Publications by authors named "Marcel Stoeckle"

48 Publications

Pharmacokinetic parameters and weight change in HIV patients newly switched to dolutegravir-based regimens in SIMPL'HIV clinical trial.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

HIV/AIDS Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and the University of Geneva Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

This study aims to evaluate the association between dolutegravir (DTG) pharmacokinetic parameters and weight changes in treatment-experienced people with HIV (PWHIV) from the Simpl'HIV study newly switched to a dual DTG-based regimen. We used multivariable linear regressions to evaluate the association between DTG pharmacokinetic parameters at week 48 (derived using an established model) and weight change between week 0 and week 48. We adjusted our model for potential confounders including CD4 nadir, female sex, African origin, age, weight at week 0 and presence of an NNRTI-based regimen before switch to DTG. The analysis included data from 39 PWHIV. An average significant weight gain of 2.4 kg was observed between baseline and week 48. DTG plasma exposure was not significantly associated with weight gain, even after adjusting for potential confounders (p=0.9). We found no significant association between DTG pharmacokinetic parameters and weight gain amongst PWHIV newly switched to a DTG-based dual regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14832DOI Listing
March 2021

Alcohol consumption and neurocognitive deficits in people with well-treated HIV in Switzerland.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0246579. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Infectious Diseases Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Hazardous alcohol consumption and HIV infection increase the risk of neurocognitive impairment (NCI). We examined the association between alcohol consumption and specific neurocognitive domain function in people with HIV (PWH) taking modern antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: The Neurocognitive Assessment in the Metabolic and Aging Cohort (NAMACO) study is a prospective, longitudinal, multicentre and multilingual (French, German and Italian) study of patients aged ≥45 years old enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). Baseline data from 981 study participants were examined. Five neurocognitive domains were evaluated: motor skills, speed of information processing, attention/working memory, executive function and verbal episodic memory. NCI was examined as binary (presence/absence) and continuous (mean z-score) outcomes against Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores using logistic and linear regression models, respectively.

Results: Most participants (96.2%) had undetectable viral loads and 64% were aged >50 years old. Hazardous alcohol consumption was observed in 49.4% of participants and binge drinking in 4.2%. While alcohol consumption frequency and quantity were not associated with NCI, the practice of binge drinking was significantly associated with impaired motor skills and overall neurocognitive function in both binary (odds ratio, OR ≥2.0, P <0.05) and continuous (mean z-score difference -0.2 to -0.4, P ≤0.01) outcomes. A significant U-shaped distribution of AUDIT-C score was also observed for motor skills and overall neurocognitive function.

Conclusions: In this cohort of PWH with well-controlled HIV infection, NCI was associated with the practice of binge drinking rather than alcohol consumption frequency or quantity. Longitudinal analysis of alcohol consumption and NCI in this population is currently underway.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246579PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924787PMC
March 2021

The association between depressive symptoms and neurocognitive impairment in people with well-treated HIV in Switzerland.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Feb 25:956462420987434. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Infectious Diseases Service, 30635Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Depression may contribute to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people with HIV (PWH). Attributing NCI to depression rather than to HIV is complicated as depression may be both a causal factor and an effect of NCI. This study aimed to determine the association between depressive symptoms and NCI among PWH with well-controlled infection.

Methods: The Neurocognitive Assessment in the Metabolic and Ageing Cohort study is an ongoing, prospective, longitudinal study of PWH aged ≥45 years old nested within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Neurocognitive Assessment in the Metabolic and Ageing Cohort study participants underwent neurocognitive assessment and grading of depressive symptoms using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Neurocognitive impairment categories were defined using Frascati criteria. Participants with NCI related to neurological or psychiatric confounders other than depression were excluded. The cross-sectional association between the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression score and neurocognitive impairment was examined taking Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression score as a continuous variable and then as a binary variable using two score thresholds, 16 and 27.

