Publications by authors named "Marcelina Osińska"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A rich mosaic of resistance in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Poland as a potential effect of increasing synanthropization.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 20:151834. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland. Electronic address:

In our research, we analyzed the resistance of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains to antimicrobial agents. The strains were collected during five years from wild animal species commonly inhabiting Poland. We have identified the type of β-lactamases produced and the multidrug-resistance profile. Most strains (73.8%) had genes encoding ESBL enzymes, mainly CTX-M-1 and TEM. Almost all AmpC-β-lactamase-producing isolates had the bla gene. Almost 70% of the strains tested showed a multi-drug resistance profile. The dominant phenotype was resistance to tetracycline (69.05%), and/or sulfamethoxazole (57.1%). We also found high resistance to quinolones: ciprofloxacin 35.7% and nalidixic acid 52.4%. The phenotypic resistance of the strains was in most cases confirmed by the presence of corresponding genes. Among strains, 26.2% were carriers of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQR). MLST analysis revealed a large clonal variation of the strains, which was reflected in 28 different sequence types. More than half of the strains (54.7%) were classified into the following sequence complexes: 10, 23, 69, 101, 155, 156, 168, 354, 398, 446, and 648. Only one strain in the studied group was assigned to the ExPEC pathotype and represented sequence type 117. The results of our research have confirmed that isolates obtained from wild animals possess many resistance determinants and sequence types, which are also found in food-producing animals and humans. This reflects the doctrine of "One health", which clearly indicates that human health is inextricably linked with animal health as well as degree of environmental contamination. We conclude that the resistance and virulence profiles of strains isolated from wildlife animals may be a resultant of various sources encountered by animals, creating a rich and varied mosaic of genes, which is very often unpredictable and not reflected in the correlation between the sequence type and the gene profile of resistance or virulence observed in epidemic clones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151834DOI Listing
November 2021

Comparative study of multidrug-resistant obtained from different hosts.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Mar 22;70(3). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

The possible transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes between isolates from humans and different animal species, including those not covered by monitoring programs (e.g. pet and wildlife), poses a serious threat to public health. Little is known about occurrence and mechanisms of phenomenon of multidrug resistance of isolated from various host species in Poland. The aim of the study was to characterize multidrug-resistant isolated from humans and animals (livestock, pets and wildlife) in terms of the occurrence of genetic markers determining resistance. Bacterial isolates were tested for phenotypic resistance and the presence of genes encoding resistance to macrolides, tetracycline, aminoglycosides, aminocyclitols and phenicols as well as efflux pump (A), resolvase (X) and integrase () genes. The quinolone resistance-determining regions of A and C were sequenced. Human isolates of were characterized by high-level resistance to: ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin (100 %), as well, as aminoglycosides resistance (kanamycin - 100%, streptomycin - 78 %, gentamicin - 78%). Regardless of the animal species, high level of resistance of to tetracycline (from 88-100 %), erythromycin (from 82-94 %) and kanamycin (from 36-100 %) was observed. All isolates from wildlife were resistant to fluoroquinolones. However, full susceptibility to vancomycin was observed in all isolates tested. Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of was identified in the presence of the following resistance genes: (B) (70%), (A) (50 %), (L) (35 %), (K) (34 %), (M) (76 %), (25%), (31%), (68 %), (X) (23 %), and integrase gene () (34 %). A correlation between an amino acid substitution at positions 83 and 87 of A and position 80 of C and the high-level fluoroquinolone resistance in has been observed as well. The level and range of antimicrobial resistance and the panel of resistance determinants is comparable between isolates, despite host species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001340DOI Listing
March 2021

Complementary effect of mechanism of multidrug resistance in Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolated from human dermatophytoses of animal origin.

Mycoses 2021 May 28;64(5):537-549. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Institute of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Dermatophytoses have gained interest worldwide due to the increased resistance to terbinafine and azoles and difficulty in management of these refractory diseases.

Objectives: In this study, we identified and analysed Trichophyton mentagrophytes clinical isolates obtained from humans with infections of animal origin.

Methods: We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to examine the transcriptional modulation of three MDR genes (PDR1, MDR2 and MDR4) and analysed squalene epoxidase (SQLE) gene sequences from multidrug-resistant Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates.

