Publications by authors named "Marcella Rietschel"

544 Publications

Interaction of developmental factors and ordinary stressful life events on brain structure in adults.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 21;30:102683. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039 Marburg, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior (CMBB), University of Marburg and Justus Liebig University Giessen, Hans-Meerwein-Str. 6, 35032 Marburg, Germany; Marburg University Hospital - UKGM, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039 Marburg, Germany.

An interplay of early environmental and genetic risk factors with recent stressful life events (SLEs) in adulthood increases the risk for adverse mental health outcomes. The interaction of early risk and current SLEs on brain structure has hardly been investigated. Whole brain voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in N = 786 (64.6% female, mean age = 33.39) healthy subjects to identify correlations of brain clusters with commonplace recent SLEs. Genetic and early environmental risk factors, operationalized as those for severe psychopathology (i.e., polygenic scores for neuroticism, childhood maltreatment, urban upbringing and paternal age) were assessed as modulators of the impact of SLEs on the brain. SLEs were negatively correlated with grey matter volume in the left medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, FWE p = 0.003). This association was present for both, positive and negative, life events. Cognitive-emotional variables, i.e., neuroticism, perceived stress, trait anxiety, intelligence, and current depressive symptoms did not account for the SLE-mOFC association. Further, genetic and environmental risk factors were not correlated with grey matter volume in the left mOFC cluster and did not affect the association between SLEs and left mOFC grey matter volume. The orbitofrontal cortex has been implicated in stress-related psychopathology, particularly major depression in previous studies. We find that SLEs are associated with this area. Important early life risk factors do not interact with current SLEs on brain morphology in healthy subjects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102615PMC
April 2021

Identification of transdiagnostic psychiatric disorder subtypes using unsupervised learning.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Psychiatric disorders show heterogeneous symptoms and trajectories, with current nosology not accurately reflecting their molecular etiology and the variability and symptomatic overlap within and between diagnostic classes. This heterogeneity impedes timely and targeted treatment. Our study aimed to identify psychiatric patient clusters that share clinical and genetic features and may profit from similar therapies. We used high-dimensional data clustering on deep clinical data to identify transdiagnostic groups in a discovery sample (N = 1250) of healthy controls and patients diagnosed with depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and other psychiatric disorders. We observed five diagnostically mixed clusters and ordered them based on severity. The least impaired cluster 0, containing most healthy controls, showed general well-being. Clusters 1-3 differed predominantly regarding levels of maltreatment, depression, daily functioning, and parental bonding. Cluster 4 contained most patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and exhibited the highest severity in many dimensions, including medication load. Depressed patients were present in all clusters, indicating that we captured different disease stages or subtypes. We replicated all but the smallest cluster 1 in an independent sample (N = 622). Next, we analyzed genetic differences between clusters using polygenic scores (PGS) and the psychiatric family history. These genetic variables differed mainly between clusters 0 and 4 (prediction area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 81%; significant PGS: cross-disorder psychiatric risk, schizophrenia, and educational attainment). Our results confirm that psychiatric disorders consist of heterogeneous subtypes sharing molecular factors and symptoms. The identification of transdiagnostic clusters advances our understanding of the heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders and may support the development of personalized treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-021-01051-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of high-frequency prefrontal rTMS on heart frequency rates and blood pressure in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jun 7;140:243-249. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, University of Augsburg, BKH, Augsburg, Germany.

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe non-invasive neuromodulation technique used for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders. The effect of rTMS applied to the cortex on autonomic functions has not been studied in detail in patient cohorts, yet patients who receive rTMS may have disease-associated impairments in the autonomic system and may receive medication that may pronounce autonomic dysfunctions.

Methods: Using data from the 'rTMS for the Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia' (RESIS) trial we evaluated the effect of rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on autonomic nervous system-related parameters such as blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in both reclining and standing postures from screening up to 105 days after intervention among patients with schizophrenia.

Results: 157 patients received either active (n = 76) or sham (n = 81) rTMS treatment. Apart from gender no significant group differences were observed. During intervention, Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analyses showed no significant time × group interactions nor time effects for any of the variables (all p > 0.055). During the whole trial beside a significant time × group interaction for diastolic BP (p = 0.017) in the standing posture, no significant time × group interactions for other variables (all p > 0.140) were found.

Conclusion: These secondary analyses of the largest available rTMS trial on the treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia did not show a significant effect of active rTMS compared to sham rTMS on heart rate or blood pressure, neither during the intervention period nor during the follow-up period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.06.010DOI Listing
June 2021

Sex-Dependent Shared and Nonshared Genetic Architecture Across Mood and Psychotic Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: Sex differences in incidence and/or presentation of schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BIP) are pervasive. Previous evidence for shared genetic risk and sex differences in brain abnormalities across disorders suggest possible shared sex-dependent genetic risk.

Methods: We conducted the largest to date genome-wide genotype-by-sex (G×S) interaction of risk for these disorders using 85,735 cases (33,403 SCZ, 19,924 BIP, and 32,408 MDD) and 109,946 controls from the PGC (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium) and iPSYCH.

