle, such as potential nitrogen fixing bacteria and bacteria able to degrade organic nitrogen. Our data therefore suggests a potential increase of nitrogen fixation and recycling in A. calycularis living close to the CO vent system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138048DOI Listing
July 2020

Shotgun Metagenomics of Gut Microbiota in Humans with up to Extreme Longevity and the Increasing Role of Xenobiotic Degradation.

mSystems 2020 Mar 24;5(2). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The gut microbiome of long-lived people display an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in health-associated bacteria, but less is known about microbiome functions. In order to disentangle the contribution of the gut microbiome to the complex trait of human longevity, we here describe the metagenomic change of the human gut microbiome along with aging in subjects with up to extreme longevity, including centenarians (aged 99 to 104 years) and semisupercentenarians (aged 105 to 109 years), i.e., demographically very uncommon subjects who reach the extreme limit of the human life span. According to our findings, the gut microbiome of centenarians and semisupercentenarians is more suited for xenobiotic degradation and shows a rearrangement in metabolic pathways related to carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. Collectively, our data go beyond the relationship between intestinal bacteria and physiological changes that occur with aging by detailing the shifts in the potential metagenomic functions of the gut microbiome of centenarians and semisupercentenarians as a response to progressive dietary and lifestyle modifications. The study of longevity may help us understand how human beings can delay or survive the most frequent age-related diseases and morbidities. In this scenario, the gut microbiome has been proposed as one of the variables to monitor and possibly support healthy aging. Indeed, the disruption of host-gut microbiome homeostasis has been associated with inflammation and intestinal permeability as well as a general decline in bone and cognitive health. Here, we performed a metagenomic assessment of fecal samples from semisupercentenarians, i.e., 105 to 109 years old, in comparison to young adults, the elderly, and centenarians, shedding light on the longest compositional and functional trajectory of the human gut microbiome with aging. In addition to providing a fine taxonomic resolution down to the species level, our study emphasizes the progressive age-related increase in degradation pathways of pervasive xenobiotics in Western societies, possibly as a result of a supportive process within the molecular continuum characterizing aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00124-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093822PMC
March 2020

Tissue-scale microbiota of the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and its relationship with the environment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 8;717:137209. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

HolobioME, Unit of Holobiont Microbiome and Microbiome Engineering, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

In this study, we characterize the structural variation of the microbiota of Mytilus galloprovincialis at the tissue scale, also exploring the connection with the microbial ecosystem of the surrounding water. Mussels were sampled within a farm located in the North-Western Adriatic Sea and microbiota composition was analyzed in gills, hemolymph, digestive glands, stomach and foot by Next Generation Sequencing marker gene approach. Mussels showed a distinctive microbiota structure, with specific declinations at the tissue level. Indeed, each tissue is characterized by a distinct pattern of dominant families, reflecting a peculiar adaptation to the respective tissue niche. For instance, the microbiota of the digestive gland is characterized by Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae, being shaped to ferment complex polysaccharides of dietary origin into short-chain fatty acids, well matching the general asset of the animal gut microbiota. Conversely, the gill and hemolymph ecosystems are dominated by marine microorganisms with aerobic oxidative metabolism, consistent with the role played by these tissues as an interface with the external environment. Our findings highlight the putative importance of mussel microbiota for different aspects of host physiology, with ultimate repercussions on mussel health and productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137209DOI Listing
May 2020

Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health status: the NU-AGE 1-year dietary intervention across five European countries.

Gut 2020 07 17;69(7):1218-1228. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland

Objective: Ageing is accompanied by deterioration of multiple bodily functions and inflammation, which collectively contribute to frailty. We and others have shown that frailty co-varies with alterations in the gut microbiota in a manner accelerated by consumption of a restricted diversity diet. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is associated with health. In the NU-AGE project, we investigated if a 1-year MedDiet intervention could alter the gut microbiota and reduce frailty.

Design: We profiled the gut microbiota in 612 non-frail or pre-frail subjects across five European countries (UK, France, Netherlands, Italy and Poland) before and after the administration of a 12-month long MedDiet intervention tailored to elderly subjects (NU-AGE diet).