Results: The expression profile revealed a 2- to 12-fold increase in mRNA accumulation in the presence of any of the antifungals, compared to cells incubated without drugs. A statistically significant relationship between the isolates exposed to itraconazole and increased expression of the tested genes was revealed. Substantially lower transcription levels were noted for cells exposed to luliconazole, that is, a third-generation azole. Additionally, in the case of 50% of terbinafine-resistant strains, Leu397Phe substitution in the SQLE gene was detected. Furthermore, the reduced susceptibility to itraconazole and voriconazole was overcome by milbemycin oxime.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our study shed more light on the role of the ABC transporter family in T. mentagrophytes, which, if overexpressed, can confer resistance to single azole drugs and even cross-resistance. Finally, milbemycin oxime could be an interesting compound supporting treatment with azole drugs in the case of refractory dermatomycoses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13242DOI Listing
May 2021

Analysis of the occurrence and molecular characteristics of drug-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of insectivorous bat species in Poland: A possible essential impact on the spread of drug resistance?

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 23;269:116099. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathology, Division of Microbiology, C. K. Norwida 31, 50-375, Wrocław, Poland.

Bats are poorly understood as a reservoir of multidrug-resistant strains; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus strains isolated from bat species from Poland. A multi-stage analysis based on targeted isolation of drug-resistant strains (selective media with tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin, and vancomycin), determination of the phenotypic profile of drug-susceptibility using the disc diffusion method, and amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS-fingerprinting) was used for the isolation and differentiation of strains. The applied strategy finally allowed identification of E. faecalis resistant to at least one antimicrobial in 47.2% of the single-animal group and in 46.9% of the pooled samples of bat's guano. Out of the 36 distinct isolates, 69% met the criteria of multi-drug resistance, with a dominant combination of resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Simultaneously, 41.6% of the strains were high-level aminoglycoside resistant (HLAR). In most strains, phenotypic resistance was reflected in the presence of at least one gene encoding resistance to a given drug. Moreover, our research results show that some genes were detected simultaneously in the same strain statistically significantly more frequently. This may confirm that the spread of some genes (tetM and ermB or aph (3')-IIIa as well as gelE and aac (6')-Ie-aph (2″)-Ia or ant (6)-Ia) is associated with their common occurrence on the same mobile genetic element. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of multidrug-resistance among E. faecalis isolated from bats. Our research demonstrates that the One Health concept is not associated exclusively with food-producing animals and humans, but other species of wildlife animals should be covered by monitoring programs as well. We confirmed for the first time that bats are an important reservoir of multi-resistant E. faecalis strains and could have a great impact on environmental resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116099DOI Listing
January 2021

Wildlife omnivores and herbivores as a significant vehicle of multidrug-resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli strains in environment.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2020 12 28;12(6):712-717. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Preclinical Veterinary Sciences, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 12, Lublin, 20-033, Poland.

The phenomenon of resistance of Escherichia coli strains in free-living animals has been constantly expanding in recent years. However, the data are still fragmented and, due to the growing threat to public health, there is a constant need to search for and analyse new reservoirs and indicate their role and importance in the circulation of resistance genes in the environment. Therefore, the target group in this study were free-living non-predatory animals as reservoirs of drug-resistant and potentially virulent E. coli strains. We obtained 70 different isolates, including 71.4% of multidrug-resistant strains. In strains isolated from all species of animals, we determined high resistance to ampicillin (95.7%), tetracycline (64.3%), streptomycin (51.4%) and chloramphenicol (38.6%). Every third of the E. coli-positive individual was a carrier of more than one resistant clone. Moreover, 11.4% of isolates among the resistant strains had the ExPEC, ETEC, or EHEC pathotype. Our study confirmed that not only free-living predatory animals are reservoirs of resistance but also many synanthropic species of herbivores and omnivores contribute substantially to the spread of resistant and virulent E. coli strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1758-2229.12886DOI Listing
December 2020

Wildlife Carnivorous Mammals As a Specific Mirror of Environmental Contamination with Multidrug-Resistant Strains in Poland.

Microb Drug Resist 2020 Sep 28;26(9):1120-1131. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Biological Bases of Animal Diseases, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland.

