Publications by authors named "Marchesi Giulio"

15 Publications

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Comparison of posterior indirect adhesive restorations (PIAR) with different preparation designs according to the adhesthetics classification. Part 1: Effects on the fracture resistance.

Int J Esthet Dent 2021 May;16(2):144-167

Aim: To investigate whether: 1) in the adhesive era, a full-crown restoration in a molar tooth is more resistant compared with an overlay-type restoration; b) a posterior indirect adhesive restoration (PIAR) is similar to a sound tooth from a mechanical point of view.

Materials And Methods: Seventy extracted molars were divided into five groups (1. Butt Joint; 2. Full Bevel; 3. Shoulder; 4. Full Crown; 5. Sound Tooth (control); N = 14) and prepared with four different PIAR overlay design types (according to an adhesthetics classification). Seven expert dentists performed all the preparation and cementation phases with codified protocols. A CAD/CAM workflow was used to realize the 56 monolithic lithium disilicate restorations. The samples were tested with thermomechanical aging (margin quality data will be given in Part 2 of this article series), and the resistance to fracture was then tested and analyzed.

Results And Conclusions: In terms of fracture resistance in a situation of overload and within the limitations of the present study, it is possible to conclude that the Full Bevel group showed higher fracture strength than all the other groups. All PIAR restorations performed equally or better than the natural control tooth in the Sound Tooth group. The Full Crown group did not perform better than partial overlay PIAR. The fracture types were limited to the crown in 50% or more of the samples; the rest involved the cervical part of the root. The preparation design that involved the root the least was the Full Crown group (14%).
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May 2021

Influence of preparation designs on marginal adaptation and failure load of full-coverage occlusal veneers after thermomechanical aging simulation.

J Esthet Restor Dent 2019 05 20;31(3):280-289. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University Clinical Department of Medical, Surgical, and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the fracture resistance and marginal quality of maxillary molars restored using lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (LDG) occlusal veneers with two preparation designs.

Methods: Sixteen extracted maxillary molars were assigned to two groups (n = 8). In group 1 (G1), the teeth received a preparation for a conservative full-coverage occlusal veneer restoration with a 90° rounded shoulder margin. In group 2 (G2), the teeth underwent a 1-mm cusp reduction with a marginal chamfer. LDG restorations (IPS e.max CAD) were obtained with the Cerec 3 CAD/CAM system and luted with Variolink II cement. After thermomechanical aging (1 250 000 cycles), the specimens were loaded to fracture. A semiquantitative marginal seal evaluation was performed observing resin replicas of the specimens at the scanning electron microscope. Cement thickness was assessed at the stereomicroscope on sectioned specimens. Collected data were statistically analyzed by parametric and nonparametric tests.

Results: The maximum load to fracture was 2395.01 ± 150.96 N in G1 and 2408.39 ± 112.66 N in G2. Most of the observed specimens exhibited restorable fractures and continuous margins. Cement thickness was 132 ± 38 μm in G1 and 150 ± 41 μm in G2. No differences between the groups emerged.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated similar satisfactory performance of the two considered preparations designs for occlusal veneer with LDG.

Clinical Significance: A new minimally invasive occlusal veneer preparation with marginal chamfer exhibited promising fracture resistance and marginal adaptation that were comparable to those of a standard conservative preparation for the restoration of molars with CAD/CAM lithium disilicate occlusal veneers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12457DOI Listing
May 2019

Role of Chlorhexidine on Long-term Bond Strength of Self-adhesive Composite Cements to Intraradicular Dentin.

J Adhes Dent 2017 ;19(4):341-348

Purpose: To examine the effect of CHX pre-treatment on long-term bond strength of fiber posts luted with self-adhesive resin cements.

Materials And Methods: Seventy-two single-rooted teeth were selected for root canal treatment and post space preparation. The tested self-adhesive cement/post combinations were (N = 36): 1. RelyX Fiber-Posts luted with RelyX Unicem; 2. Rebilda Posts luted with Bifix SE Cement. For both self-adhesive cements, half of the specimens (experimental groups) were luted after the application of a solution of 2% CHX, while no CHX application was performed for the remaining specimens (control groups). Luted specimens were cut and used for push-out bond strength evaluation immediately, and after storage in artificial saliva for 6 months or 1 year. Additional specimens were processed for quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis.