Results: Across disorders, genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphism-by-sex interaction was detected for a locus encompassing NKAIN2 (rs117780815, p = 3.2 × 10), which interacts with sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) enzymes, implicating neuronal excitability. Three additional loci showed evidence (p < 1 × 10) for cross-disorder G×S interaction (rs7302529, p = 1.6 × 10; rs73033497, p = 8.8 × 10; rs7914279, p = 6.4 × 10), implicating various functions. Gene-based analyses identified G×S interaction across disorders (p = 8.97 × 10) with transcriptional inhibitor SLTM. Most significant in SCZ was a MOCOS gene locus (rs11665282, p = 1.5 × 10), implicating vascular endothelial cells. Secondary analysis of the PGC-SCZ dataset detected an interaction (rs13265509, p = 1.1 × 10) in a locus containing IDO2, a kynurenine pathway enzyme with immunoregulatory functions implicated in SCZ, BIP, and MDD. Pathway enrichment analysis detected significant G×S interaction of genes regulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in MDD (false discovery rate-corrected p < .05).

Conclusions: In the largest genome-wide G×S analysis of mood and psychotic disorders to date, there was substantial genetic overlap between the sexes. However, significant sex-dependent effects were enriched for genes related to neuronal development and immune and vascular functions across and within SCZ, BIP, and MDD at the variant, gene, and pathway levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.972DOI Listing
March 2021

Methylome-wide change associated with response to electroconvulsive therapy in depressed patients.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 06 5;11(1):347. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a quick-acting and powerful antidepressant treatment considered to be effective in treating severe and pharmacotherapy-resistant forms of depression. Recent studies have suggested that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate treatment response and investigations about the relationship between the effects of ECT and DNA methylation have so far largely taken candidate approaches. In the present study, we examined the effects of ECT on the methylome associated with response in depressed patients (n = 34), testing for differentially methylated CpG sites before the first and after the last ECT treatment. We identified one differentially methylated CpG site associated with the effect of ECT response (defined as >50% decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score, HDRS), TNKS (q < 0.05; p = 7.15 × 10). When defining response continuously (ΔHDRS), the top suggestive differentially methylated CpG site was in FKBP5 (p = 3.94 × 10). Regional analyses identified two differentially methylated regions on chromosomes 8 (Šídák's p = 0.0031) and 20 (Šídák's p = 4.2 × 10) associated with ΔHDRS. Functional pathway analysis did not identify any significant pathways. A confirmatory look at candidates previously proposed to be involved in ECT mechanisms found CpG sites associated with response only at the nominally significant level (p < 0.05). Despite the limited sample size, the present study was able to identify epigenetic change associated with ECT response suggesting that this approach, especially when involving larger samples, has the potential to inform the study of mechanisms involved in ECT and severe and treatment-resistant depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01474-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179923PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology.

Nat Genet 2021 06 17;53(6):817-829. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00857-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192451PMC
June 2021

ERR and dPECR Suggest a Link Between Neuroprotection and the Regulation of Ethanol Consumption Preference.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:655816. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Zoology, University of Köln, Köln, Germany.

Reconsumption of ethanol after withdrawal is a hallmark for relapse in recovering patients with alcohol use disorders. We show that the preference of to reconsume ethanol after abstinence shares mechanistic similarities to human behavior by feeding the antirelapse drug acamprosate to flies and reducing the ethanol consumption preference. The cellular stress mutant also reduced ethanol consumption preference. Together with the observation that an increasing number of candidate genes identified in a genome-wide association study on alcohol use disorders are involved in the regulation of cellular stress, the results suggest that cellular stress mechanisms might regulate the level of ethanol reconsumption after abstinence. To address this, we analyzed mutants of candidate genes involved in the regulation of cellular stress for their ethanol consumption level after abstinence and cellular stress response to free radicals. Since encodes a nuclear RNA-binding protein that regulates transcript levels, we analyzed the interactions of candidate genes on transcript and protein level. The behavioral analysis of the mutants, the analysis of transcript levels, and protein interactions suggested that at least two mechanisms regulate ethanol consumption preference after abstinence-a nuclear estrogen-related receptor-hangover-dependent complex and peroxisomal trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (dPECR)-dependent component in peroxisomes. The loss of estrogen-like receptor and dPECR in neurons share a protective function against oxidative stress, suggesting that the neuroprotective function of genes might be a predictor for genes involved in the regulation of ethanol reconsumption after abstinence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.655816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107284PMC
April 2021

HLA-DQB1 6672G>C (rs113332494) is associated with clozapine-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis in individuals of European ancestry.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 04 12;11(1):214. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.