In recent decades, the number of studies on the occurrence of resistant strains in wildlife animals has increased significantly, but data are still fragmentary. The aim of this study was to evaluate drug resistance of strains isolated from wild carnivorous mammals, common in Poland. Selective media with antimicrobials (tetracycline, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and cefotaxime) were used for isolation. Of 53 isolates shown to be distinct by the amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction site-fingerprinting method, 77.8% were multidrug-resistant (multidrug-resistant). All strains were resistant to ampicillin and many of them also exhibited resistance to tetracycline (76.2%), sulfamethoxazole (57.1%), streptomycin and kanamycin (49.2%), chloramphenicol (30.1%), and nalidixic acid (46%). In most cases, the phenotypic resistance profile was confirmed by detection of relevant genes mostly occurring in strains isolated from livestock animals and humans. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing strains were detected in one mink and three martens. The strains were carriers of , and genes. Our research confirmed a high carrier rate of MDR , even more than one MDR strain in a single individual; therefore, wider monitoring in this group of animals should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2019.0480DOI Listing
September 2020

Dermatophytosis with concurrent Trichophyton verrucosum and T. benhamiae in calves after long-term transport.

Vet Dermatol 2020 Oct 26;31(5):414-e111. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

State Veterinary Laboratory, Słowicza 2, Lublin, 20-336, Poland.

Background: Dermatophytosis is a common problem in cattle. The aetiological factors associated with this disease are filamentous fungi with the ability to digest and grow on keratinized substrates. In cattle, and less frequently in other domestic animals and people, the dermatophyte Trichophyton verrucosum is most commonly isolated from skin lesions. The dermatophyte Trichophyton benhamiae is an important zoonotic pathogen, and the main sources of transmission are guinea pigs and other small rodents.

Objectives: In this report, we show multispecies infection in calves (Bos taurus) after long-term transport and vaccination against trichophytosis.

Animals: Sixty animals were imported of which 32 were observed to be affected with superficial infection nine to 12 days after vaccination for dermatophytosis.

Methods And Materials: Diagnosis was made correlating the clinical signs with a micro- and macroscopic examination of cultured fungi. Molecular differentiation was used to confirm the species affiliation.

Results: Eight of the calves were infected with T. verrucosum alone, and 24 calves with both T. verrucosum and T. benhamiae. We suggest that the cause of this large outbreak was immunosuppression of the animals resulting from the stress of transport and administration of vaccine.

Conclusion: Both T. verrucosum and T. benhamiae can be seen concurrently in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12880DOI Listing
October 2020

Intrinsic resistance to terbinafine among human and animal isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes related to amino acid substitution in the squalene epoxidase.

Infection 2020 Dec 8;48(6):889-897. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Mycology and Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Dermatomycoses are the most common fungal infections in the world affecting a significant part of the human and animal population. The majority of zoophilic infections in humans are caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Currently, the first-line drug for both oral and topical therapy is terbinafine. However, an increasing number of cases that are difficult to be cured with this drug have been noted in Europe and Asia. Resistance to terbinafine and other allylamines is very rare and usually correlated with point mutations in the squalene epoxidase gene resulting in single amino acid substitutions in the enzyme, which is crucial in the ergosterol synthesis pathway.

Purpose: Here, we report terbinafine-resistant T. mentagrophytes isolates among which one was an etiological factor of tinea capitis in a man and three were obtained from asymptomatic foxes in Poland.

Methods: We used the CLSI protocol to determine antifungal susceptibility profiles of naftifine, amphotericin B, griseofulvin, ketoconazole, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and ciclopirox. Moreover, the squalene epoxidase gene of the terbinafine-resistant strains was sequenced and analysed.

Results: In the genomes of all four resistant strains exhibiting elevated MICs to terbinafine (16 to 32 µg/ml), single-point mutations leading to Leu393Phe substitution in the squalene epoxidase enzyme were revealed. Among the other tested substances, a MIC50 value of 1 µg/ml was shown only for griseofulvin.

Conclusion: Finally, our study revealed that the terbinafine resistance phenomenon might not be acquired by exposure to the drug but can be intrinsic. This is evidenced by the description of the terbinafine-resistant strains isolated from the asymptomatic animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-020-01498-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674369PMC
December 2020

Population differentiation, antifungal susceptibility, and host range of Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates causing recalcitrant infections in humans and animals.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Nov 30;39(11):2099-2113. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Faculty of Agrobioengineering, Department of Management and Marketing, University of Life Sciences, Dobrzanskiego 37, 20-626, Lublin, Poland.