Results: ANOVA showed that the variable times of storage had a significant influence on the results (p < 0.05), while no influence of the luting procedure (cements with or without CHX) on the final outcome (p > 0.05) was found. Tukey's pairwise post-hoc test showed that the radicular bond strength decreased with time of storage. In particular, a significant difference was found between T0 and T1y, but not between T0 and T6m. In contrast, in terms of pretreatment, no significant reduction in push-out bond strength was observed, irrespective of the aging time.

Conclusion: CHX pretreatment did not prevent bond strength degradation of fiber posts luted with self-adhesive cements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a38896DOI Listing
January 2019

Evaluation of the In Vitro Effects of Cervical Marginal Relocation Using Composite Resins on the Marginal Quality of CAD/CAM Crowns.

J Adhes Dent 2016;18(4):355-62

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of cervical margin relocation (CMR) for crowns designed using CAD/CAM technology, and made of pre-cured resin or lithium disilicate, before and after thermomechanical loading. The test hypothesis was that the marginal quality of the crowns would not be influenced by the CMR with composite resins before or after thermomechanical loading.

Materials And Methods: Standard crown preparations were created in 40 human molars. The margins were located in enamel, except for the mesial proximal box, where the cervical margin was 2.0 mm below the cementoenamel junction, with 4.0 mm in the buccolingual and 2.0 mm in the mesiodistal dimension. For the CMR technique, a 2-mm layer of conventional or flowable composite resin was applied to the mesial box. Using the Cerec CAD/CAM system, 40 standard crowns were prepared, and restorations were luted using a dual-curing adhesive cement. SEM analysis was performed using epoxy resin replicas before and after loading to assess the marginal quality of interfaces of the mesial proximal box with CMR/crown and the distal face of the tooth without CMR. Statistical differences between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Bonferroni's post-hoc test.

Results: The null hypothesis was accepted, since no statistically significant differences were found in marginal quality before and after thermomechanical cycling (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The implementation of CMR before and after thermomechanical cycling had no effect on the quality of cervical margins. To establish whether CMR is a suitable procedure for the adhesive luting of composite resin crowns in deep proximal boxes, additional studies are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a36514DOI Listing
January 2017

Mechanisms of degradation of the hybrid layer in adhesive dentistry and therapeutic agents to improve bond durability--A literature review.

Dent Mater 2016 Feb 29;32(2):e41-53. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Piazza dell'Ospitale 1, Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Success in adhesive dentistry means long lasting restorations. However, there is substantial evidence that this ideal objective is not always achieved. Current research in this field aims at increasing the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The objective of this paper is to examine the fundamental processes responsible for the aging mechanisms involved in the degradation of resin-bonded interfaces and the potential approaches to prevent and counteract this degradation.

Methods: PubMed searches on the hybrid layer degradation were carried out. Keywords were chosen to assess hybrid layer degradation for providing up-dated information on the basis of scientific coherence with the research objective. Approaches to prevent and counteract this degradation were also reviewed.

Results: 148 peer-review articles in the English language between 1982 and 2015 were reviewed. Literature shows that resin-dentin bond degradation is a complex process, involving the hydrolysis of both the resin and the collagen fibril phases contained within the hybrid layer. Collagen fibers become vulnerable to mechanical and hydraulic fatigue, as well as degradation by host-derived proteases with collagenolytic activity (matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins). Inhibition of the collagenolytic activity and the use of cross-linking agents are the two main strategies to increase the resistance of the hybrid layer to enzymatic degradation.

Significance: This review analyzes the issues regarding the durability of the adhesive interface, and the techniques to create stable resin-dentin bonds able to resist the collagenolytic hydrolysis that are currently studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2015.11.007DOI Listing
February 2016

The "index technique" in worn dentition: a new and conservative approach.

Int J Esthet Dent 2015 ;10(1):68-99

The development and reliability of adhesive resin composite systems have offered clinicians a further option for the management of tooth-surface loss. Patients with minimum, moderate, and severe hard tissue wear can be treated based on the application of minimally invasive adhesive composite restorations for posterior and anterior worn dentition. This article presents the "index technique", a new and very conservative approach to the management of worn dentition. The technique allows for a purely additive treatment without sacrificing healthy hard tooth tissue. It follows the principles of bioeconomics (maximum conservation of healthy tissue) and the reinforcing of residual dental structure. Depending on the severity of enamel and dentin wear, the number of caries, and the size of existing restorations, different treatment options can be applied to each tooth: direct and indirect partial restorations or full crowns. It is essential to diagnose and treat tooth-surface loss in order to properly restore biomechanics, function, and esthetics by means of adhesive restorations. This article proposes that the index technique is a fast and conservative approach for the planning and management of a fullmouth adhesive treatment in all cases of worn dentition. The technique is based on stamping composite directly on the tooth surface by means of a transparent index created from the full-mouth wax-up following an initially planned increase in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD).
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December 2015

Adhesive performance of a multi-mode adhesive system: 1-year in vitro study.