The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is the only effective medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, it can also induce serious adverse drug reactions, including agranulocytosis and neutropenia. The mechanism by which it does so is largely unknown, but there is evidence for contributing genetic factors. Several studies identified HLA-DQB1 variants and especially a polymorphism located in HLA-DQB1 (6672G>C, rs113332494) as associated with clozapine-induced agranulocytosis and neutropenia. We analysed the risk allele distribution of SNP rs113332494 in a sample of 1396 controls and 178 neutropenia cases of which 60 developed agranulocytosis. Absolute neutrophil counts of 500/mm and 1500/mm were used for defining agranulocytosis and neutropenia cases, respectively. We also performed association analyses and analysed local ancestry patterns in individuals of European ancestry, seeking replication and extension of earlier findings. HLA-DQB1 (6672G>C, rs113332494) was associated with neutropenia (OR = 6.20, P = 2.20E-06) and agranulocytosis (OR = 10.49, P = 1.83E-06) in individuals of European ancestry. The association signal strengthened after including local ancestry estimates (neutropenia: OR = 10.38, P = 6.05E-08; agranulocytosis: OR = 16.31, P = 1.39E-06), with effect sizes being considerably larger for agranulocytosis. Using local ancestry estimates for prediction, the sensitivity of rs113332494 increased from 11.28 to 55.64% for neutropenia and from 16.67 to 53.70% for agranulocytosis. Our study further strengthens the evidence implicating HLA-DQB1 in agranulocytosis and neutropenia, suggesting components of the immune system as contributing to this serious adverse drug reaction. Using local ancestry estimates might help in identifying risk variants and improve prediction of haematological adverse effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01322-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042025PMC
April 2021

Effects of polygenic risk for major mental disorders and cross-disorder on cortical complexity.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 8:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039Marburg, Germany.

Background: MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood.

Methods: We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand. In brain regions that showed a significant association between polygenic risk for mental disorders and cortical complexity, volume of interest (VOI)/region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted to investigate additional changes in their volume and cortical thickness.

Results: The PRS for depression was associated with cortical complexity in the right orbitofrontal cortex (right hemisphere: p = 0.006). A subsequent VOI/ROI analysis showed no association between polygenic risk for depression and either grey matter volume or cortical thickness. We found no associations between cortical complexity and polygenic risk for either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychiatric cross-disorder when correcting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: Changes in cortical complexity associated with polygenic risk for depression might facilitate well-established volume changes in orbitofrontal cortices in depression. Despite the absence of psychopathology, changed cortical complexity that parallels polygenic risk for depression might also change reward systems, which are also structurally affected in patients with depressive syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721001082DOI Listing
April 2021

The association between genetically determined ABO blood types and major depressive disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 24;299:113837. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany; German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Site Rostock/Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

ABO blood types and their corresponding antigens have long been assumed to be related to different human diseases. So far, smaller studies on the relationship between mental disorders and blood types yielded contradicting results. In this study we analyzed the association between ABO blood types and lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed a pooled analysis with data from 26 cohorts that are part of the MDD working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The dataset included 37,208 individuals of largely European ancestry of which 41.6% were diagnosed with lifetime MDD. ABO blood types were identified using three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene: rs505922, rs8176746 and rs8176747. Regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the individual ABO blood types and MDD diagnosis as well as putative interaction effects with sex. The models were adjusted for sex, cohort and the first ten genetic principal components. The percentage of blood type A was slightly lower in cases than controls while blood type O was more prominent in cases. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Our analyses found no evidence of an association between ABO blood types and major depressive disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071927PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide analyses of smoking behaviors in schizophrenia: Findings from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 05 18;137:215-224. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA; VA New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn, NY, USA. Electronic address:

While 17% of US adults use tobacco regularly, smoking rates among persons with schizophrenia are upwards of 60%. Research supports a shared etiological basis for smoking and schizophrenia, including findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, few studies have directly tested whether the same or distinct genetic variants also influence smoking behavior among schizophrenia cases. Using data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) study of schizophrenia (35476 cases, 46839 controls), we estimated genetic correlations between these traits and tested whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) constructed from the results of smoking behaviors GWAS were associated with schizophrenia risk or smoking behaviors among schizophrenia cases. Results indicated significant genetic correlations of schizophrenia with smoking initiation (r = 0.159; P = 5.05 × 10), cigarettes-smoked-per-day (r = 0.094; P = 0.006), and age-of-onset of smoking (r = 0.10; P = 0.009). Comparing smoking behaviors among schizophrenia cases to the general population, we observe positive genetic correlations for smoking initiation (r = 0.624, P = 0.002) and cigarettes-smoked-per-day (r = 0.689, P = 0.120). Similarly, TAG-based PRS for smoking initiation and cigarettes-smoked-per-day were significantly associated with smoking initiation (P = 3.49 × 10) and cigarettes-smoked-per-day (P = 0.007) among schizophrenia cases. We performed the first GWAS of smoking behavior among schizophrenia cases and identified a novel association with cigarettes-smoked-per-day upstream of the TMEM106B gene on chromosome 7p21.3 (rs148253479, P = 3.18 × 10, n = 3520). Results provide evidence of a partially shared genetic basis for schizophrenia and smoking behaviors. Additionally, genetic risk factors for smoking behaviors were largely shared across schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia populations. Future research should address mechanisms underlying these associations to aid both schizophrenia and smoking treatment and prevention efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.02.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096167PMC
May 2021

Childhood trauma and insulin-like growth factors in amniotic fluid: An exploratory analysis of 79 women.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 May 27;127:105180. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Perinatal stress has adverse effects on fetal outcome, yet the effect of early maternal trauma on fetal outcome has scarcely been studied. We investigated effects of maternal childhood trauma and current environment on important regulators of prenatal growth, fetal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-2 in amniotic fluid and assessed the impact of IGFs on newborn anthropometrics.