Results: Excluding 79 participants with confounding factors, 902 participants were studied: 81% were men; 96% had plasma viral loads <50 copies/ml; 35% had neurocognitive impairment; 28% had Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scores ≥16. Higher Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scores were associated with female sex ( = 0.0003), non-Caucasian origin ( = 0.011) and current/past intravenous drug use ( = 0.002). Whilst neurocognitive impairment was associated with higher Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scores, the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression score was a poor predictor of having neurocognitive impairment (area under the ROC curve 0.604). Applying a Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression score threshold of 16 predicted the presence of neurocognitive impairment with a sensitivity of 38.3% (specificity 77.2%), increasing the threshold to 27 lowered sensitivity to 15.4% (specificity 93.6%).

Conclusion: In this large cohort of PWH in Switzerland, we did not observe a Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression score threshold that was sensitive in predicting neurocognitive impairment. As neurocognitive impairment was however associated with higher Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression scores, the data support the screening for and treatment of depression among PWH diagnosed with neurocognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420987434DOI Listing
February 2021

Population pharmacokinetic modelling to quantify the magnitude of drug-drug interactions between amlodipine and antiretroviral drugs.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Centre for Research and Innovation in Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) represent an important issue in elderly people living with HIV (PLWH). Amlodipine is a commonly prescribed antihypertensive drug metabolized by CYP3A4, thus predisposed to a risk of DDIs. Guidance on the management of DDIs is mostly based on theoretical considerations derived from coadministration with other CYP3A4 inhibitors. This study aimed at characterizing the magnitude of DDIs between amlodipine and ARV drugs in order to establish dosing recommendations.

Methods: A population pharmacokinetic analysis was developed using non-linear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM) and included 163 amlodipine concentrations from 55 PLWH. Various structural and error models were compared to characterize optimally the concentration-time profile of amlodipine. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as comedications were tested as potential influential covariates. Model-based simulations were performed to compare amlodipine exposure (i.e. area under the curve, AUC) between coadministered ARV drugs.

Results: Amlodipine concentration-time profile was best described using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag-time. Amlodipine apparent clearance was influenced by both CYP3A4 inhibitors and efavirenz (CYP3A4 inducer). Model-based simulations revealed that amlodipine AUC increased by 96% when coadministered with CYP3A4 inhibitors, while efavirenz decreased drug exposure by 59%.

Conclusion: Coadministered ARV drugs significantly impact amlodipine disposition in PLWH. Clinicians should adjust amlodipine dosage accordingly, by halving the dosage in PLWH receiving ARV with inhibitory properties (mainly ritonavir-boosted darunavir), whereas they should double amlodipine doses when coadministering it with efavirenz, under appropriate monitoring of clinical response and tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-03060-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Sex Differences in Lopinavir Concentrations and Occurrence of Marked QTc Prolongation Episodes in Patients with COVID-19.

Drug Saf 2021 02 27;44(2):255-257. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40264-020-01025-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694584PMC
February 2021

Efficacy of pragmatic same-day ring prophylaxis for adult individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in Switzerland (COPEP): protocol of an open-label cluster randomised trial.

BMJ Open 2020 11 12;10(11):e040110. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

HIV Unit, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) has been proposed as repurposed drugs for pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxis as well as therapy of COVID-19. Coronavirus postexposure prophylaxis (COPEP) trial aims at assessing their efficacy as postexposure ring-prophylaxis among adults exposed to SARS-CoV-2.

Methods And Analysis: COPEP is a two-arm open-label cluster-randomised trial conducted in three cantons of Switzerland. Asymptomatic contacts (≥16 years) of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 will be randomised (2:1) to either LPV/r (400 mg/100 mg two times per day) for 5 days, or a standard of care arm (no treatment). Asymptomatic individuals may be either SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative. Contacts living in the single household will form a cluster and will be randomised into the same arm. All participants will be followed-up for 21 days and undergo daily monitoring for COVID-19 symptoms. The primary endpoint is 21-day incidence of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with ≥1 compatible symptom, analysed in an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The secondary endpoints include the 21-day incidence of COVID-19 as well as SARS-CoV-2 infection in a modified ITT analysis, excluding participants who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR from oropharyngeal swab and/or a positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology at baseline. Assuming a 21-day incidence for COVID-19 of 20% among contacts without postexposure chemoprophylaxis, to detect a relative risk reduction of 60% (ie, translating in an absolute reduction from 20% to 8%), with a power of 80%, an alpha of 5%. Accounting for design effect of cluster design of circa 1.1, we plan to enrol 200 participants to the LPV/r arm and 100 to the standard of care arm, 300 participants in total.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval has been granted by the Commission Cantonale d'Ethique de la Recherche, Ethikkommission Nordwest- und Zentralschweiz and Comitato Etico Cantonale (ref 2020-00864) and Swissmedic (2020DR3056). Results from this trial will be disseminated via journal articles and presentations at national and international conferences.