J Dent 2014 May 25;42(5):603-12. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, DIBINEM, University of Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Bologna and IGM-CNR, Unit of Bologna c/o IOR, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesive stability over time of a multi-mode one-step adhesive applied using different bonding techniques on human coronal dentine. The hypotheses tested were that microtensile bond strength (μTBS), interfacial nanoleakage expression and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation are not affected by the adhesive application mode (following the use of self-etch technique or with the etch-and-rinse technique on dry or wet dentine) or by ageing for 24h, 6 months and 1year in artificial saliva.

Methods: Human molars were cut to expose middle/deep dentine and assigned to one of the following bonding systems (N=15): (1) Scotchbond Universal (3M ESPE) self-etch mode, (2) Scotchbond Universal etch-and-rinse technique on wet dentine, (3) Scotchbond Universal etch-and-rinse technique on dry dentine, and (4) Prime&Bond NT (Dentsply De Trey) etch-and-rinse technique on wet dentine (control). Specimens were processed for μTBS test in accordance with the non-trimming technique and stressed to failure after 24h, 6 months or 1 year. Additional specimens were processed and examined to assay interfacial nanoleakage and MMP expression.

Results: At baseline, no differences between groups were found. After 1 year of storage, Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode and Prime&Bond NT showed higher μTBS compared to the other groups. The lowest nanoleakage expression was found for Scotchbond Universal applied in the self-etch mode, both at baseline and after storage. MMPs activation was found after application of each tested adhesive.

Conclusions: The results of this study support the use of the self-etch approach for bonding the tested multi-mode adhesive system to dentine due to improved stability over time.

Clinical Significance: Improved bonding effectiveness of the tested universal adhesive system on dentine may be obtained if the adhesive is applied with the self-etch approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2013.12.008DOI Listing
May 2014

Aging affects the adhesive interface of posts luted with self-adhesive cements: a 1-year study.

J Adhes Dent 2013 Apr;15(2):173-80

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Purpose: To examine the bond strength and interfacial nanoleakage expression of fiber posts luted to intraradicular dentin with self-adhesive cements. Six-month and 1-year aging effects were examined.

Materials And Methods: Post space was created in endodontically treated human incisors. Each tooth was assigned to a self-adhesive cement/post combination: (1) Bifix SE Cement (Voco) with proprietary posts (Rebilda Post, Voco), (2) RelyX Unicem (3M ESPE) with proprietary posts (Rely X Fiber Post, 3M ESPE), (3) MaxCem (Kerr) with Rebilda Posts. Each specimen was cut into 1-mm-thick sections and either immediately stressed to failure with the push-out bond strength test or aged in artificial saliva for 6 months or 1 year before testing. Additional specimens were processed for quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis using ammoniacal silver nitrate.

Results: Immediate bond strength ranked in the following order: Bifix SE (7.8 ± 2.9 MPa) = RelyX Unicem (8.4 ± 2.7 MPa) > MaxCem (4.6 ± 2.4 MPa) (p < 0.05). Aging significantly reduced the bond strength of all cements after 1 year: Bifix SE (3.8 ± 1.4 MPa) = RelyX Unicem (5.8 ± 1.7 MPa) > MaxCem (1.3 ± 0.9 MPa; p<0.05). No immediate difference in interfacial nanoleakage expression was found. Nanoleakage increased after aging, and MaxCem showed the highest values.

Conclusion: The push-out strength and interfacial nanoleakage expression of fiber posts luted with self-adhesive cements were dependent on luting material and type of post, and were significantly affected by storage time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a28387DOI Listing
April 2013

Influence of ageing on self-etch adhesives: one-step vs. two-step systems.

Eur J Oral Sci 2013 Feb 21;121(1):43-9. Epub 2012 Dec 21.