Methods: 79 pregnant women in their second trimester who underwent amniocentesis (15.9 ± 0.9 weeks of gestational age) and their newborns at birth were analyzed. Maternal childhood trauma was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and current environment was operationalized by assessing maternal psychosocial, physical health and endocrine measurements in amniotic fluid.

Results: In this exploratory analysis of 79 pregnant women, maternal childhood trauma, defined as reporting at least low scores on any of the CTQ subscales, negatively correlated with fetal IGF-1 (M = 3.48 vs. 2.98; p = 0.012) and IGF-2 (Mdn = 4.99 vs. 4.70; p = 0.002). Trauma severity, defined as the overall trauma score, negatively correlated with fetal IGF-2 (r = -0.24; p = 0.037). From trauma subscales, maternal sexual abuse correlated with fetal IGF-1 (r = -0.32; p = 0.006) and IGF-2 (r = -0.39; p = 0.001). Maternal BMI negatively correlated with fetal IGF-1 (r = -0.26; p = 0.023) and IGF-2 (r = -0.29; p = 0.011). Newborn anthropometrics were operationalized by length, weight, sex, gestational age, length/gestational age and weight/gestational age at birth. Fetal weight at birth associated with a trend with fetal IGF-1 when controlling for BMI. Maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and maternal exercise did not contribute significantly to predicting fetal IGFs. Maternal childhood trauma (β = -0.27; p = 0.011) and BMI (β = -0.24; p = 0.026) remained significantly associated with fetal IGF-1. Maternal childhood trauma (β = -0.32; p = 0.003), maternal BMI (β = -0.30; p = 0.005) and maternal sexual abuse (β = -0.22; p = 0.049) remained significantly associated with fetal IGF-2 and with a trend with fetal IGF-1 (β = -0.21; p = 0.076) when excluding women with gestational diabetes.

Conclusion: Maternal childhood trauma and BMI associate negatively with fetal IGF-1 and IGF-2 in amniotic fluid. Controlling for maternal BMI, fetal weight at birth remains associated with a trend with fetal IGF-1. The presented data suggests that childhood trauma can affect endocrine measurements of the developing next generation, providing a mechanism by which adverse maternal life events are transmitted to the next generation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2021.105180DOI Listing
May 2021

Apolipoprotein E homozygous ε4 allele status: Effects on cortical structure and white matter integrity in a young to mid-age sample.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 27;46:93-104. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest single gene predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been frequently associated with AD-related brain structural alterations before the onset of dementia. While previous research has primarily focused on hippocampal morphometry in relation to APOE, sporadic recent findings have questioned the specificity of the hippocampus and instead suggested more global effects on the brain. With the present study we aimed to investigate associations between homozygous APOE ε4 status and cortical gray matter structure as well as white matter microstructure. In our study, we contrasted n = 31 homozygous APOE ε4 carriers (age=34.47 years, including a subsample of n = 12 subjects with depression) with a demographically matched sample without an ε4 allele (resulting total sample: N = 62). Morphometry analyses included a) Freesurfer based cortical segmentations of thickness and surface area measures and b) tract based spatial statistics of DTI measures. We found pronounced and widespread reductions in cortical surface area of ε4 homozygotes in 57 out of 68 cortical brain regions. In contrast, no differences in cortical thickness were observed. Furthermore, APOE ε4 homozygous carriers showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, the right internal and external capsule, the left corona radiata and the right fornix. The present findings support a global rather than regionally specific effect of homozygous APOE ε4 allele status on cortical surface area and white matter microstructure. Future studies should aim to delineate the clinical implications of these findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.02.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Rhythm of Fetoplacental 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 - Fetal Protection From Morning Maternal Glucocorticoids.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May;106(6):1630-1636

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, J5, Mannheim, Germany.

Context: Excess glucocorticoids impact fetal health. Maternal glucocorticoids peak in early morning. Fetoplacental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) inactivates cortisol to cortisone, protecting the fetus from high glucocorticoids. However, time-specific alterations of human fetoplacental 11β-HSD2 have not been studied.

Objective: We hypothesized that fetoplacental 11β-HSD2 activity shows time-specific alteration and acute affective or anxiety disorders impact fetoplacental 11β-HSD2 activity.

Methods: In this observational study we investigated 78 pregnant European women undergoing amniocentesis (15.9 ± 0.9 weeks of gestation). Amniotic fluid was collected (8:00 to 16:30 hours) for analysis of fetoplacental 11β-HSD2 activity, using cortisol (F):cortisone (E) ratio in amniotic fluid, E/(E + F). Fetoplacental 11β-HSD2 rhythm and association with "acute affective or anxiety disorder" (patients with at least one of: a major depressive episode, specific phobia, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety and depressive disorder) and "acute anxiety disorder" (one of: panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, mixed anxiety, depressive disorder), assessed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were investigated.

