Publications by authors named "Marcelo Macedo Rogero"

69 Publications

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foods: Biological Effects, Legislation, Occurrence, Analytical Methods, and Strategies to Reduce Their Formation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 2;22(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, 715 Doutor Arnaldo Ave, Sao Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22116010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199595PMC
June 2021

Postprandial plasma lipidome responses to a high-fat meal among healthy women.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jun 27;97:108809. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Postprandial lipemia consists of changes in concentrations and composition of plasma lipids after food intake, commonly presented as increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and function, resulting in a net decrease in HDL concentrations. Elevated triglycerides (TG) and reduced HDL levels have been positively associated with risk of cardiovascular diseases development. Here, we investigated the plasma lipidome composition of 12 clinically healthy, nonobese and young women in response to an acute high-caloric (1135 kcal) and high-fat (64 g) breakfast meal. For this purpose, we employed a detailed untargeted mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach and data was obtained at four sampling points: fasting and 1, 3 and 5 h postprandial. Analysis of variance revealed 73 significantly altered lipid species between all sampling points. Nonetheless, two divergent subgroups have emerged at 5 h postprandial as a function of differential plasma lipidome responses, and were thereby designated slow and fast TG metabolizers. Late responses by slow TG metabolizers were associated with increased concentrations of several species of TG and phosphatidylinositol (PI). Lipidomic analysis of lipoprotein fractions at 5 h postprandial revealed higher TG and PI concentrations in HDL from slow relative to fast TG metabolizers, but not in apoB-containing fraction. These data indicate that modulations in HDL lipidome during prolonged postprandial lipemia may potentially impact HDL functions. A comprehensive characterization of plasma lipidome responses to acute metabolic challenges may contribute to a better understanding of diet/lifestyle regulation in the metabolism of lipid and glucose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108809DOI Listing
June 2021

The effect of the a regional cardioprotective nutritional program on inflammatory biomarkers and metabolic risk factors in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease, a randomised trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 28;40(6):3828-3835. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: To evaluate the effect of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program (BALANCE Program) on inflammatory biomarkers, involved in the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis, on inflammatory biomarkers, cardiovascular risk factors, and on plasma fatty acids in cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients.

Methods: In this substudy of the BALANCE Program randomized clinical trial, a total of 369 patients aged 45 years or older, who have experienced cardiovascular disease in the previous 10 years, were included. These patients were randomized into two groups and followed up for six months: BALANCE Program group and control group (conventional nutrition advice). In the initial and six-month final visits, anthropometry (body weight, height and waist circumference), food intake evaluation by 24-h dietary recall, plasma inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein levels), blood pressure, glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, and plasma fatty acids levels were evaluated.

Results: The BALANCE Program group showed increased plasma alpha-linolenic acid levels (P = 0.008), reduction in waist circumference (P = 0.049) and BMI (P = 0.032). No difference was observed among plasma inflammatory biomarkers and clinical data.

Conclusion: After six months of follow-up, BALANCE Program led to a significant reduction on BMI and waist circumference in individuals in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. Although plasmatic alpha-linolenic acid has increased, there was no impact on plasma inflammatory biomarkers.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.035DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Iron Deficiency and Anemia among Residents of Urban Areas of São Paulo, Brazil.

Nutrients 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil.

Anemia is a worldwide concern. This cross-sectional population-based study examined the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among residents of São Paulo ( = 898; 12-93 years), considering sociodemographic factors, dietary iron inadequacy, and food contributors to iron intake. Blood cell count and iron biomarkers were quantified. Dietary iron intake was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Iron intake inadequacy was estimated using a probabilistic approach. The prevalence of anemia was 6.7%, depleted iron stores 5.1%, and IDA 1.1%. Women of all age groups, older adults, and those who were underweight or obese had the highest prevalence of anemia, and female adolescents had the highest prevalence of depleted iron stores. Female adolescents and adults were more vulnerable to depleted iron stores. Male adults and older adults had a considerable prevalence of iron overload. Except for female adolescents and adults, all groups had mild probabilities of inadequate iron intake. The main food iron contributor was wheat flour. Hemoglobin concentrations were directly associated with being an adult, having a higher income, and inversely associated with being female. Serum ferritin concentrations were directly associated with age and inversely correlated with female sex. Residents of São Paulo had a low prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and IDA, and sociodemographic factors interfered with these parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226555PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of biomarkers related to zinc nutritional status, antioxidant activity and oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Nutr Health 2021 May 18:2601060211015594. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of São Paulo, Butantã, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is an important process related to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis and can be increased by the low intake of antioxidants. Zinc (Zn) is an important antioxidant trace-element for human health and the assessment of the nutritional status of this micronutrient in these patients is of relevance.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Zn nutritional status in rheumatoid arthritis patients and its relation to OS.