Trial Registration Number: Clinicaltrials.gov Registry (NCT04364022); Swiss National Clinical Trial Portal Registry (SNCTP 000003732).

Registered Report Identifier: CCER 2020-0864.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662450PMC
November 2020

Efficacy and safety of dolutegravir plus emtricitabine versus standard ART for the maintenance of HIV-1 suppression: 48-week results of the factorial, randomized, non-inferiority SIMPL'HIV trial.

PLoS Med 2020 11 10;17(11):e1003421. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

HIV/AIDS Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Dolutegravir (DTG)-based dual therapy is becoming a new paradigm for both the initiation and maintenance of HIV treatment. The SIMPL'HIV study investigated the outcomes of virologically suppressed patients on standard combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) switching to DTG + emtricitabine (FTC). We present the 48-week efficacy and safety data on DTG + FTC versus cART.

Methods And Findings: SIMPL'HIV was a multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority randomized trial with a factorial design among treatment-experienced people with HIV in Switzerland. Participants were enrolled between 12 May 2017 and 30 May 2018. Patients virologically suppressed for at least 24 weeks on standard cART were randomized 1:1 to switching to DTG + FTC or to continuing cART, and 1:1 to simplified patient-centered monitoring versus standard monitoring. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients virologically suppressed with <100 copies/ml through 48 weeks. The secondary endpoints included virological suppression at 48 weeks according to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) snapshot analysis. Non-inferiority of DTG + FTC versus cART for viral suppression was assessed using a stratified Mantel-Haenszel risk difference, with non-inferiority declared if the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval was greater than -12%. Adverse events were monitored to assess safety. Quality of life was evaluated using the PROQOL-HIV questionnaire. Ninety-three participants were randomized to DTG + FTC, and 94 individuals to cART. Median nadir CD4 count was 246 cells/mm3; median age was 48 years; 17% of participants were female. DTG + FTC was non-inferior to cART. The proportion of patients with viral suppression (<100 copies/ml) through 48 weeks was 93.5% in the DTG + FTC arm and 94.7% in the cART arm in the intention-to-treat population (risk difference -1.2%; 95% CI -7.8% to 5.6%). Per-protocol analysis showed similar results, with viral suppression in 96.5% of patients in both arms (risk difference 0.0%; 95% CI -5.6% to 5.5%). There was no relevant interaction between the type of treatment and monitoring (interaction ratio 0.98; 95% CI 0.85 to 1.13; p = 0.81). Using the FDA snapshot algorithm, 84/93 (90.3%) participants in the DTG + FTC arm had an HIV-1 RNA viral load of <50 copies/ml compared to 86/94 (91.5%) participants on standard cART (risk difference -1.1%; 95% CI -9.3% to 7.1%; p = 0.791). The overall proportion of patients with adverse events and discontinuations did not differ by randomization arm. The proportion of patients with serious adverse events was higher in the cART arm (16%) compared to the DTG + FTC arm (6.5%) (p = 0.041), but none was considered to be related to the study medication. Quality of life improved more between baseline and week 48 in the DTG + FTC compared to the cART arm (adjusted difference +2.6; 95% CI +0.4 to +4.7). The study's main limitations included a rather small proportion of women included, the open label design, and its short duration.