Results: Activity of 11β-HSD2 correlated with time of amniocentesis, peaking in the morning (r = -0.398; P < 0.001) and increased with acute affective or anxiety disorder (mean [M] = 0.70 vs M = 0.74; P = 0.037) and acute anxiety disorder (M = 0.70 vs M = 0.75; P = 0.016). These associations remained significant when controlling for confounders. 11β-HSD2 activity correlated negatively with pre-pregnancy body mass index (r = -0.225; P = 0.047).

Conclusion: Our study indicates a time-specific alteration of fetoplacental 11β-HSD2 activity with peaking levels in the morning, demonstrating a mechanism of fetal protection from the morning maternal glucocorticoid surge.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab113DOI Listing
May 2021

"The Heidelberg Five" personality dimensions: Genome-wide associations, polygenic risk for neuroticism, and psychopathology 20 years after assessment.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2021 03 15;186(2):77-89. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Institute of Psychiatric Phenomics and Genomics (IPPG), University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

HeiDE is a longitudinal population-based study that started in the 1990s and, at baseline, assessed an array of health-related personality questionnaires in 5133 individuals. Five latent personality dimensions (The Heidelberg Five) were identified and interpreted as Emotional Lability (ELAB), Lack of Behavioral Control (LBCN), Type A Behavior (TYAB), Locus of Control over Disease (LOCC), and Psychoticism (PSYC). At follow-up, 3268 HeiDE participants (post-QC) were genotyped on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. To further characterize The Heidelberg Five, we analyzed genomic underpinnings, their relations to the genetic basis of the Big Five trait Neuroticism, and longitudinal associations with psychiatric symptoms at follow-up. SNP-based heritability was significant for ELAB (34%) and LBCN (29%). A genome-wide association study for each personality dimension was conducted; only the phenotype PSYC yielded a genome-wide significant finding (p < 5 × 10 , top SNP rs138223660). Gene-based analyses identified significant findings for ELAB, TYAB, and PSYC. Polygenic risk scores for Neuroticism were only associated with ELAB. Each of The Heidelberg Five was related to depressive symptoms at follow-up. ELAB, LBCN, and PSYC were also associated with lifetime anxiety symptoms. These results highlight the clinical importance of health-related personality traits and identify LBCN as a heritable "executive function" personality trait.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.32837DOI Listing
March 2021

DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria for bipolar disorder: Implications for the prevalence of bipolar disorder and validity of the diagnosis - A narrative review from the ECNP bipolar disorders network.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Jun 2;47:54-61. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit, Hospital Clinic, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

This narrative review summarizes and discusses the implications of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 and the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 classification systems on the prevalence of bipolar disorder and on the validity of the DSM-5 diagnosis of bipolar disorder according to the Robin and Guze criteria of diagnostic validity. Here we review and discuss current data on the prevalence of bipolar disorder diagnosed according to DSM-5 versus DSM-IV, and data on characteristics of bipolar disorder in the two diagnostic systems in relation to extended Robin and Guze criteria: 1) clinical presentation, 2) associations with para-clinical data such as brain imaging and blood-based biomarkers, 3) delimitation from other disorders, 4) associations with family history / genetics, 5) prognosis and long-term follow-up, and 6) treatment effects. The review highlights that few studies have investigated consequences for the prevalence of the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and for the validity of the diagnosis. Findings from these studies suggest a substantial decrease in the point prevalence of a diagnosis of bipolar with DSM-5 compared with DSM-IV, ranging from 30-50%, but a smaller decrease in the prevalence during lifetime, corresponding to a 6% reduction. It is concluded that it is likely that the use of DSM-5 and ICD-11 will result in diagnostic delay and delayed early intervention in bipolar disorder. Finally, we recommend areas for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.01.097DOI Listing
June 2021

Prediction of lithium response using genomic data.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1155. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Predicting lithium response prior to treatment could both expedite therapy and avoid exposure to side effects. Since lithium responsiveness may be heritable, its predictability based on genomic data is of interest. We thus evaluate the degree to which lithium response can be predicted with a machine learning (ML) approach using genomic data. Using the largest existing genomic dataset in the lithium response literature (n = 2210 across 14 international sites; 29% responders), we evaluated the degree to which lithium response could be predicted based on 47,465 genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms using a supervised ML approach. Under appropriate cross-validation procedures, lithium response could be predicted to above-chance levels in two constituent sites (Halifax, Cohen's kappa 0.15, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.07, 0.24]; and Würzburg, kappa 0.2 [0.1, 0.3]). Variants with shared importance in these models showed over-representation of postsynaptic membrane related genes. Lithium response was not predictable in the pooled dataset (kappa 0.02 [- 0.01, 0.04]), although non-trivial performance was achieved within a restricted dataset including only those patients followed prospectively (kappa 0.09 [0.04, 0.14]). Genomic classification of lithium response remains a promising but difficult task. Classification performance could potentially be improved by further harmonization of data collection procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80814-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806976PMC
January 2021