Methods: A case-control study was carried out with 51 patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA group) recruited in Hospital São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and 55 healthy women (CO group) from the campus of the University of São Paulo. Blood and 24-hour urine collection were used for biochemical parameters related to Zn status and OS. The assessment of dietary Zn was performed by three 24-hour dietary recalls.

Results: The RA group presented significative low Zn intake ( < 0.001) and plasma concentration ( = 0.040) of this mineral compared to the CO group. However, both groups were Zn deficient and the disease activity (DAS28 score) for RA patients did not influence Zn biomarkers. In addition, the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activity and the urinary 8-isoprostanes were reduced in RA patients.

Conclusion: The evaluation of dietary intake and biochemical biomarkers indicates that rheumatoid arthritis patients are zinc deficient and have increased OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060211015594DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of different branched-chain amino acids supplementation protocols on the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Amino Acids 2021 Apr 14;53(4):597-607. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 580, Butantã, Sao Paulo, 05508-000, Brazil.

Although branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are commonly used as a strategy to recover nutritional status of critically ill patients, recent findings on their role as immunonutrients have been associated with unfavorable outcomes, especially in obese patients. The present study aimed to explore the effects of different BCAA supplementation protocols in the inflammatory response of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cell cultures were divided into five groups, with and without BCAA supplementation, (2 mmol/L of each amino acid). Then, cell cultures followed three different treatment protocols, consisting of a pretreatment (PT), an acute treatment (AT), and a chronic treatment (CT) with BCAA and LPS stimulation (1 µg/mL). Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, NO production was assessed by the Griess reaction and IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and PGE2 synthesis, was evaluated by ELISA. BCAA significantly increased cell viability in AT and CT protocols, and NO and IL-10 synthesis in all treatment protocols. IL-6 synthesis was only increased in PT and CT protocols. TNF-α and PGE2 synthesis were not altered in any of the protocols and groups. BCAA supplementation was able to increase both pro and anti-inflammatory mediators synthesis by RAW 264.7 macrophages, which was influenced by the protocol applied. Moreover, these parameters were significantly increased by isoleucine supplementation, highlighting a potential research field for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-021-02940-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of qualitative and quantitative nutritional plan on gene expression in obese patients in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 02 26;41:351-359. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Diet is a modifiable risk factor, which may influence the gene expression and the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers related to obesity and atherosclerosis. In this substudy from Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional (BALANCE) Program, we hypothesized that a nutritional intervention based on the usual Brazilian diet modulates the expression of genes involved with atherosclerosis and inflammatory biomarkers in male patients, in the secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Six male patients, aged 45 years or older, obese, were selected to follow a qualitative-quantitative food plan for 6 months. Glycemia, insulinemia, lipid profile, plasma concentration of inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL) -1β), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and adiponectin, and expression of 84 atherosclerosis-related genes in total peripheral blood cells, were measured.

Results: After nutritional intervention, the participants reduced weight (p < 0.04), waist circumference (p < 0.04), Homeostasis Model Assessment index for insulin resistance (p = 0.046) and overall leukocyte count (p = 0.046) and neutrophils (p = 0.028). There was no significant modification in the plasma concentration of the inflammatory biomarkers, however, there was a significant increase in the expression of Apo A1 (p = 0.011), ELN (p = 0.017) and IL4 (p = 0.037) genes.

Conclusions: The BALANCE Program, the qualitative-quantitative food plan composed of Brazilian usual foods, did not reduce the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers, but increased in total peripheral blood cells the expression of genes involved in reducing the risk of cardiometabolic in obese patients, in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. The clinical trial is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ and the unique identifier is NCT01620398.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.11.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Branched chain amino acids improve mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, reducing nuclear factor kappa B expression and modulating some inflammatory properties.

Nutrition 2020 10 4;78:110935. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Clinical and Toxicologic Analysis, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: The essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine, and isoleucine, are widely studied because of their effects on immunity and metabolism. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of cell also studied due to their immunomodulatory properties. Since both BCAAs and MSCs have immunomodulatory capacity, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of BCAAs on some immunomodulatory aspects of MSCs.

Methods: MSCs were cultivated in BCAA-supplemented media to evaluate metabolic activity, including cell cycle, proliferative nuclear cell antigen, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, nuclear factor kappa B (NFкB), and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT-3) expression. Additionally, some inflammatory mediators' synthesis, such as interleukin (IL) 1-beta, IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, transforming growth factor beta, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E, were also evaluated.

Results: Supplementation with BCAA led not only to increased MSC proliferation with more cells in the S, G2, and M cycle phases, but also to increased metabolic activity. BCAA supplementation also altered the immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs by decreasing the p-NFкB/NFкB and increasing the p-STAT-3/STAT-3 gene expression ratios, in addition to increasing synthesis of the antiinflammatory mediators transforming growth factor beta and prostaglandin E. Finally, MSCs cultivated in BCAA-supplemented media was shown to decrease the IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha production by macrophages.