Results: Adherence to the diet was associated with specific microbiome alterations. Taxa enriched by adherence to the diet were positively associated with several markers of lower frailty and improved cognitive function, and negatively associated with inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. Analysis of the inferred microbial metabolite profiles indicated that the diet-modulated microbiome change was associated with an increase in short/branch chained fatty acid production and lower production of secondary bile acids, p-cresols, ethanol and carbon dioxide. Microbiome ecosystem network analysis showed that the bacterial taxa that responded positively to the MedDiet intervention occupy keystone interaction positions, whereas frailty-associated taxa are peripheral in the networks.

Conclusion: Collectively, our findings support the feasibility of improving the habitual diet to modulate the gut microbiota which in turn has the potential to promote healthier ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306987PMC
July 2020

Microbial colonization of different microplastic types and biotransformation of sorbed PCBs by a marine anaerobic bacterial community.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 26;705:135790. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Dept. of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering (DICAM), Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Via Terracini 28, 40131 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

We investigated the colonization dynamics of different microplastic (MP) pellets, namely, polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), either pristine or contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), by an organohalide respiring marine microbial community and its biotransformation activity towards PCBs sorbed on MPs, in anaerobic laboratory microcosms of a marine sediment. All MPs were rapidly colonized by the microbial community within 2 weeks of incubation, when approximately 10 16S rRNA gene copies cm were detected on PVC, 10 copies cm on PE, and 10 copies cm- on PET, PP and PS. A greater biofilm growth on PVC pellets than other MPs was confirmed by quantification of the reducing sugars of the EPS and biofilm staining with crystal violet. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes and Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) revealed that the biofilm community on MPs significantly differed from the sediment community, being enriched of chemoorganotrophic fermenting species, and was significantly affected by the type of polymer. The presence of sorbed PCBs did not significantly affect the overall community composition, and mainly resulted in the enrichment of Dehalococcoidia, i.e., of the organohalide respiring members of the community. Reductive dechlorination of PCBs sorbed to MPs was observed after 2 weeks of incubation, when the average number of chlorines per biphenyl molecule was reduced from 5.2 to 4.8-4.3, and was faster (35.2 ± 1.9 to 61.2 ± 5.8 μmol of Cl removed kg week) than that of sediment-sorbed ones (33.9 ± 9.1 μmol of Cl removed kg week), which started only after 10 weeks of incubation. These data suggest that microbial colonization of contaminated MPs might change the composition of sorbed PCB mixtures and therefore the toxicity associated to PCB-polluted MPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135790DOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of Short-Term Dietary Intervention and Probiotic Mix Supplementation on the Gut Microbiota of Elderly Obese Women.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 10;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Sciences and Rehabilitation, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, 20145 Milan, Italy.

Accumulating literature is providing evidence that the gut microbiota is involved in metabolic disorders, but the question of how to effectively modulate it to restore homeostasis, especially in the elderly, is still under debate. In this study, we profiled the intestinal microbiota of 20 elderly obese women (EO) at the baseline (T0), after 15 days of hypocaloric Mediterranean diet administered as part of a nutritional-metabolic rehabilitation program for obesity (T1), and after a further 15 days of the same diet supplemented with a probiotic mix (T2). Fecal samples were characterized by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The EO microbiota showed the typical alterations found in obesity, namely, an increase in potential pro-inflammatory components (i.e., ) and a decrease in health-promoting, short-chain fatty acid producers (i.e., and members), with a tendency to reduced biodiversity. After 15 days of the rehabilitation program, weight decreased by (2.7 ± 1.5)% and the gut microbiota dysbiosis was partially reversed, with a decline of and an increase in leanness-related taxa. During the next 15 days of diet and probiotics, weight dropped further by (1.2 ± 1.1)%, markers of oxidative stress improved, and , a mucin degrader with beneficial effects on host metabolism, increased significantly. These findings support the relevant role of a correct dietetic approach, even in the short term, to modulate the EO gut microbiota towards a metabolic health-related configuration, counteracting the increased risk of morbidity in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11123011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950529PMC
December 2019

Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic SCT Promotes the Recovery of Gut Microbiome Homeostasis.