The major problems in determining the causative factors of the high prevalence of dermatophytoses include the lack of a well-standardized antifungal susceptibility testing method, the low consistency of in vitro and clinical minimal inhibitory concentration values, the high genomic diversity of the population, and the unclear mechanism of pathogenicity. These factors are of particular importance when the disease is recalcitrant and relapses. Herein, we identified and characterized Trichophyton mentagrophytes isolates obtained from therapy-resistant cases in humans and animals. We used genomic diversity analysis of 17 human and 27 animal clinical isolates with the MP-PCR technique, determined their phenotypic enzymatic activity and host range, and performed antifungal susceptibility testing to currently available antifungal drugs from various chemical groups. Genomic diversity values of 35.3% and 33.3% were obtained for clinical isolates from humans and animals, respectively, yet without any relationship to the host species or antifungal drug to which resistance in therapy was revealed. The highest activity of keratinase enzymes was recorded for fox, guinea pig, and human hairs. These hosts can be considered as the main species in the host range of these isolates. A phenyl morpholine derivative, i.e. amorolfine, exhibited superior activity against strains obtained from both humans and animals with the lowest MIC. Interestingly, high compliance of terbinafine in vitro resistance with clinical problems in the treatment with this substance was shown as well. The high resistance of dermatophytes to drugs is the main cause of the recalcitrance of the infection, whereas the other features of the fungus are less important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03952-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561545PMC
November 2020

Identification of emerging trends in the prevalence of dermatophytoses in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) farmed in Poland.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 24;67(6):2702-2712. Epub 2020 May 24.

Department of Mycology and Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.

The increasing number of dermatophytoses among animals observed recently in developed countries may be connected with relocation of many exotic species outside their natural living environment. Moreover, an impact on this situation may also be exerted by relapses related to limited compliance with antifungal treatment regimes. Many exotic animals, including camelids, imported to European countries are connected with cases of tuberculosis or zoophilic dermatophytoses in humans. In the present study, we identified and comprehensively analysed dermatophyte infections in alpacas from breeding farms in Poland. As part of this study, we determined the prevalence of dermatophyte infections in alpacas. The conventional and molecular mycological diagnostic procedures applied led to unambiguous identification of the aetiological factors of symptomatic dermatophytoses and asymptomatic animals, that is Trichophyton benhamiae and T. verrucosum. Furthermore, the susceptibility tests allowed choosing the best therapeutic option and revealed superior activity of allylamine drugs against all strains. Finally, in the case of strains isolated from symptomatic dermatophytoses, our study revealed a significantly higher virulence level expressed by high activity of chosen enzymes, especially related to keratinolytic and haemolytic activity. In conclusion, this report indicates that farmed alpacas can be a reservoir or vector for contagious zoophilic dermatophyte infection. For this reason, imported animals should be subjected to meticulous monitoring to detect not only symptomatic infections but also asymptomatic animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13624DOI Listing
November 2020

Comparison of in vitro activities of 11 antifungal agents against Trichophyton verrucosum isolates associated with a variety hosts and geographical origin.

Mycoses 2020 Mar 23;63(3):294-301. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Sub-Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Biological Bases of Animal Diseases, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland.

The high prevalence of dermatophytosis in animals is usually associated with extra expenditure on prevention, diagnosis and long-term treatment. Humans are usually infected from animals, also from asymptomatic carriers, through direct contact or indirectly via fungus-bearing hair, scales and fomites. Despite the medical importance of Trichophyton verrucosum infections, there are limited in vitro data on the fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs, including new-generation triazoles, imidazoles and allyloamines. The aim of the current study was to evaluate comprehensively the in vitro activity of 11 antifungal drugs against a large collection of T. verrucosum isolates obtained in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia from humans and animals using a microdilution assay. In vitro susceptibility testing of 11 antifungal drugs was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document M38. The MICs of clotrimazole, ciclopirox, enilconazole, miconazole, naftifine and terbinafine against all T. verrucosum isolates were below 1 μg/mL, whereas those of fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole were above 1 μg/mL. Ciclopirox was demonstrated to have superior activity against all strains in comparison with the other drugs, whereas fluconazole exerted the weakest in vitro effect and exhibited the highest MIC values. Our study has shown that drugs of different chemical origin have satisfactory antifungal activity and can be promising candidates for the treatment of T. verrucosum dermatophytosis. Moreover, no significant disparity in drug sensitivity between isolates obtained from different hosts and geographical regions have been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.13042DOI Listing
March 2020

A significant number of multi-drug resistant Enterococcus faecalis in wildlife animals; long-term consequences and new or known reservoirs of resistance?