Conclusions: BCAA supplementation affected some immunoregulatory aspects of MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110935DOI Listing
October 2020

Nutritional genomics, inflammation and obesity.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2020 May-Jun;64(3):205-222

Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentos (FoRC), Centros de Pesquisa, Inovação e Difusão (Cepid), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Fapesp), São Paulo , SP , Brasil.

The Human Genome Project has significantly broadened our understanding of the molecular aspects regulating the homeostasis and the pathophysiology of different clinical conditions. Consequently, the field of nutrition has been strongly influenced by such improvements in knowledge - especially for determining how nutrients act at the molecular level in different conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this manner, characterizing how the genome influences the diet and vice-versa provides insights about the molecular mechanisms involved in chronic inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, the present review aims to discuss the potential application of Nutritional Genomics to modulate obesity-related inflammatory responses. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(3):205-22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000255DOI Listing
June 2020

FADS1 and ELOVL2 polymorphisms reveal associations for differences in lipid metabolism in a cross-sectional population-based survey of Brazilian men and women.

Nutr Res 2020 06 22;78:42-49. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo 05468-140, Brazil. Electronic address:

Cardiometabolic risk involves environmental and genetic factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma fatty acids and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in elongase and desaturases genes, and cardiometabolic parameters in a cross-sectional population-based survey. A sample of 226 adults who participated in the Health Survey of Sao Paulo, Brazil, was selected. Clinical and anthropometric variables, plasma lipoprotein, and fatty acid were evaluated. We hypothesized that differences in SNPs could lead to changes in plasma long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. We analyzed the relationship between SNPs in FADS1 (rs174546) and ELOVL2 (rs953413) genes, plasma fatty acid profiles, and cardiometabolic-related phenotypes using multiple linear regression, which was adjusted for confounders. Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower in carriers of the T allele for the FADS1 SNP. Plasma oleic acid levels were statistically higher in individuals with CT/TT genotypes in the FADS1 and AG/GG genotypes in the ELOVL2 SNPs in comparison to the CC and AA genotypes, respectively. Higher levels of linoleic and linolenic acid were found for T-allele carriers of FADS1 SNP. The estimated activity of the stearoyl CoA desaturase enzyme (SDC_18) was higher in the CT/TT genotypes (FADS1). Delta-5 desaturase estimated activity was statistically lower in the presence of the minor FADS1 allele. The estimated activity of the enzyme delta-6 desaturase was statistically lower for FADS1 CT and TT genotypes. SNPs in FADS1 and ELOVL2 genes showed protective associations for lipid metabolism and could be markers of lower cardiometabolic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2020.04.003DOI Listing
June 2020

The Two-Way Polyphenols-Microbiota Interactions and Their Effects on Obesity and Related Metabolic Diseases.

Front Nutr 2019 20;6:188. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Food Science and Experimental Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Metabolic diseases can change the gut microbiota composition and function, and pathogenic bacteria contribute to the development of metabolic disorders. Polyphenols may act in the gut microbiota to favor the increase of beneficial bacteria and hamper the increase of pathogenic bacteria. In addition, the microbiota may act on polyphenols to increase their bioavailability. This two-way interactions between polyphenols and the gut microbiota could affect human metabolism and reduce cardiometabolic risk. Despite the possible benefits of polyphenols for human health through modulating the microbiome, studies are scarce, and present several limitations. This review provides an overview of the polyphenol-microbiota interactions and its effects on metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933685PMC
December 2019

Systemic low-grade inflammation-associated lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors: A population-based cross-sectional study.

Nutrition 2020 02 19;70:110596. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo City, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Systemic low-grade inflammation (SLGI) is an intermediary common condition to the physiopathology of chronic noncommunicable diseases and targeting its determinants could lead to more efficient public health strategies. We aimed to investigate SLGI-independent associations with lifestyle, diet, and genetic factors in a population-based sample of adults using a systemic low-grade inflammation score (SIS).

Methods: The study sample is composed of 269 participants from the cross-sectional population-based Health Survey of Sao Paulo (2008-2010), ages 20 to 59 y, whose data on socioeconomic variables, lifestyle, health parameters, and blood samples were available. Diet was assessed by two 24-h recalls, and the Brazilian Health Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was scored. From blood samples, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms on inflammatory genes were genotyped, and plasma eleven inflammatory biomarkers levels that composed the SIS were determined. A multiple, stepwise, linear regression was used to investigate SIS-independent associated factors.

Results: Factors independently associated with SIS were BHEI-R score (partial R² = 5.1; β = -0.13; P = 0.003), body mass index (partial R² = 3.4; β = 0.19; P = 0.001), TLR4 rs5030728 GA + AA genotype (partial R² = 3.1; β = -1.37; P = 0.008), age 50 to 59 y (partial R² = 2.5; β = 1.93; P = 0.029) in comparison with the reference category (20 to 29 y), and commuting physical activity >150 min/wk (partial R² = 2.2; β = -1.29; P = 0.043) after adjustment for current smoking status, medication use, and dietary misreporting.