Nutrients 2019 Dec 4;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Microbial Ecology of Health Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the first-line immunotherapy to treat several hematologic disorders, although it can be associated with many complications reducing the survival rate, such as acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) and infections. Given the fundamental role of the gut microbiome (GM) for host health, it is not surprising that a suboptimal path of GM recovery following HSCT may compromise immune homeostasis and/or increase the risk of opportunistic infections, with an ultimate impact in terms of aGvHD onset. Traditionally, the first nutritional approach in post-HSCT patients is parenteral nutrition (PN), which is associated with several clinical adverse effects, supporting enteral nutrition (EN) as a preferential alternative. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of EN vs. PN on the trajectory of compositional and functional GM recovery in pediatric patients undergoing HSCT. The GM structure and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production profiles were analyzed longitudinally in twenty pediatric patients receiving HSCT-of which, ten were fed post-transplant with EN and ten with total PN. According to our findings, we observed the prompt recovery of a structural and functional eubiotic GM layout post-HSCT only in EN subjects, thus possibly reducing the risk of systemic infections and GvHD onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11122958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950621PMC
December 2019

Assessment of gut microbiota fecal metabolites by chromatographic targeted approaches.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jan 8;177:112867. Epub 2019 Sep 8.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota, the specific microbial community of the gastrointestinal tract, by means of the production of microbial metabolites provides the host with several functions affecting metabolic and immunological homeostasis. Insights into the intricate relationships between gut microbiota and the host require not only the understanding of its structure and function but also the measurement of effector molecules acting along the gut microbiota axis. This article reviews the literature on targeted chromatographic approaches in analysis of gut microbiota specific metabolites in feces as the most accessible biological matrix which can directly probe the connection between intestinal bacteria and the (patho)physiology of the holobiont. Together with a discussion on sample collection and preparation, the chromatographic methods targeted to determination of some classes of microbiota-derived metabolites (e.g., short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, low molecular masses amines and polyamines, vitamins, neurotransmitters and related compounds) are discussed and their main characteristics, summarized in Tables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.112867DOI Listing
January 2020

Gut microbiome response to a modern Paleolithic diet in a Western lifestyle context.

PLoS One 2019 8;14(8):e0220619. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The modern Paleolithic diet (MPD), featured by the consumption of vegetables, fruit, nuts, seeds, eggs, fish and lean meat, while excluding grains, dairy products, salt and refined sugar, has gained substantial public attention in recent years because of its potential multiple health benefits. However, to date little is known about the actual impact of this dietary pattern on the gut microbiome (GM) and its implications for human health. In the current scenario where Western diets, low in fiber while rich in industrialized and processed foods, are considered one of the leading causes of maladaptive GM changes along human evolution, likely contributing to the increasing incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases, we hypothesize that the MPD could modulate the Western GM towards a more "ancestral" configuration. In an attempt to shed light on this, here we profiled the GM structure of urban Italian subjects adhering to the MPD, and compared data with other urban Italians following a Mediterranean Diet (MD), as well as worldwide traditional hunter-gatherer populations from previous publications. Notwithstanding a strong geography effect on the GM structure, our results show an unexpectedly high degree of biodiversity in MPD subjects, which well approximates that of traditional populations. The GM of MPD individuals also shows some peculiarities, including a high relative abundance of bile-tolerant and fat-loving microorganisms. The consumption of plant-based foods-albeit with the exclusion of grains and pulses-along with the minimization of the intake of processed foods, both hallmarks of the MPD, could therefore contribute to partially rewild the GM but caution should be taken in adhering to this dietary pattern in the long term.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220619PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687155PMC
March 2020

HumanMycobiomeScan: a new bioinformatics tool for the characterization of the fungal fraction in metagenomic samples.