Exemplar scoring identifies genetically separable phenotypes of lithium responsive bipolar disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 11;11(1):36. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Predicting lithium response (LiR) in bipolar disorder (BD) may inform treatment planning, but phenotypic heterogeneity complicates discovery of genomic markers. We hypothesized that patients with "exemplary phenotypes"-those whose clinical features are reliably associated with LiR and non-response (LiNR)-are more genetically separable than those with less exemplary phenotypes. Using clinical data collected from people with BD (n = 1266 across 7 centers; 34.7% responders), we computed a "clinical exemplar score," which measures the degree to which a subject's clinical phenotype is reliably predictive of LiR/LiNR. For patients whose genotypes were available (n = 321), we evaluated whether a subgroup of responders/non-responders with the top 25% of clinical exemplar scores (the "best clinical exemplars") were more accurately classified based on genetic data, compared to a subgroup with the lowest 25% of clinical exemplar scores (the "poor clinical exemplars"). On average, the best clinical exemplars of LiR had a later illness onset, completely episodic clinical course, absence of rapid cycling and psychosis, and few psychiatric comorbidities. The best clinical exemplars of LiR and LiNR were genetically separable with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 (IQR [0.83, 0.98]), compared to 0.66 [0.61, 0.80] (p = 0.0032) among poor clinical exemplars. Variants in the Alzheimer's amyloid-secretase pathway, along with G-protein-coupled receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine, and histamine H1R signaling pathways were informative predictors. This study must be replicated on larger samples and extended to predict response to other mood stabilizers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01148-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801503PMC
January 2021

Clinical and genetic differences between bipolar disorder type 1 and 2 in multiplex families.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 01 11;11(1):31. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.

The two major subtypes of bipolar disorder (BD), BD-I and BD-II, are distinguished based on the presence of manic or hypomanic episodes. Historically, BD-II was perceived as a less severe form of BD-I. Recent research has challenged this concept of a severity continuum. Studies in large samples of unrelated patients have described clinical and genetic differences between the subtypes. Besides an increased schizophrenia polygenic risk load in BD-I, these studies also observed an increased depression risk load in BD-II patients. The present study assessed whether such clinical and genetic differences are also found in BD patients from multiplex families, which exhibit reduced genetic and environmental heterogeneity. Comparing 252 BD-I and 75 BD-II patients from the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) study, the clinical course, symptoms during depressive and manic episodes, and psychiatric comorbidities were analyzed. Furthermore, polygenic risk scores (PRS) for BD, schizophrenia, and depression were assessed. BD-I patients not only suffered from more severe symptoms during manic episodes but also more frequently showed incapacity during depressive episodes. A higher BD PRS was significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Moreover, BD-I cases exhibited lower depression PRS. In line with a severity continuum from BD-II to BD-I, our results link BD-I to a more pronounced clinical presentation in both mania and depression and indicate that the polygenic risk load of BD predisposes to more severe disorder characteristics. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the genetic risk burden for depression also shapes disorder presentation and increases the likelihood of BD-II subtype development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01146-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801527PMC
January 2021

Generative network models of altered structural brain connectivity in schizophrenia.

Neuroimage 2021 01 5;225:117510. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, J5 68159 Mannheim, Germany.

Alterations in the structural connectome of schizophrenia patients have been widely characterized, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Generative network models have recently been introduced as a tool to test the biological underpinnings of altered brain network formation. We evaluated different generative network models in healthy controls (n=152), schizophrenia patients (n=66), and their unaffected first-degree relatives (n=32), and we identified spatial and topological factors contributing to network formation. We further investigated how these factors relate to cognition and to polygenic risk for schizophrenia. Our data show that among the four tested classes of generative network models, structural brain networks were optimally accounted for by a two-factor model combining spatial constraints and topological neighborhood structure. The same wiring model explained brain network formation across study groups. However, relatives and schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly lower spatial constraints and lower topological facilitation compared to healthy controls. Further exploratory analyses point to potential associations of the model parameter reflecting spatial constraints with the polygenic risk for schizophrenia and cognitive performance. Our results identify spatial constraints and local topological structure as two interrelated mechanisms contributing to regular brain network formation as well as altered connectomes in schizophrenia and healthy individuals at familial risk for schizophrenia. On an exploratory level, our data further point to the potential relevance of spatial constraints for the genetic risk for schizophrenia and general cognitive functioning, thereby encouraging future studies in following up on these observations to gain further insights into the biological basis and behavioral relevance of model parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117510DOI Listing
January 2021

Expanding the genetic architecture of nicotine dependence and its shared genetics with multiple traits.

Nat Commun 2020 11 3;11(1):5562. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68159, Mannheim, Germany.