Conclusions: Eating a lower quality diet, having a higher body mass index score and age, being GG homozygous for TLR4 rs5030728, and spending <150 min/wk in transportation physical activity are independent determinants of SLGI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.110596DOI Listing
February 2020

Brazil nut intake increases circulating miR-454-3p and miR-584-5p in obese women.

Nutr Res 2019 07 16;67:40-52. Epub 2019 May 16.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The Brazil nut is an excellent source of selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient for human health. In this study, we hypothesized that Brazil nut intake modulates circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in obese women and aimed to evaluate the effects of this nut intake on circulating miRNAs in women with obesity or metabolic syndrome (MetS). A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 54 subjects recruited from the Clinical Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a Brazil nut group (BN group, n = 29) and a control group (CO group, n = 25); both were monitored for 2 months. BN group members were instructed to consume 1 Brazil nut (approximately 1261 μg/Se) per day; CO group members were instructed not to consume any. Biochemical parameters related to Se status and 25 circulating miRNAs in plasma were evaluated in all patients both at baseline and after 2 months. Expression levels of 2 miRNAs (miR-454-3p and miR-584-5p) were significantly increased after Brazil nut intake. To investigate the effect of MetS on circulating miRNAs at baseline, we performed comparisons between women with MetS (n = 23) and women without MetS (others, n = 31). Circulating miR-375 levels were significantly lower (P = .012) in women with MetS. In conclusion, our findings suggested that a daily intake of 1 Brazil nut increased circulating miR-454-3p and miR-584-5p expression levels in obese women, and our network analysis indicated a link between Se intake, vitamin D metabolism, and calcium homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2019.05.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on muscle fatigue parameters of rats submitted to resistance training.

Nutrition 2019 09 6;65:131-137. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: Although glutamine and alanine have properties that could delay fatigue, recent evidence showed that these amino acids impaired central fatigue markers. Nevertheless, the effect of this intervention on muscle fatigue is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on muscle fatigue parameters in rats submitted to resistance training (RT).

Methods: Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: sedentary (SED), exercised (CON), exercised and supplemented with alanine (ALA), glutamine and alanine in their free form (G+A) or l-alanyl-l-glutamine (DIP). Trained groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for 8 wk. In the last 3 wk of RT, supplementations were offered in water with a 4% concentration.

Results: G+A and DIP supplementation increased the muscle content of glutamine and glutamate. DIP administration increased glycogen and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentrations in muscle, whereas ALA and G+A supplementation reduced plasma LDH and creatine kinase levels. All trained groups presented higher levels of muscle glutathione (GSH) than SED. There was no difference between groups in lactate, xanthine, hypoxanthine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, 8-isoprostane and GSH in plasma; adenosine monophosphate deaminase, citrate synthase and monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 in muscle; and glycogen and GSH in the liver. Moreover, physical performance did not differ between groups.

Conclusion: Glutamine and alanine supplementation improved muscle fatigue markers without affecting exercise performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.09.025DOI Listing
September 2019

Consumption of Brazil nuts with high selenium levels increased inflammation biomarkers in obese women: A randomized controlled trial.

Nutrition 2019 Jul - Aug;63-64:162-168. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: Increased inflammatory response is an important factor in the pathophysiology of obesity. The mineral selenium (Se), of which one of the main food sources is the Brazil nut, has important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions through the action of selenoproteins. Thus, the evaluation of the influence of this micronutrient in this context is of great relevance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Brazil nut intake with high Se concentrations on inflammatory biomarkers and its relation to Se status in obese women.

Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out with 55 women recruited at Clinical Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to either the Brazil nut group (BN) or the control group (CO) and followed up for 2 mo. The BN group consumed 1 unit/d of Brazil nuts (∼ 1261 μg/Se); the CO group did not receive any intervention. At baseline and after 2 mo, analysis of biochemical parameters related to Se status, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers were performed.

Results: At baseline, both groups did not present Se deficiency. In the BN group, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in all Se biomarkers and in gene expression of several proinflammatory parameters (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4) were observed after the intervention period. No changes were observed for the CO group.

Conclusion: Although there were no changes in plasma inflammatory biomarkers levels, a significant increase in gene expression may be an indication of a proinflammatory stimulus in obesity, induced by the consumption of Brazil nuts with high Se levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.02.009DOI Listing
September 2020

Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 17;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes 580, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil.

Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid widely used in sports nutrition, especially because of its immunomodulatory role. Notwithstanding, glutamine plays several other biological functions, such as cell proliferation, energy production, glycogenesis, ammonia buffering, maintenance of the acid-base balance, among others. Thus, this amino acid began to be investigated in sports nutrition beyond its effect on the immune system, attributing to glutamine various properties, such as an anti-fatigue role. Considering that the ergogenic potential of this amino acid is still not completely known, this review aimed to address the main properties by which glutamine could delay fatigue, as well as the effects of glutamine supplementation, alone or associated with other nutrients, on fatigue markers and performance in the context of physical exercise. PubMed database was selected to examine the literature, using the keywords combination "glutamine" and "fatigue". Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this integrative literature review. Most of the studies evaluated observed that glutamine supplementation improved some fatigue markers, such as increased glycogen synthesis and reduced ammonia accumulation, but this intervention did not increase physical performance. Thus, despite improving some fatigue parameters, glutamine supplementation seems to have limited effects on performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520936PMC
April 2019

Circulating plasma microRNAs dysregulation and metabolic endotoxemia induced by a high-fat high-saturated diet.

Clin Nutr 2020 02 7;39(2):554-562. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nutritional Genomics and Inflammation Laboratory, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, 01246-904 São Paulo, Brazil; Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo 05468-140, Brazil. Electronic address:

High-fat diet increase two to three times the plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and induce subclinical inflammation. Diet can modify gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to MicroRNAs (miRNAs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important role in the post-transcriptional mechanisms involved in regulation of expression of genes related to the inflammatory response. Also, diet can indirectly induce post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases.

Objective: This study investigated the effect of high-fat high-saturated meal ingestion on plasma miRNA expression and LPS levels during the postprandial period in healthy women.

Methods: An interventional study was carried out in which a high-fat breakfast (1067.45 kcal), composed mainly of saturated fatty acids (56 g), and 500 mL of water, was offered. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 1, 3 and 5 h after meal intake. The studied population consisted of healthy women (n = 11), aged between 20 and 40 years, and body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 25 kg/m. Plasma levels of lipid profile, cytokines, adhesion molecules, and LPS were measured at the 3 time points. A profile of 752 human plasma miRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR assay. These analyzes were performed for all blood collection time-points.

Results: Expression profile analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed plasma circulating miRNAs compared to that of the control group. MiR-145-5p and miR-200 were differentially modulated in all time-points post meal consumption. In addition, there was a significant increase in plasma LPS, triglycerides, myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids levels at the 3 time-points in comparison with the control basal levels. We also observed increased levels of the plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokine and the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels after 5 h post meal ingestion.

Conclusion: Ingestion of high-fat high-saturated meal was able to induce metabolic endotoxemia and increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TNF-alpha and VCAM-1, as well as modulating circulating miRNAs possibly controlling inflammatory and lipid metabolism proteins at the postprandial period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.02.042DOI Listing
February 2020

Lipid metabolism genetic risk score interacts with the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised and its components to influence the odds for dyslipidemia in a cross-sectional population-based survey in Brazil.

Nutr Health 2019 Jun 5;25(2):119-126. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

1 Department of Nutrition, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Dyslipidemia can be influenced by genetic and dietary risk factors.

Aim: This study set out to investigate diet and genetic variations in Brazilian people in a cross-sectional population-based survey and to analyze the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in lipid metabolism and cardiometabolic-related phenotypes using a genetic risk score (GRS).

Methods: We recruited 228 adults (mean age 36.5 years) who participated in the Health Survey of São Paulo (HS-SP), Brazil. Clinical and anthropometric parameters, as well as the interaction between the GRS and the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R) were evaluated. We analyzed the relationship between SNPs in APOA5 (rs662799), APOB (rs693, rs1367117), LDLR (rs688, rs5925) and LIPC (rs2070895, rs1800588) and cardiometabolic-related phenotypes using a GRS.

Results: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels were associated with the BHEI-R ( p=0.026; β= -0.183) and with its SoFAAS component (solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars) ( p=0.007; β=0.279). Non-HDL cholesterol levels were associated with the BHEI-R vegetable component ( p=0.015; β=0.002) and the meat, eggs and beans component ( p=0.003; β=0.007). Triacylglycerol levels were associated with the BHEI-R vegetable component ( p=0.027; β=0.003); the meat, eggs and beans component ( p=0.041; β=0.001); and the total protein component ( p=0.013; β=0.032). Significant effects were observed for the interactions between the GRS and both the BHEI-R oils component ( p=0.019) and the SoFAAS component ( p<0.001) on the dyslipidemia risk.

Conclusions: The evaluation of dietary quality, especially fat quality, together with the lipid metabolism GRS could be a useful tool to manage cardiometabolic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0260106019830844DOI Listing
June 2019

Plasma fatty acids: Biomarkers of dietary intake?

Nutrition 2019 03 22;59:77-82. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To our knowledge, there is currently no consensus in the literature on the association between dietary fatty acids and circulating levels in plasma. The aim of this study was to assess the association of the intake of fatty acids with their relative plasma concentrations.