Conclusions: In this study, DTG + FTC as maintenance therapy was non-inferior to cART in terms of efficacy, with a similar safety profile and a greater improvement in quality of life, thus expanding the offer of 2-drug simplification options among virologically suppressed individuals.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03160105.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654764PMC
November 2020

HCV Genetic Diversity Can Be Used to Infer Infection Recency and Time since Infection.

Viruses 2020 10 31;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

HIV-1 genetic diversity can be used to infer time since infection (TSI) and infection recency. We adapted this approach for HCV and identified genomic regions with informative diversity. We included 72 HCV/HIV-1 coinfected participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, for whom reliable estimates of infection date and viral sequences were available. Average pairwise diversity (APD) was calculated over each codon position for the entire open reading frame of HCV. Utilizing cross validation, we evaluated the correlation of APD with TSI, and its ability to infer TSI via a linear model. We additionally studied the ability of diversity to classify infections as recent (infected for <1 year) or chronic, using receiver-operator-characteristic area under the curve (ROC-AUC) in 50 patients whose infection could be unambiguously classified as either recent or chronic. Measuring HCV diversity over third or all codon positions gave similar performances, and notable improvement over first or second codon positions. APD calculated over the entire genome enabled classification of infection recency (ROC-AUC = 0.76). Additionally, APD correlated with TSI (R = 0.33) and could predict TSI (mean absolute error = 1.67 years). Restricting the region over which APD was calculated to - further improved accuracy (ROC-AUC = 0.85, R = 0.54, mean absolute error = 1.38 years) Genetic diversity in HCV correlates with TSI and is a proxy for infection recency and TSI, even several years post-infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12111241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692400PMC
October 2020

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling to Describe the Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Rosuvastatin in People Living with HIV.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Mar 29;60(3):379-390. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Centre for Research and Innovation in Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 17, 1005, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Rosuvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent widely prescribed in people living with HIV, which is actively transported into the liver, making it a potential victim of drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral agents.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to characterise the pharmacokinetic profile of rosuvastatin and to describe the relationship between rosuvastatin concentrations and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels in people living with HIV.

Methods: A population pharmacokinetic model (NONMEM) was developed to quantify the influence of demographics, clinical characteristics and comedications on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. This model was combined with an indirect effect model to describe non-HDL-cholesterol measurements.

Results: A two-compartment model with sequential zero- and first-order absorption best fitted the 154 rosuvastatin concentrations provided by 65 people living with HIV. None of the tested covariates significantly influenced rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. A total of 403 non-HDL cholesterol values were available for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling. Baseline non-HDL cholesterol decreased by 14% and increased by 12% with etravirine and antiretroviral drugs with a known impact on the lipid profile (i.e. protease inhibitors, efavirenz, cobicistat), respectively. The baseline value was surprisingly 43% lower in people living with HIV aged 80 years compared with those aged 40 years. Simulations based on the covariate-free model predicted that, under standard rosuvastatin dosages of 5 mg and 20 mg once daily, 31% and 64% of people living with HIV would achieve non-HDL-cholesterol targets, respectively.

Conclusions: The high between-subject variability that characterises both rosuvastatin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles remained unexplained after the inclusion of usual covariates. Considering its limited potential for drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral agents and its potent lipid-lowering effect, rosuvastatin prescription appears safe and effective in people living with HIV with hypercholesterolaemia.

Clinical Trial Registration No: NCT03515772.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-020-00946-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932937PMC
March 2021

Relative bradycardia in patients with COVID-19.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Feb 18;27(2):295-296. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.08.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434379PMC
February 2021