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation contributes to initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation. We present a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-based genome-wide association study in 58,000 European or African ancestry smokers. We observe five genome-wide significant loci, including previously unreported loci MAGI2/GNAI1 (rs2714700) and TENM2 (rs1862416), and extend loci reported for other smoking traits to nicotine dependence. Using the heaviness of smoking index from UK Biobank (N = 33,791), rs2714700 is consistently associated; rs1862416 is not associated, likely reflecting nicotine dependence features not captured by the heaviness of smoking index. Both variants influence nearby gene expression (rs2714700/MAGI2-AS3 in hippocampus; rs1862416/TENM2 in lung), and expression of genes spanning nicotine dependence-associated variants is enriched in cerebellum. Nicotine dependence (SNP-based heritability = 8.6%) is genetically correlated with 18 other smoking traits (r = 0.40-1.09) and co-morbidities. Our results highlight nicotine dependence-specific loci, emphasizing the FTND as a composite phenotype that expands genetic knowledge of smoking.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19265-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642344PMC
November 2020

Childhood maltreatment and cognitive functioning: the role of depression, parental education, and polygenic predisposition.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 04 14;46(5):891-899. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive deficits that in turn have been predictive for therapeutic outcome in psychiatric patients. However, previous studies have either investigated maltreatment associations with single cognitive domains or failed to adequately control for confounders such as depression, socioeconomic environment, and genetic predisposition. We aimed to isolate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dysfunction in diverse cognitive domains, while estimating the contribution of potential confounders to this relationship, and to investigate gene-environment interactions. We included 547 depressive disorder and 670 healthy control participants (mean age: 34.7 years, SD = 13.2). Cognitive functioning was assessed for the domains of working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, attention, memory, and verbal intelligence using neuropsychological tests. Childhood maltreatment and parental education were assessed using self-reports, and psychiatric diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria. Polygenic scores for depression and for educational attainment were calculated. Multivariate analysis of cognitive domains yielded significant associations with childhood maltreatment (η² = 0.083, P < 0.001), depression (η² = 0.097, P < 0.001), parental education (η² = 0.085, P < 0.001), and polygenic scores for depression (η² = 0.021, P = 0.005) and educational attainment (η² = 0.031, P < 0.001). Each of these associations remained significant when including all of the predictors in one model. Univariate tests revealed that maltreatment was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains. Thus, environmental, psychopathological, and genetic risk factors each independently affect cognition. The insights of the current study may aid in estimating the potential impact of different loci of interventions for cognitive dysfunction. Future research should investigate if customized interventions, informed by individual risk profiles and related cognitive preconditions, might enhance response to therapeutic treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-00794-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115656PMC
April 2021

Association of Locomotor Activity During Sleep Deprivation Treatment With Response.

Front Psychiatry 2020 21;11:688. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Disrupted circadian rhythms and sleep patterns are frequently observed features of psychiatric disorders, and especially mood disorders. Sleep deprivation treatment (SD) exerts rapid but transient antidepressant effects in depressed patients and has gained recognition as a model to study quick-acting antidepressant effects. It is of interest how locomotor activity patterns during SD might be associated with and potentially predict treatment response. The present study is an analysis of locomotor activity data, previously collected over a 24 h period, to examine the night of SD (Trautmann et al. 2018) as mood disorder patients suffering from a depressive episode (n = 78; after exclusions n = 59) underwent SD. In this exploratory analysis, the associations between response to SD, locomotor activity, and subjective mood during the 24 h period of SD were explored. Higher levels of activity overall were observed in non-responders (n = 18); in particular, non-responders moved more during the evening of SD until midnight and remained high thereafter. In contrast, activity in responders (n = 41) decreased during the evening and increased in the morning. Subjective mood was not found to be associated with locomotor activity. The window of data available in this analysis being limited, additional data from before and after the intervention are required to fully characterize the results observed. The present results hint at the possible utility of locomotor activity as a predictor and early indicator of treatment response, and suggest that the relationship between SD and locomotor activity patterns should be further investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385277PMC
July 2020

Polygenic risk for schizophrenia and schizotypal traits in non-clinical subjects.

Psychol Med 2020 Aug 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University and University Hospital Marburg, UKGM, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039Marburg, Germany.

Background: Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood.

Methods: We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors.

Results: We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy.

Conclusions: This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002822DOI Listing
August 2020

Advanced paternal age as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders: a translational study.

Mol Autism 2020 06 23;11(1):54. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, 35039, Marburg, Germany.

Advanced paternal age (APA) is a risk factor for several neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and schizophrenia. The potential mechanisms conferring this risk are poorly understood. Here, we show that the personality traits schizotypy and neuroticism correlated with paternal age in healthy subjects (N = 677). Paternal age was further positively associated with gray matter volume (VBM, N = 342) in the right prefrontal and the right medial temporal cortex. The integrity of fiber tracts (DTI, N = 222) connecting these two areas correlated positively with paternal age. Genome-wide methylation analysis in humans showed differential methylation in APA individuals, linking APA to epigenetic mechanisms. A corresponding phenotype was obtained in our rat model. APA rats displayed social-communication deficits and emitted fewer pro-social ultrasonic vocalizations compared to controls. They further showed repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, together with higher anxiety during early development. At the neurobiological level, microRNAs miR-132 and miR-134 were both differentially regulated in rats and humans depending on APA. This study demonstrates associations between APA and social behaviors across species. They might be driven by changes in the expression of microRNAs and/or epigenetic changes regulating neuronal plasticity, leading to brain morphological changes and fronto-hippocampal connectivity, a network which has been implicated in social interaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13229-020-00345-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310295PMC
June 2020

Translating big data to better treatment in bipolar disorder - a manifesto for coordinated action.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 07 12;36:121-136. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