Methods: We conducted a study with 300 adults from the population-based health survey in São Paulo city (ISA-Capital 2008). We assessed demographic, lifestyle and anthropometric data, biochemical measurements, and two 24-h dietary recalls collected on non-consecutive days. Intake distribution was adjusted for intrapersonal variance to give usual dietary intake using the multiple source method (MSM). Percentage of fatty acids in plasma were analyzed by gas chromatography. The κ statistic, Spearman's correlation, and multiple linear regression (adjusted for confounders) and ratio limits of agreement were employed to determine the relationship between plasma and dietary measurements.

Results: Low correlation and agreement were found between dietary and plasma fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (β = 0.25; P < 0.001) and saturated (β = 0.19; P = 0.048) fatty acids exhibited an association for means of intake adjusted by the MSM and for confounding variables. A large mean difference, with a large variation of "ratio limits," were observed between the measurements.

Conclusion: Plasma and dietary polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids exhibited low correlation and agreement, as well as weak association between each other. No association between intake and plasma concentrations of monounsaturated fat was found. Plasma fatty acids are not good biomarkers of food intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.08.008DOI Listing
March 2019

Glutamine: Metabolism and Immune Function, Supplementation and Clinical Translation.

Nutrients 2018 Oct 23;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 23.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Australia.

Glutamine is the most abundant and versatile amino acid in the body. In health and disease, the rate of glutamine consumption by immune cells is similar or greater than glucose. For instance, in vitro and in vivo studies have determined that glutamine is an essential nutrient for lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, macrophage phagocytic plus secretory activities, and neutrophil bacterial killing. Glutamine release to the circulation and availability is mainly controlled by key metabolic organs, such as the gut, liver, and skeletal muscles. During catabolic/hypercatabolic situations glutamine can become essential for metabolic function, but its availability may be compromised due to the impairment of homeostasis in the inter-tissue metabolism of amino acids. For this reason, glutamine is currently part of clinical nutrition supplementation protocols and/or recommended for immune suppressed individuals. However, in a wide range of catabolic/hypercatabolic situations (e.g., ill/critically ill, post-trauma, sepsis, exhausted athletes), it is currently difficult to determine whether glutamine supplementation (oral/enteral or parenteral) should be recommended based on the amino acid plasma/bloodstream concentration (also known as glutaminemia). Although the beneficial immune-based effects of glutamine supplementation are already established, many questions and evidence for positive in vivo outcomes still remain to be presented. Therefore, this paper provides an integrated review of how glutamine metabolism in key organs is important to cells of the immune system. We also discuss glutamine metabolism and action, and important issues related to the effects of glutamine supplementation in catabolic situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10111564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266414PMC
October 2018

Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 concentration, but not PADI4 polymorphisms, is associated with ICU mortality in septic shock patients.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 10 25;22(10):4732-4737. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil.

The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) concentration and its polymorphisms with mortality in patients with septic shock. We prospectively evaluated 175 patients aged over 18 years with septic shock upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission. However, 48 patients were excluded. Thus, 127 patients were enrolled in the study. At the time of the patients' enrollment, demographic information was recorded. Blood samples were taken within the first 24 hours of the patient's admission to determine serum PAD4 concentrations and its polymorphism PADI4_89 [rs11203366], PADI4_94 [rs2240340] and PADI4_104 [rs1748033]. The mean age was 63.3 ± 15.2 years, 56.7% were male, PAD4 concentration was 4.62 (2.48-6.20) ng/mL and the ICU mortality rate was 67.7%. The patients who died in the ICU had higher APACHE II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores. In addition, PAD4 concentration was higher in patients who died during ICU stay. However, there were no differences regarding PADI4 polymorphisms and ICU mortality. In the logistic regression models, PAD4 concentrations were associated with ICU mortality when adjusted for APACHE II score and lactate (OR: 1.477; CI 95%: 1.186-1.839; P < .001), and when adjusted for age, gender and APACHE II score (OR: 1.392; CI 95%: 1.145-1.692; P < .001). In conclusion, PAD4 concentration, but not PADI4_89, PADI4_94 and PADI4_104 polymorphisms, is associated with ICU mortality in septic shock patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156447PMC
October 2018

Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Adiposity, Plasma Lipid Profile, and Adipokines of Rats Submitted to Resistance Training.

J Diet Suppl 2019 9;16(6):676-688. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo , São Paulo , SP , Brazil.