Effect of Systemic Inflammatory Response to SARS-CoV-2 on Lopinavir and Hydroxychloroquine Plasma Concentrations.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 08 20;64(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases & Hospital Hygiene, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to inflammatory cytokine release, which can downregulate the expression of metabolizing enzymes. This cascade affects drug concentrations in the plasma. We investigated the association between lopinavir (LPV) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plasma concentrations and the levels of the acute-phase inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP). LPV plasma concentrations in 92 patients hospitalized at our institution were prospectively collected. Lopinavir-ritonavir was administered every 12 hours, 800/200 mg on day 1 and 400/100 mg on day 2 until day 5 or 7. HCQ was given at 800 mg, followed by 400 mg after 6, 24, and 48 h. Hematological, liver, kidney, and inflammation laboratory values were analyzed on the day of drug level determination. The median age of study participants was 59 (range, 24 to 85) years, and 71% were male. The median durations from symptom onset to hospitalization and treatment initiation were 7 days (interquartile range [IQR], 4 to 10) and 8 days (IQR, 5 to 10), respectively. The median LPV trough concentration on day 3 of treatment was 26.5 μg/ml (IQR, 18.9 to 31.5). LPV plasma concentrations positively correlated with CRP values ( = 0.37,  < 0.001) and were significantly lower when tocilizumab was preadministered. No correlation was found between HCQ concentrations and CRP values. High LPV plasma concentrations were observed in COVID-19 patients. The ratio of calculated unbound drug fraction to published SARS-CoV-2 50% effective concentrations (EC) indicated insufficient LPV concentrations in the lung. CRP values significantly correlated with LPV but not HCQ plasma concentrations, implying inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism by inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01177-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449226PMC
August 2020

Stopping lopinavir/ritonavir in COVID-19 patients: duration of the drug interacting effect.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 10;75(10):3084-3086

Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Departments of Medicine and Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7337877PMC
October 2020

Treatment options for oral hairy leucoplakia: A case report.

Dermatol Ther 2020 05 3;33(3):e13425. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13425DOI Listing
May 2020

Influence of Drug-Drug Interactions on the Pharmacokinetics of Atorvastatin and Its Major Active Metabolite ortho-OH-Atorvastatin in Aging People Living with HIV.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2020 08;59(8):1037-1048

Service of Clinical Pharmacology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: People living with HIV (PLWH) are aging and experience age-related physiological changes and comorbidities. Atorvastatin is a widely prescribed lipid-lowering agent metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, whose hepatocyte uptake is facilitated by organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/1B3. Inhibition or induction of this enzyme and hepatic transporter can increase or decrease atorvastatin exposure, respectively.

Objective: This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetic profile of atorvastatin and its major metabolite, and to evaluate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretrovirals (ARVs).

Methods: The atorvastatin pharmacokinetic profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Metabolite concentrations were described by considering both linear metabolism from atorvastatin and presystemic metabolism. The influence of demographic and clinical covariates on drug and metabolite pharmacokinetics was assessed using NONMEM. Model-based simulations were performed to evaluate the magnitude of DDIs with ARVs.

Results: Full pharmacokinetic profiles (98 atorvastatin + 62 o-OH-atorvastatin concentrations) and sparse concentrations (78 and 53 for atorvastatin and o-OH-atorvastatin, respectively) were collected in 59 PLWH. Interindividual variability was high. The coadministration of boosted ARVs decreased atorvastatin clearance by 58% and slowed down o-OH-atorvastatin formation by 88%. Atorvastatin clearance increased by 78% when coadministered with CYP3A4 inducers. Simulations revealed a 180% increase and 44% decrease in atorvastatin exposure (area under the curve) in the presence of ARVs with inhibiting and inducing properties, respectively.

Conclusion: This study showed an important interindividual variability in atorvastatin pharmacokinetics that remains largely unexplained after the inclusion of covariates. Since boosted ARVs double atorvastatin exposure, the initial dosage might be reduced by half, and titrated based on individual clinical targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-020-00876-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403138PMC
August 2020

Real-life management of drug-drug interactions between antiretrovirals and statins.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 07;75(7):1972-1980

University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: PIs cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with most statins due to inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and/or the hepatic uptake transporter OATP1B1, which may alter the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of statins.

Objectives: To assess the management of DDIs between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and statins in people living with HIV (PLWH) considering statin plasma concentrations, compliance with dosing recommendations and achievement of lipid targets.