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

The aim of this study was to evaluate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentine, interfacial nanoleakage expression, and stability after ageing, of two-step vs. one-step self-etch adhesives. Human molars were cut to expose middle/deep dentine, assigned to groups (n = 15), and treated with the following bonding systems: (i) Optibond XTR (a two-step self-etch adhesive; Kerr), (ii) Clearfil SE Bond (a two-step self-etch adhesive; Kuraray), (iii) Adper Easy Bond (a one-step self-etch adhesive; 3M ESPE), and (iv) Bond Force (a one-step self-etch adhesive; Tokuyama). Specimens were processed for μTBS testing after 24 h, 6 months, or 1 yr of storage in artificial saliva at 37°C. Nanoleakage expression was examined in similarly processed additional specimens. At baseline the μTBS results ranked in the following order: Adper Easy Bond = Optibond XTR ≥Clearfil SE = Bond Force, and interfacial nanoleakage analysis showed Clearfil SE Bond = Adper Easy Bond = Optibond XTR> Bond Force. After 1 yr of storage, Optibond XTR, Clearfil SE Bond, and Adper Easy Bond showed higher μTBS and lower interfacial nanoleakage expression compared with Bond Force. In conclusion, immediate bond strength, nanoleakage expression, and stability over time were not related to the number of steps of the bonding systems, but to their chemical formulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eos.12009DOI Listing
February 2013

Effect of ozone application on the immediate shear bond strength and microleakage of dental sealants.

Pediatr Dent 2012 Jul-Aug;34(4):284-8

Department of Medical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether gaseous ozone application affects the immediate enamel bond strength or microleakage of 2 dental sealants.

Methods: Sixty bovine incisors were randomly divided into 4 groups, and sealants were applied to the enamel surfaces as follows: ozone + Concise; Concise (control); ozone + UltraSeal XT Plus; and UltraSeal XT Plus (control). Ozone application was performed for 80 seconds, and shear bond strength was measured. Additionally, 60 human molars were randomly divided into 4 groups, as aforementioned, and sealants were applied onto occlusal surfaces. Dye penetration (microleakage) was assessed.

Results: No significant differences were found between the 2 sealants. Ozone application did not result in a significant reduction in enamel bond strength or an increase in microleakage.

Conclusions: Ozone gas did not compromise the adhesion of tested materials; therefore, one can disinfect the enamel surface before placing a dental sealant without impairing the material's clinical performance.
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May 2013

Contraction stress, elastic modulus, and degree of conversion of three flowable composites.

Eur J Oral Sci 2011 Jun 26;119(3):241-5. Epub 2011 Apr 26.

Department of Biomedicine, Unit of Dental Sciences and Biomaterials, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

The aim of this study was to measure the contraction stress of three flowable resin composites and to correlate the stress with the elastic modulus and the degree of conversion. One low-shrinkage (Venus Diamond Flow) and two conventional (Tetric EvoFlow and X-Flow) flowable composites were polymerized for 40s with a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit. Contraction force was continuously recorded for 300s using a stress-analyser, and stress values were calculated at 40s and at 300s. The maximum stress rate was also calculated for each specimen. The elastic modulus of each composite was assayed using a biaxial flexural test, and degree of conversion was analysed with Raman spectroscopy. X-Flow exhibited higher stress values than the other tested materials. Venus Diamond Flow showed the lowest stress values at 40s and at 300s, and the lowest maximum stress rate. Stress values were correlated with elastic modulus but not with degree of conversion, which was comparable among all tested materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2011.00820.xDOI Listing
June 2011

The effect of ageing on the elastic modulus and degree of conversion of two multistep adhesive systems.

Eur J Oral Sci 2010 Jun;118(3):304-10

Division of Dental Sciences and Biomaterials, Department of Biomedicine, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

During the curing reaction, the monomers of dentine bonding systems should cross-link sufficiently to strengthen an adhesive so that it is clinically reliable. This study evaluated how different storage conditions (air vs. water storage) affect the elastic modulus (E-modulus) and degree of conversion (DC) of a three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive and a two-step self-etch adhesive. The biaxial flexural test and Raman microscopy were performed on resin disks made from the bonding agents Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP; 3M ESPE) and Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB; Kuraray). The measurements were repeated after storage in either air or water for 15 and 30 min and for 1, 24, and 72 h. At time 0, the E-modulus was not affected by the adhesive system, whilst the degree of cure of CPB was higher than that of SBMP. Air storage increased the E-modulus at each ageing interval. Storage in water increased the E-modulus until it reached a maximum at 24 h, after which it decreased significantly at 72 h. No linear correlation between the percentage DC and E-modulus of the two adhesives was found when stored in water. The results of this study indicate that the mechanical properties and polymerization kinetics of SBMP and CPB are affected by storage time and medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2010.00736.xDOI Listing
June 2010

Contraction stress of low-shrinkage composite materials assessed with different testing systems.