Glutamine and alanine are lipogenic and could prevent the effects of resistance training (RT) in reducing adiposity and modulating lipid profile. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of RT and glutamine and alanine supplementation, in their free or conjugated form, on relative epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, plasma lipid profile, and adipokines in EAT. Thirty Wistar rats, aged two months, were distributed into five groups: control (CTRL), trained (TRN), trained and supplemented with alanine (ALA), glutamine and alanine in their free form (GLN+ALA), or L-alanyl-L-glutamine (DIP). Trained groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for eight weeks, with progressive load increase. Supplementations were offered in a solution with a concentration of 4% in the last 21 days of training. Food consumption and body weight gain were decreased in the TRN group compared with CTRL. RT also reduced relative EAT and BAT weight, while supplementations, especially with ALA, increased adipose tissue mass. RT reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (TRN vs. CTRL), whereas glutamine and alanine supplementation increased TC and LDL-c, impairing lipid profile modulation by physical exercise. RT did not affect the concentrations of adipokines in EAT, but DIP supplementation increased interleukin- (IL-) 6 and IL-10. In conclusion, RT reduced adiposity and modulated lipid profile, whereas glutamine and alanine supplementation increased adiposity and impaired lipid profile but increased the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 in EAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2018.1472716DOI Listing
March 2020

Effects of a new intervention based on the Health at Every Size approach for the management of obesity: The "Health and Wellness in Obesity" study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(7):e0198401. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Health at Every Size® (HAES®) is a weight-neutral approach focused on promoting healthy behaviors in people with different body sizes. This study examined multiple physiological, attitudinal, nutritional, and behavioral effects of a newly developed, intensive, interdisciplinary HAES®-based intervention in obese women. This was a prospective, seven-month, randomized (2:1), controlled, mixed-method clinical trial. The intervention group (I-HAES®; n = 39) took part in an intensified HAES®-based intervention comprising a physical activity program, nutrition counseling sessions, and philosophical workshops. The control group (CTRL; n = 19) underwent a traditional HAES®-based intervention. Before and after the interventions, participants were assessed for physiological, psychological, and behavioral parameters (quantitative data) and took part in focus groups (qualitative data). Body weight, body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences did not significantly differ within or between groups (P > 0.05). I-HAES® showed increased peak oxygen uptake and improved performance in the timed-stand test (P = 0.004 and P = 0.004, between-group comparisons). No significant within- or between-group differences were observed for objectively measured physical activity levels, even though the majority of the I-HAES® participants indicated that they were engaged in or had plans to include physical activity in their routines. I-HAES® resulted in improvements in eating attitudes and practices. The I-HAES® group showed significantly improved all Body Attitude Questionnaire subscale and all Figure Rating Scale scores (P ≤ 0.05 for all parameters, within-group comparisons), whereas the CTRL group showed slight or no changes. Both groups had significant improvements in health-related quality of life parameters, although the I-HAES® group had superior gains in the "physical health," "psychological health," and "overall perception of quality of life and health" (P = 0.05, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively, between-group comparisons) domains. Finally, most of the quantitative improvements were explained by qualitative data. Our results show that this new intensified HAES®-based intervention improved participants' eating attitudes and practices, perception of body image, physical capacity, and health-related quality of life despite the lack of changes in body weight and physical activity levels, showing that our novel approach was superior to a traditional HAES®-based program.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198401PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034785PMC
December 2018

Erythrocyte SOD1 activity, but not SOD1 polymorphisms, is associated with ICU mortality in patients with septic shock.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 08 12;124:199-204. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil. Electronic address:

The objective of our study was to evaluate the influence of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) polymorphisms on erythrocyte SOD1 activity and the mortality of patients with septic shock. We prospectively evaluated 175 patients aged over 18 years with septic shock upon ICU admission. However, 38 patients were excluded. Thus, 137 patients were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were taken within the first 24 h of the patient's admission to determine erythrocyte SOD1 activity and nine SOD1 gene polymorphisms. The mean patient age was 63 ± 16 years, 58% were men, and ICU mortality rate was 66%. The patients who died were older and more severely ill, with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, as well as higher lactate, urea, and protein carbonyl levels. In the logistic regression model, erythrocyte SOD1 activity was associated with ICU mortality. This relationship was also maintained in the highest tertile of SOD1 activity (odds ratio [OR]: 0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.78; p = 0.037). Only SNP rs2070424 of the SOD1 gene influenced erythrocyte SOD1 activity. For patients with the AA allele, the activity of SOD1 was lower in relation to G-carriers (A/G+G/G genotype) (p = 0.019). None of the nine SOD1 SNPs were associated with ICU mortality. In conclusion, the SNP rs2070424 of the SOD1 gene interferes with erythrocyte SOD1 activity, and higher activity of SOD1 was associated with decreased mortality in patients with septic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.06.013DOI Listing
August 2018

Obesity, Inflammation, Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Fatty Acids.

Nutrients 2018 Mar 30;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Human Development and Health Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.

Obesity leads to an inflammatory condition that is directly involved in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and certain types of cancer. The classic inflammatory response is an acute reaction to infections or to tissue injuries, and it tends to move towards resolution and homeostasis. However, the inflammatory process that was observed in individuals affected by obesity and metabolic syndrome differs from the classical inflammatory response in certain respects. This inflammatory process manifests itself systemically and it is characterized by a chronic low-intensity reaction. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway is acknowledged as one of the main triggers of the obesity-induced inflammatory response. The aim of the present review is to describe the role that is played by the TLR4 signaling pathway in the inflammatory response and its modulation by saturated and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies indicate that saturated fatty acids can induce inflammation by activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, exert anti-inflammatory actions through the attenuation of the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway by either lipopolysaccharides or saturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10040432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946217PMC
March 2018

Dairy consumption and inflammatory profile: A cross-sectional population-based study, São Paulo, Brazil.