NORMENT, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo and Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major healthcare and socio-economic challenge. Despite its substantial burden on society, the research activity in BD is much smaller than its economic impact appears to demand. There is a consensus that the accurate identification of the underlying pathophysiology for BD is fundamental to realize major health benefits through better treatment and preventive regimens. However, to achieve these goals requires coordinated action and innovative approaches to boost the discovery of the neurobiological underpinnings of BD, and rapid translation of research findings into development and testing of better and more specific treatments. To this end, we here propose that only a large-scale coordinated action can be successful in integrating international big-data approaches with real-world clinical interventions. This could be achieved through the creation of a Global Bipolar Disorder Foundation, which could bring government, industry and philanthropy together in common cause. A global initiative for BD research would come at a highly opportune time given the seminal advances promised for our understanding of the genetic and brain basis of the disease and the obvious areas of unmet clinical need. Such an endeavour would embrace the principles of open science and see the strong involvement of user groups and integration of dissemination and public involvement with the research programs. We believe the time is right for a step change in our approach to understanding, treating and even preventing BD effectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.05.006DOI Listing
July 2020

Replication of a hippocampus specific effect of the tescalcin regulating variant rs7294919 on gray matter structure.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 07 23;36:10-17. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A9, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

While the hippocampus remains a region of high interest for neuropsychiatric research, the precise contributors to hippocampal morphometry are still not well understood. We and others previously reported a hippocampus specific effect of a tescalcin gene (TESC) regulating single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7294919) on gray matter volume. Here we aimed to replicate and extend these findings. Two complementary morphometric approaches (voxel based morphometry (VBM) and automated volumetric segmentation) were applied in a well-powered cohort from the Marburg-Münster Affective Disorder Cohort Study (MACS) including N=1137 participants (n=636 healthy controls, n=501 depressed patients). rs7294919 homozygous T-allele genotype was significantly associated with lower hippocampal gray matter density as well as with reduced hippocampal volume. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses revealed no further associations with gray matter volume outside the hippocampus. No interaction effects of rs7294919 with depression nor with childhood trauma on hippocampal morphometry could be detected. Hippocampal subfield analyses revealed similar effects of rs7294919 in all hippocampal subfields. In sum, our results replicate a hippocampus specific effect of rs7294919 on brain structure. Due to the robust evidence for a pronounced association between the reported polymorphism and hippocampal morphometry, future research should consider investigating the potential clinical and functional relevance of the reported association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.03.021DOI Listing
July 2020

Conditional GWAS analysis to identify disorder-specific SNPs for psychiatric disorders.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Institute for Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Substantial genetic liability is shared across psychiatric disorders but less is known about risk variants that are specific to a given disorder. We used multi-trait conditional and joint analysis (mtCOJO) to adjust GWAS summary statistics of one disorder for the effects of genetically correlated traits to identify putative disorder-specific SNP associations. We applied mtCOJO to summary statistics for five psychiatric disorders from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depression (MD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism (AUT). Most genome-wide significant variants for these disorders had evidence of pleiotropy (i.e., impact on multiple psychiatric disorders) and hence have reduced mtCOJO conditional effect sizes. However, subsets of genome-wide significant variants had larger conditional effect sizes consistent with disorder-specific effects: 15 of 130 genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia, 5 of 40 for major depression, 3 of 11 for ADHD and 1 of 2 for autism. We show that decreased expression of VPS29 in the brain may increase risk to SCZ only and increased expression of CSE1L is associated with SCZ and MD, but not with BIP. Likewise, decreased expression of PCDHA7 in the brain is linked to increased risk of MD but decreased risk of SCZ and BIP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0705-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657979PMC
May 2020

Leptin predicts cortical and subcortical gray matter volume recovery in alcohol dependent patients: A longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

Horm Behav 2020 08 11;124:104749. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Addictive Behavior and Addiction Medicine, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Germany; Feuerlein Center on Translational Addiction Medicine (FCTS), University of Heidelberg, Germany.

The neuroprotective effects of leptin and its role in addictive disorders has been highlighted by several recent studies. However, its potential effects on morphological alterations in alcohol dependence are yet to be investigated. Associations between leptin and the longitudinal courses of gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness (CT) were investigated in N = 62 alcohol-dependent patients that underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging after a mean abstinence of 12 (baseline) and 27 days (follow-up) respectively. Blood samples were collected at baseline to determine leptin levels. A cohort of N = 74 healthy individuals served as a reference sample. At baseline, alcohol-dependent patients compared to healthy controls displayed smaller GMV in the insula, parts of the superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri and hippocampal regions and thinner CT in the insula, parts of the superior and middle frontal cortices, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and parts of the occipital and lingual cortices that partially recovered during abstinence (p < 0.05). In alcohol-dependent patients, leptin was a significant predictor of GMV and CT recovery in the areas that showed the strongest whole-brain effects, specifically GMV in the right insula (R = 0.070, p = 0.040) and left inferior frontal triangular gyrus (R = 0.076, p = 0.040), as well as CT in the left insula (R = 0.158, p = 0.004) and right superior frontal cortex (R = 0.180, p = 0.004). Present results support the role of leptin in predicting GMV and CT recovery during the first month of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104749DOI Listing
August 2020