Dent Mater 2010 Oct 20;26(10):947-53. Epub 2010 Jun 20.

Department of Biomedicine, Unit of Dental Sciences and Biomaterials, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Objectives: The contraction stress of a silorane-based material and a new low-shrinkage nanohybrid composite were compared to three conventional dimethacrylate-based resin composites using two different measuring systems. It was hypothesized that the silorane-based material and the low-shrinkage nanohybrid composite would exhibit lower contraction stress than dimethacrylate-based composites irrespective of measuring system.

Methods: The materials tested were Filtek Silorane LS (3M ESPE), Venus Diamond (Heraeus Kulzer), Tetric EvoCeram (Ivoclar Vivadent), Quixfil (Dentsply DeTrey), and Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE). Shrinkage stress was assessed using a stress-strain analyzer consisting of two opposing attachments, one connected to a load sensor and the other fixed to the device, or a system fixed to a universal testing machine with an extensometer as a feedback system. All specimens were light-cured with 20 J/cm(2); the contraction force (N) generated during polymerization was continuously recorded for 300 s. Contraction stress (MPa) was calculated at both 40 s and 300 s. Data were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (alpha=0.05).

Results: Venus Diamond exhibited the lowest stress under both experimental conditions. Stress values scored as follows: Venus Diamond
Significance: The hypothesis was partially rejected because only Venus Diamond exhibited the lowest stress values among the tested materials. Contraction stress was higher for all composites when measured in a test system with a feedback. This study confirms that simply reducing the shrinkage does not ensure reduced stress development in composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.05.007DOI Listing
October 2010

Push-out stress for fibre posts luted using different adhesive strategies.

Eur J Oral Sci 2009 Aug;117(4):447-53

Department of SAU & FAL, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The influence of thermocycling on the bond strength of fibre posts cemented with different luting approaches was investigated. A total of 84 human incisors were selected for the study. Sixty teeth were assigned to one of the following adhesive/cement combinations for push-out bond-strength evaluation: group 1, XP Bond/CoreXFlow + DT Light-Post; group 2, Panavia F 2.0 + Tech 21; or group 3, RelyX Unicem + RelyX. Bonded specimens were cut into 1-mm-thick slabs and either thermocycled (40,000 cycles) or stored in artificial saliva (control specimens) before push-out bond-strength testing. Additional specimens were processed for quantitative interfacial nanoleakage analysis. Thermocycling decreased the bond strength in specimens of groups 2 and 3, but did not affect the specimens from group 1. No difference was observed among luting approaches in control specimens. Thermocycling resulted in increased silver nitrate deposition (i.e. interfacial nanoleakage) in all groups. Within the limitations of the study, the use of an etch-and-rinse adhesive in combination with a dual-cure cement to lute fiber posts is the most stable luting procedure if compared with a self-etch resin-based cement or a self-adhesive cement, as assayed by thermocycling of the bonded specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2009.00656.xDOI Listing
August 2009

Flowability of composites is no guarantee for contraction stress reduction.

Dent Mater 2009 May 10;25(5):649-54. Epub 2009 Jan 10.

Department of Biomedicine, Unit of Dental Sciences and Biomaterials, University of Trieste, Via Stuparich, 1, I-34125 Trieste, Italy.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to measure the contraction stress development of three flowable resin-composite materials (Grandio Flow, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany; Tetric Flow, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein; Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative, 3M ESPE, ST. Paul, MN, USA) and an universal micro-hybrid composite resin (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) during photopolymerization with a halogen curing light, using a novel stress-measuring gauge.

Methods: Curing shrinkage stress was measured using a stress-analyzer. Composites were polymerized with a halogen curing unit (VIP, Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA) for 40s. The contraction force (N) generated during polymerization was continuously recorded for 180s after photo-initiation. Contraction stress (MPa) was calculated at 20s, 40s, 60s, 120s and 180s. Data were statistically analyzed.

Results: Filtek Supreme XT Flowable Restorative exhibited the highest stress values compared to other materials (p<0.05), while the lowest values were recorded with Tetric Flow (p<0.05). Tetric Flow was also the only flowable composite showing stress values lower than the conventional composite Filtek Z250 (p<0.05).

Significance: Flowable composites investigated with this experimental setup showed shrinkage stress comparable to conventional resin restorative materials, thus supporting the hypothesis that the use of flowable materials do not lead to marked stress reduction and the risk of debonding at the adhesive interface as a result of polymerization contraction is similar for both type of materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2008.11.010DOI Listing
May 2009