Nutrition 2018 04 26;48:1-5. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Nutrition Department, Public Health School, University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dairy product consumption and plasma inflammatory biomarkers levels among a representative sample of Brazilian adults from São Paulo City.

Methods: Data were acquired from the Health Survey for São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. All individuals 20 to 59 y of age with complete food consumption information (24-h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire) and blood sample analysis were included (N = 259). The sample was separated into two groups according to systemic inflammatory pattern considering plasma levels of C-reactive protein; tumor necrosis factor-α; soluble intracellular adhesion molecule; soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule, monocyte chemoattractant protein; interleukin-1β, -6, -8, -10, and -12; adiponectin; leptin; and homocysteine. Multiple logistic regression tests were conducted to estimate the odds ratio for the inflammatory cluster across tertiles of dairy consumption.

Results: When adjusted by age, smoking status, and energy intake the odds ratio for the inflammatory cluster group in the highest tertile of yogurt consumption was 0.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.81) relative to the reference tertile, demonstrating also a linear effect (P = 0.015). Cheese consumption exhibited an odds ratio of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.09-5.75) relative to the reference.

Conclusions: Increasing yogurt consumption might have a protective effect on inflammation, whereas cheese consumption appears to be associated with a proinflammatory status. The results of the present study aggregate a new perspective on existing evidence demonstrating the importance of assessing the contribution of dairy products on diet and their effect on the development of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2017.10.003DOI Listing
April 2018

Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.

Nutr J 2018 02 21;17(1):26. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them.

Methods: In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers.

Results: Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05). Among those with insulin resistance there was a positive association between monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p < 0.05), and a negative association between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p < 0.05), as well as a negative association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and adiponectin (p < 0.05). Our study has not found any association between hs-CRP and plasma fatty acids.

Conclusions: Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with unsaturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0342-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822607PMC
February 2018

Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Central Fatigue Markers in Rats Submitted to Resistance Training.

Nutrients 2018 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes 580, São Paulo SP 05508-000, Brazil.

Recent evidence suggests that increased brain serotonin synthesis impairs performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise and specific amino acids may modulate this condition, delaying fatigue. This study investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on central fatigue markers in rats submitted to resistance training (RT). Wistar rats were distributed in: sedentary (SED), trained (CON), trained and supplemented with alanine (ALA), glutamine and alanine in their free form (G + A), or as dipeptide (DIP). Trained groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for eight weeks, with progressive loads. In the last 21 days, supplementations were offered in water with a 4% concentration. Albeit without statistically significance difference, RT decreased liver glycogen, and enhanced the concentrations of plasma glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), hypothalamic serotonin, and ammonia in muscle and the liver. Amino acids affected fatigue parameters depending on the supplementation form. G + A prevented the muscle ammonia increase by RT, whereas ALA and DIP augmented ammonia and glycogen concentrations in muscle. DIP also increased liver ammonia. ALA and G + A reduced plasma FFA, whereas DIP increased this parameter, free tryptophan/total tryptophan ratio, hypothalamic serotonin, and the serotonin/dopamine ratio. The supplementations did not affect physical performance. In conclusion, glutamine and alanine may improve or impair central fatigue markers depending on their supplementation form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu10020119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852695PMC
January 2018

Probiotic supplementation in sports and physical exercise: Does it present any ergogenic effect?

Nutr Health 2017 Dec;23(4):239-249

1 Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms that promote health benefits to the host. Evidence indicates that some probiotic strains play an immunomodulatory role and reduce the incidence of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in athletes and in physical activity practitioners. For this reason, probiotic supplementation could indirectly improve exercise performance. However, recent studies have observed direct ergogenic effects of probiotics, but the mechanisms of action are poorly elucidated.

Objective: In this study, we aim to synthesize available knowledge on the effect of probiotics on physical exercise, identify the mechanisms of action by which probiotics could improve performance directly and indirectly, and verify whether probiotics have any ergogenic effect.

Methods: The study was performed in the PubMed database in February 2017, without limitation as to the publication period. The keyword combinations used were: 'Probiotics' and 'Sports' ( n = 17 articles), 'Probiotics' and 'Exercise' ( n = 26 articles) and 'Probiotics' and 'Athletes' ( n = 11 articles).

Results: Of the 16 studies evaluated, only six applied performance tests, of which only two demonstrated that probiotic supplementation increases performance, but one of them was performed with mice.

Conclusions: According to the studies evaluated, probiotic supplementation does not present ergogenic effect, however, considering the small number of studies, this subject should be better investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0260106017721000DOI Listing
December 2017
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