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 2;705:135830. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Physiology, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

As the last link in the food chain in a complex ecosystem covering at least three different environmental spheres, species of wildlife carnivorous mammals constitute a group accumulating potential pathogens and factors resulting from human activity, including the emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the level and range of resistance in commensal E. faecalis isolated from wildlife carnivorous mammals and genetic relationships in terms of the source of these strains as well as resistance and virulence genes. Differentiation between strains was performed based on ADSRRS-fingerprinting method. The results showed that almost half of the tested animals (48%) were carriers of at least one multidrug resistant E. faecalis strain. Moreover, 44% of MDR-positive animals showed two or three strains differing in both the genotype and the resistance phenotype. A significant percentage of strains were resistant to high-level aminoglycosides (from 20% to even 57.5%). The resistance and virulence gene profiles showed a rich panel of genes closely related to isolates from nosocomial infection and from livestock animals. The presence of the same genotypes in different hosts reflects not only a possible transfer of genes between E. faecalis strains but also exchange of strains between animals. The obtained results reflect a very high level of contamination of animals that are not subjected to targeted antibiotic therapy, which may suggest the degree of pollution of the environment. Wildlife animals and their environment can be a link closing the circulation cycle of genes and even epidemiologically important strains; therefore, there is a high risk that this pool will never run out and will be maintained at a high level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135830DOI Listing
February 2020

Bats as a reservoir of resistant Escherichia coli: A methodical view. Can we fully estimate the scale of resistance in the reservoirs of free-living animals?

Res Vet Sci 2020 Feb 30;128:49-58. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Animal Physiology, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland.

Bats are a poorly understood reservoir of pathogenic and multi-drug resistant microorganisms; therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the presence of drug resistance among E. coli isolated from the species of bats occurring naturally in Poland. The strategy of isolation and identification of resistant strains from pooled and single-animal samples was based on selective media with cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline, the use of the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method for genomic differentiation of isolates, and the classical methods of evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic resistance. Of the 78 isolated isolates confirmed as E. coli, there were 38 genetically distinct strains resistant at least to one antimicrobial. 71% of these strains met the multi-drug resistance criterion. Moreover, two different multidrug resistant strains were isolated from three single samples. The highest resistance was observed in the case of ampicillin (66%), kanamycin (84%), sulfamethoxazole/trimetoprim (61%/55% respectively), and streptomycin (50%), which in most cases was confirmed by the presence of an adequate gene. Two isolates from single hosts produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (bla, bla, bla). With the exception of tetracycline resistance, which was dominant among isolates from single animals, no significant differences in the resistance of the strains from both groups of samples were observed. Bats should not be neglected as another environmental reservoir and as an unpredictable source of potential pathogenic and multidrug resistant bacteria and should be extensively studied to predict the direction of the development and range of spreading resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2019.10.017DOI Listing
February 2020

In search of the source of dermatophytosis: Epidemiological analysis of Trichophyton verrucosum infection in llamas and the breeder (case report).

Zoonoses Public Health 2019 12 19;66(8):982-989. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

State Veterinary Laboratory, Lublin, Poland.

During the last few years, the number of cases of Trichophyton verrucosum isolation from humans suffering from mycoses has been constantly increasing, which is correlated with the presence of an increasing number of outdoor breeding farms. Farmers and their families as well as veterinarians and technicians involved in handling the animals are at a higher risk of infection. One of the most important aims of mycological diagnostics is epidemiological analysis. Typically, the history of the disease is not sufficient to indicate reliably and eliminate the outbreak of infection. PCR fingerprinting methods are a useful tool in this type of analysis, which is presented in this study. The main aim is to present diagnostic and epidemiological analyses of dermatophyte isolates from llamas and their breeder. In two llamas, round alopecia sites or ca. 2-cm excoriations covered with thickened scaling epidermis were noticed at the border of the head and neck with a distinct tendency towards hair loss. Tinea unguium was noticed in a nail of the breeder's right hand. Direct analysis of the material from the clinical lesions revealed the presence of arthrospores. The macro- and micromorphology of the isolates were homogeneous and characteristic for T. verrucosum. The identification analysis based on the ITS sequences confirmed the previous morphological diagnostic examination. The MP-PCR and MSP-PCR analysis indicated high invariability of the genomes of the strains isolated from the human and animals. The epidemiological research has indicated an identical source of dermatophyte infection in the breeder and the lamas. To sum up, the number of pets and farm animals is increasing and dermatologists should always be informed about possible dermatophyte transmission sources. The possibility of transmission of zoophilic dermatophytes from humans to animals is a suggestion for further analysis; therefore, this type of transmission should be considered in dermatological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/zph.12648DOI Listing
December 2019
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