BMC Genomics 2019 Jun 15;20(1):496. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Modern metagenomic analysis of complex microbial communities produces large amounts of sequence data containing information on the microbiome in terms of bacterial, archaeal, viral and eukaryotic composition. The bioinformatics tools available are mainly devoted to profiling the bacterial and viral fractions and only a few software packages consider fungi. As the human fungal microbiome (human mycobiome) can play an important role in the onset and progression of diseases, a comprehensive description of host-microbiota interactions cannot ignore this component.

Results: HumanMycobiomeScan is a bioinformatics tool for the taxonomic profiling of the mycobiome directly from raw data of next-generation sequencing. The tool uses hierarchical databases of fungi in order to unambiguously assign reads to fungal species more accurately and > 10,000 times faster than other comparable approaches. HumanMycobiomeScan was validated using in silico generated synthetic communities and then applied to metagenomic data, to characterize the intestinal fungal components in subjects adhering to different subsistence strategies.

Conclusions: Although blind to unknown species, HumanMycobiomeScan allows the characterization of the fungal fraction of complex microbial ecosystems with good performance in terms of sample denoising from reads belonging to other microorganisms. HumanMycobiomeScan is most appropriate for well-studied microbiomes, for which most of the fungal species have been fully sequenced. This released version is functionally implemented to work with human-associated microbiota samples. In combination with other microbial profiling tools, HumanMycobiomeScan is a frugal and efficient tool for comprehensive characterization of microbial ecosystems through shotgun metagenomics sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-5883-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6570844PMC
June 2019

Recommendations for managing the manifestations of severe and life-threatening mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome.

Autoimmun Rev 2019 Aug 8;18(8):778-785. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Clinic of Rheumatology, Department of Medical Area (DAME), University - Hospital " Santa Maria della Misericordia", Udine, Italy.

Objective: Some of the manifestations of mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MCS) can be severe or life-threatening, and should be rapidly contained but, as the therapeutic approaches to such conditions are largely based on anecdotal data, a consensus conference was organised by the Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinemia (GISC) with the aim of providing a set of recommendations based on an in-depth survey of the available data and expert opinion.

Methods: The consensus panel, which included specialists working in different medical fields involved in the management of MCS patients, was first asked to divide the manifestations of MCS into severe or life-threatening conditions on the basis of their own experience, after which a complete literature review was carried out in accordance with the Cochrane guidelines for systematic reviews.

Results: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was considered the elective first-line treatment in the case of life-threatening manifestations of MCS (LT-MCS) and patients with severe clinical symptoms (S-MCS) who fail to respond to (or who are ineligible for) other treatments. The data supporting the combined use of cyclophosphamide and TPE were considered limited and inconclusive. High-dose pulsed glucocorticoid (GCS) therapy can be considered the first-line treatment of severe MCS, generally in association with TPE. Rituximab (RTX)-based treatments should be considered in patients with skin ulcers, peripheral neuropathy or glomerulonephritis, and in patients with persistent LT-MCS after TPE. In patients with hepatitis C virus-related MCS with S-MCS, viral eradication should be attempted as soon as a patient's condition allows the use of direct-acting antivirals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2019.06.008DOI Listing
August 2019

Treatment of COPD: the simplicity is a resolved complexity.

Multidiscip Respir Med 2019 3;14:18. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Medical & Scientific Department, GlaxoSmithKline Spa - Pharmaceutical, Via Fleming 2, Verona, 37135 Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40248-019-0181-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545670PMC
June 2019

Mechanisms underlying the cardiometabolic protective effect of walnut consumption in obese people: A cross-over, randomized, double-blind, controlled inpatient physiology study.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2019 09 2;21(9):2086-2095. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Aims: To assess the effects of walnuts on cardiometabolic outcomes in obese people and to explore the underlying mechanisms using novel methods including metabolomic, lipidomic, glycomic and microbiome analysis, integrated with lipid particle fractionation, appetite-regulating hormones and haemodynamic measurements.

