Publications by authors named "Marcelo Héctor Ratto"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Distribution of GnRH and Kisspeptin Immunoreactivity in the Female Llama Hypothalamus.

Front Vet Sci 2020 2;7:597921. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Instituto de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Llamas are induced non-reflex ovulators, which ovulate in response to the hormonal stimulus of the male protein beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) that is present in the seminal plasma; this response is dependent on the preovulatory gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release from the hypothalamus. GnRH neurones are vital for reproduction, as these provide the input that controls the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland. However, in spontaneous ovulators, the activity of GnRH cells is regulated by kisspeptin neurones that relay the oestrogen signal arising from the periphery. Here, we investigated the organisation of GnRH and kisspeptin systems in the hypothalamus of receptive adult female llamas. We found that GnRH cells exhibiting different shapes were distributed throughout the ventral forebrain and some of these were located in proximity to blood vessels; sections of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) displayed the highest number of cells. GnRH fibres were observed in both the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and median eminence (ME). We also detected abundant kisspeptin fibres in the MBH and ME; kisspeptin cells were found in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), but not in rostral areas of the hypothalamus. Quantitative analysis of GnRH and kisspeptin fibres in the ME revealed a higher innervation density of kisspeptin than of GnRH fibres. The physiological significance of the anatomical findings reported here for the ovulatory mechanism in llamas is still to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.597921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884347PMC
February 2021

β-NGF Stimulates Steroidogenic Enzyme and Gene Expression, and Progesterone Secretion via ERK 1/2 Pathway in Primary Culture of Llama Granulosa Cells.

Front Vet Sci 2020 23;7:586265. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Institute of Animal Science, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

The beta-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) from llama seminal plasma exerts ovulatory and luteotrophic effects following intramuscular or intrauterine infusion in llamas and alpacas. In this study, we investigate the effect of llama β-NGF on the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and progesterone synthesis as well as progesterone release in preovulatory llama granulosa cells; we also determine whether these changes are mediated via the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. From adult female llamas, we collected granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles by transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration; these cells were pooled and incubated. After 80% confluence, the cultured granulosa cells were treated with β-NGF, β-NGF plus the MAPK inhibitor U0126, or luteinizing hormone, and the abundance of angiogenic and steroidogenic enzyme mRNA transcripts were quantified after 10 and 20 h by RT-qPCR. We also quantified the progesterone concentration in the media after 48 h by radioimmunoassay. We found that application of β-NGF increases the abundance of mRNA transcripts of the vascular endothelial growth factor () and the steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc/), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase () at 10 and 20 h of treatment. Application of the MAPK inhibitor U0126 resulted in downregulation of the genes encoding these enzymes. β-NGF also enhanced progesterone synthesis, which was prevented by the prior application of the MAPK inhibitor U0126. Finally, western blot analysis confirmed that β-NGF activates the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. In conclusion, our results indicate that β-NGF exerts direct luteotropic effects on llama ovarian tissue via the ERK 1/2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.586265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645075PMC
October 2020