Methods: PLWH of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were eligible if they received a statin concomitantly with ARVs. HDL, total cholesterol (TC) and statin plasma concentration were measured during follow-up visits. Individual non-HDL and TC target values were set using the Framingham score and the 2018 European AIDS Clinical Society recommendations.

Results: Data were analysed for rosuvastatin (n = 99), atorvastatin (n = 92), pravastatin (n = 46) and pitavastatin (n = 21). Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin underdosing frequently led to suboptimal PD response. Insufficient lipid control was observed with PIs despite high atorvastatin concentrations, likely explained by inhibition of OATP1B1 resulting in less statin uptake in the liver. Target lipid values were more often achieved with unboosted integrase inhibitors due to both their favourable DDI profiles and neutral effect on lipids. Insufficient lipid control was common with pravastatin and pitavastatin regardless of co-administered ARVs and despite using maximal recommended statin doses. The latter suggests lower efficacy compared with rosuvastatin or atorvastatin.

Conclusions: Suboptimal management of DDIs with statin underdosing was observed in 29% of prescriptions. Integrase inhibitor-based regimens and/or treatment with rosuvastatin or atorvastatin should be favoured in patients with refractory dyslipidaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkaa099DOI Listing
July 2020

Aging does not impact drug--drug interaction magnitudes with antiretrovirals.

AIDS 2020 05;34(6):949-952

Service of Clinical Pharmacology.

: The risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is elevated in aging people living with HIV (PLWH) because of highly prevalent age-related comorbidities leading to more comedications. To investigate the impact of aging on DDI magnitudes between comedications (amlodipine, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin) and boosted darunavir, we conducted a clinical trial in aging PLWH aged at least 55 years. DDI magnitudes were comparable with those reported in young individuals supporting that the clinical management of DDIs in aging PLWH can be similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002489DOI Listing
May 2020

Polypharmacy, Drug-Drug Interactions, and Inappropriate Drugs: New Challenges in the Aging Population With HIV.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Dec 21;6(12):ofz531. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Service of Clinical Pharmacology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection from a deadly into a chronic condition. Aging people with HIV (PWH) are at higher risk of polypharmacy, potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). This study aims to compare prescribed drugs, polypharmacy, and potential DDIs between young (<65 years old) and elderly (≥65 years old) PWH. The prevalence of PIMs was assessed in elderly.

Methods: PWH from 2 centers within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study were asked to fill in a form with all their current medications. Polypharmacy was defined as being on ≥5 non-HIV drugs. PIMs were evaluated using Beers criteria. Potential DDIs for the most prescribed therapeutic classes were screened with the Liverpool interaction database.

Results: Among the 996 PWH included, 122 were ≥65 years old. Polypharmacy was more frequent in the elderly group (44% vs 12%). Medications and potential DDIs differed according to the age group: cardiovascular drugs and related potential DDIs were more common in the elderly group (73% of forms included ≥1 cardiovascular drug; 11% of cardiovascular drugs involved potential DDIs), whereas central nervous system drugs were more prescribed and involved in potential DDIs in younger PWH (26%, 11%). Potential DDIs were mostly managed through dosage adjustments. PIMs were found in 31% of the elderly group.

Conclusions: Potential DDIs remain common, and PIMs constitute an additional burden for the elderly. It is important that prescribers develop and maintain a proactive approach for the recognition and management of DDIs and other prescribing issues frequently encountered in geriatric medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935678PMC
December 2019

Impact of the M184V/I Mutation on the Efficacy of Abacavir/Lamivudine/Dolutegravir Therapy in HIV Treatment-Experienced Patients.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Oct 12;6(10):ofz330. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Switzerland.

Objective: The impact of the M184V/I mutation on the virological failure (VF) rate in HIV-positive patients with suppressed viremia switching to an abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir regimen has been poorly evaluated.

Method: This is an observational study from 5 European HIV cohorts among treatment-experienced adults with ≤50 copies/mL of HIV-1 RNA who switched to abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir. Primary outcome was the time to first VF (2 consecutive HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL or single HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL accompanied by change in antiretroviral therapy [ART]). We also analyzed a composite outcome considering the presence of VF and/or virological blips. We report also the results of an inverse probability weighting analysis on a restricted population with a prior history of VF on any ART regimen to calculate statistics standardized to the disparate sampling population.