Materials And Methods: A total of 10 obese individuals were enrolled in this cross-over, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The participants had two 5-day inpatient stays, during which they consumed a smoothie containing 48 g walnuts or a macronutrient-matched placebo smoothie without nuts, with a 1-month washout period between the two visits.

Results: Walnut consumption improved aspects of the lipid profile; it reduced fasting small and dense LDL particles (P < 0.02) and increased postprandial large HDL particles (P < 0.01). Lipoprotein insulin resistance score, glucose and the insulin area under the curve (AUC) decreased significantly after walnut consumption (P < 0.01, P < 0.02 and P < 0.04, respectively). Consuming walnuts significantly increased 10 N-glycans, with eight of them carrying a fucose core. Lipidomic analysis showed a robust reduction in harmful ceramides, hexosylceramides and sphingomyelins, which have been shown to mediate effects on cardiometabolic risk. The peptide YY AUC significantly increased after walnut consumption (P < 0.03). No major significant changes in haemodynamic or metabolomic analysis or in microbiome host health-promoting bacteria such as Faecalibacterium were found.

Conclusions: These data provide a more comprehensive mechanistic perspective of the effect of dietary walnut consumption on cardiometabolic variables. Lipidomic and lipid nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed an early but significant reduction in ceramides and other atherogenic lipids with walnut consumption, which may explain the longer-term benefits of walnuts or other nuts on insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.13773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6684390PMC
September 2019

Gut resistome plasticity in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Sci Rep 2019 04 4;9(1):5649. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Unit of Microbial Ecology of Health, Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, Bologna, 40126, Italy.

The gut microbiome of pediatric patients undergoing allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has recently been considered as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance, with important implications in terms of patient mortality rate. By means of shotgun metagenomics, here we explored the dynamics of the gut resistome - i.e. the pattern of antibiotic resistance genes provided by the gut microbiome - in eight pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, half of whom developed acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD). According to our findings, the patients developing aGvHD are characterized by post-HSCT expansion of their gut resistome, involving the acquisition of new resistances, as well as the consolidation of those already present before HSCT. Interestingly, the aGvHD-associated bloom in resistome diversity is not limited to genes coding for resistance to the antibiotics administered along the therapeutic course, but rather involves a broad pattern of different resistance classes, including multidrug resistance, as well as resistance to macrolides, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines and beta-lactams. Our data stress the relevance of mapping the gut resistome in HSCT pediatric patients to define the most appropriate anti-infective treatment post HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42222-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449395PMC
April 2019

A Mediterranean Diet Mix Has Chemopreventive Effects in a Murine Model of Colorectal Cancer Modulating Apoptosis and the Gut Microbiota.

Front Oncol 2019 12;9:140. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Unhealthy dietary patterns have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) onset while Mediterranean Diet (MD) has been proposed for CRC prevention. This study evaluated the effect of a Mediterranean Diet Mix (MD-MIX) on colonic tumors development in A/J mice fed a low-fat (LFD) or a high-fat western diet (HFWD), and injected with the procarcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Forty A/J male mice were randomly assigned into four feeding arms (10 mice/arm; LFD, LFD-MD-MIX, HFWD, HFWD-MD-MIX) to be treated with AOM. Ten mice were exposed to the diets alone (Healthy LFD and Healthy HFWD) to be used as control. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were evaluated at sacrifice. Mucosal fatty acid content and urinary phenolic compounds were assayed by mass spectrometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and gene expression markers. Cell proliferation was evaluated by Ki67 immunohistochemistry. Microbiota composition was assessed at different time points by 16S RNA sequencing. A tumor incidence of 100% was obtained in AOM-treated mice. The MD-MIX supplementation was able to reduce the number of colonic lesions in both LFD and HFWD-fed mice and to induce apoptosis, in particular in the LFD-MD-MIX arm. Moreover, a preventive effect on low-grade dysplasia and macroscopical lesions (>1 mm) development was found in HFWD-fed mice together with a regulation of the AOM-driven intestinal dysbiosis. MD-MIX was able to counteract CRC development in mice under different dietary backgrounds through the regulation of apoptosis and gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423077PMC
March 2019

Early gut microbiota signature of aGvHD in children given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematological disorders.

BMC Med Genomics 2019 03 7;12(1):49. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Pediatric Oncology and Hematology Unit "Lalla Seràgnoli", Department of Pediatrics, University of Bologna, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The onset of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) has been correlated with the gut microbiota (GM) composition, but experimental observations are still few, mainly involving cohorts of adult patients. In the current scenario where fecal microbiota transplantation has been used as a pioneer therapeutic approach to treat steroid-refractory aGvHD, there is an urgent need to expand existing observational studies of the GM dynamics in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Aim of the present study is to explore the GM trajectory in 36 pediatric HSCT recipients in relation to aGvHD onset.

Methods: Thirty-six pediatric patients, from four transplantation centers, undergoing HSCT were enrolled in the study. Stools were collected at three time points: before HSCT, at time of engraftment and > 30 days following HSCT. Changes in the GM phylogenetic structure were studied by 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing and phylogenetic assignation.

Results: Children developing gut aGvHD had a dysbiotic GM layout before HSCT occurred. This putative aGvHD-predisposing ecosystem state was characterized by (i) reduced diversity, (ii) lower Blautia content, (iii) increase in Fusobacterium abundance. At time of engraftment, the GM structure underwent a deep rearrangement in all patients but, regardless of the occurrence of aGvHD and its treatment, it reacquired a eubiotic configuration from day 30.

Conclusions: We found a specific GM signature before HSCT predictive of subsequent gut aGvHD occurrence. Our data may open the way to a GM-based stratification of the risk of developing aGvHD in children undergoing HSCT, potentially useful also to identify patients benefiting from prophylactic fecal transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-019-0494-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404274PMC
March 2019

Dietary geraniol ameliorates intestinal dysbiosis and relieves symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a pilot study.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Dec 19;18(1):338. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Biology Unit, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

Background: (Trans)-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol, commonly called geraniol (Ge-OH), is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol with well-known anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Ge-OH is a non-toxic compound classified as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Security Agency.

Methods: Ge-OH was orally administered at a maximum daily dose of 8 mg kg body weight for four weeks in a delayed release formulation capable of reaching the colon. Fecal microbiota and blood cytokines were analyzed before and after Ge-OH treatment, as well as IBS symptomatology by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-IBS).

Results: The results show that orally administered Ge-OH is a powerful modulator of the intestinal microbial ecosystem, capable of leading to increased relative abundances of Collinsella and especially Faecalibacterium, a well-known health-promoting butyrate producer consistently found to be decreased in IBS patients. Moreover, Ge-OH strongly improved the clinical symptoms of colitis by significantly reducing the score recorded by the VAS-IBS questionnaire. Clinical improvement was associated with a significant reduction in the circulating MIP-1β, a chemokine found to be increased in several IBS patients.

Conclusion: Ge-OH could be a powerful component for food supplement targeted to the treatment of IBS patients.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN47041881 , retrospectively registered on 19th July 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2403-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299992PMC
December 2018

Pre-obese children's dysbiotic gut microbiome and unhealthy diets may predict the development of obesity.

Commun Biol 2018 7;1:222. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

2Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Achterstraße 30, 28359 Bremen, Germany.

It is widely accepted that the intestinal microbiome is connected to obesity, as key mediator of the diet impact on the host metabolic and immunological status. To investigate whether the individual gut microbiome has a potential in predicting the onset and progression of diseases, here we characterized the faecal microbiota of 70 children in a two-time point prospective study, within a four-year window. All children had normal weight at the beginning of this study, but 36 of them gained excessive weight at the subsequent check-up. Microbiome data were analysed together with the hosts' diet information, physical activity, and inflammatory parameters. We find that the gut microbiota structures were stratified into a discrete number of groups, characterized by different biodiversity that correlates with inflammatory markers and dietary habits, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Collectively, our data underscore the importance of the microbiome-host-diet configuration as a possible predictor of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0221-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286349PMC
December 2018