Results: We included 1626 patients (median follow-up, 288.5 days; interquartile range, 154-441). Patients with a genotypically documented M184V/I mutation (n = 137) had a lower CD4 nadir and a longer history of antiviral treatment. The incidence of VF was 29.8 cases (11.2-79.4) per 1000 person-years in those with a previously documented M184V/I, and 13.6 cases (8.4-21.8) in patients without documented M184V/I. Propensity score weighting in a restricted population (n = 580) showed that M184V/I was not associated with VF or the composite endpoint (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-4.59 and HR 1.66; 95% CI, 0.81-3.43, respectively).

Conclusions: In ART-experienced patients switching to an abacavir/lamivudine/dolutegravir treatment, we observed few VFs and found no evidence for an impact of previously-acquired M184V/I mutation on this outcome. Additional analyses are required to demonstrate whether these findings will remain robust during a longer follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6778427PMC
October 2019

Pharmacokinetic profiles of boosted darunavir, dolutegravir and lamivudine in aging people living with HIV.

AIDS 2020 01;34(1):103-108

Service of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Lausanne and University of Lausanne, Lausanne Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, Departments of Medicine and Clinical Research, University Hospital of Basel University of Basel, Basel Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western Switzerland, Geneva Service of Infectious Diseases, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: The pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs may differ in elderly people living with HIV (PLWH) because of age-related physiological changes. We aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics of several antiretroviral drugs in aging PLWH enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort (SHCS).

Design: Full pharmacokinetic profiling nested in a multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study. Additional collection of single point pharmacokinetic data during SHCS follow-up visits (unselected PLWH).

Methods: PLWH were eligible for the full pharmacokinetics investigation if they were over the age of 55 years, on a stable boosted darunavir-containing or dolutegravir-containing regimen. Single point measurements were prospectively collected during SHCS follow-up visits to compare antiretroviral drug exposure in aging (≥65 years) and younger (<65 years) PLWH.

Results: Nineteen PLWH with a median age of 64 years participated in the full pharmacokinetic investigations. Single point pharmacokinetic data were collected for 804 PLWH with a median age of 52 years. Boosted darunavir clearance was 40% lower in aging (≥65 years) compared with younger (<65 years) PLWH, consistent with other drugs predominantly metabolized by CYP3A. Dolutegravir exposure was similar between age groups whereas lamivudine exposure increased by 11% in aging PLWH. Median boosted darunavir, dolutegravir and lamivudine t1/2 were 148%, 45% and 32% higher in aging compared with younger PLWH.

Conclusion: Advanced age did not affect boosted darunavir exposure to a clinically significant extent despite the observed high variability in exposure. Age minimally affected dolutegravir and lamivudine exposure. Thus, dose adjustment based on age is a priori not warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002372DOI Listing
January 2020

Cross-Sectional and Cumulative Longitudinal Central Nervous System Penetration Effectiveness Scores Are Not Associated With Neurocognitive Impairment in a Well Treated Aging Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Population in Switzerland.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Jul 8;6(7):ofz277. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Infectious Diseases Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland.

Background: Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) remains a concern despite potent antiretroviral therapy (ART). Higher central nervous system (CNS) penetration effectiveness (CPE) scores have been associated with better CNS human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication control, but the association between CPE and NCI remains controversial.

Methods: The Neurocognitive Assessment in the Metabolic and Aging Cohort (NAMACO) study is a subgroup of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) that invited patients aged ≥45 years enrolled in the SHCS and followed-up at NAMACO-affiliated centers in Switzerland to participate between May 2013 and November 2016. In total, 981 patients were enrolled, all of whom underwent standardized neurocognitive assessment. Neurocognitive impairment, if present, was characterized using Frascati criteria. The CPE scores of NAMACO study participants with undetectable plasma HIV-ribonucleic acid at enrollment (909 patients) were analyzed. Cross-sectional CPE scores (at neurocognitive assessment) were examined as potential predictors of NCI in multivariate logistic regression models. The analysis was then repeated taking CPE as a cumulative score (summarizing CPE scores from ART initiation to the time of neurocognitive assessment).

Results: Most patients were male (80%) and Caucasian (92%). Neurocognitive impairment was present in 40%: 27% with HIV-associated NCI (mostly asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment), and 13% with NCI related to other factors. None of the CPE scores, neither cross-sectional nor cumulative, was statistically significantly associated with NCI.

Conclusions: In this large cohort of aviremic PWH, we observed no association between NCI, whether HIV-associated or related to other factors, and CPE score, whether cross-sectional or cumulative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612860PMC
July 2019

Impact of Direct-Acting Antivirals on the Burden of HCV Infection Among Persons Who Inject Drugs and Men Who Have Sex With Men in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Jul 26;5(7):ofy154. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

In the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, the number of people who inject drugs with replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection decreased substantially after the introduction of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). Among men who have sex with men, the increase in DAA uptake and efficacy was counterbalanced by frequent incident HCV infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047421PMC
July 2018

Long-term Immune Response to Yellow Fever Vaccination in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Individuals Depends on HIV RNA Suppression Status: Implications for Vaccination Schedule.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 03;66(7):1099-1108

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern.

Background: In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, the immune response over time to yellow fever vaccination (YFV) and the necessity for booster vaccination are not well understood.

Methods: We studied 247 participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) with a first YFV after HIV diagnosis and determined their immune responses at 1 year, 5 years, and 10 years postvaccination by yellow fever plaque reduction neutralization titers (PRNTs) in stored blood samples. A PRNT of 1:≥10 was regarded as reactive and protective. Predictors of vaccination response were analyzed with Poisson regression.

Results: At vaccination, 82% of the vaccinees were taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 83% had suppressed HIV RNA levels (<400 copies/mL), and their median CD4 T-cell count was 536 cells/μL. PRNT was reactive in 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-53%) before, 95% (95% CI, 91%-98%) within 1 year, 86% (95% CI, 79%-92%) at 5 years, and 75% (95% CI, 62%-85%) at 10 years postvaccination. In those with suppressed plasma HIV RNA at YFV, the proportion with reactive PRNTs remained high: 99% (95% CI, 95%-99.8%) within 1 year, 99% (95% CI, 92%-100%) at 5 years, and 100% (95% CI, 86%-100%) at 10 years.

Conclusions: HIV-infected patients' long-term immune response up to 10 years to YFV is primarily dependent on the control of HIV replication at the time of vaccination. For those on successful cART, immune response up to 10 years is comparable to that of non-HIV-infected adults. We recommend a single YFV booster after 10 years for patients vaccinated on successful cART, whereas those vaccinated with uncontrolled HIV RNA may need an early booster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix960DOI Listing
March 2018

Hepatitis C virus dynamics among intravenous drug users suggest that an annual treatment uptake above 10% would eliminate the disease by 2030.

Swiss Med Wkly 2017 8;147:w14543. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Divisions of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and of Clinical Pathology, University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: In Switzerland, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) has been decreasing owing to active harm reduction efforts and an aging population. Recent advances in HCV therapeutics may provide an opportunity to direct treatment to high-risk populations, with a goal of reducing HCV prevalence and preventing new infections. In order to guide these efforts, the current project was undertaken with the following aims: (1) to develop a simple model to estimate the number of new HCV infections using available data on PWID; (2) to examine the impact of intervention strategies (prevention and treatment) on new and total HCV infections among PWID.

Methods: A dynamic HCV transmission model was used to track HCV incidence and prevalence among active PWID according to their harm reduction status. The relative impact of treating 1, 5, 10 or 15% of HCV+ PWID with new oral direct acting antivirals was considered.

Results: In 2015, there were an estimated 10 160 active PWID in Switzerland, more than 85% of whom were engaged in harm reduction programmes. Approximately 42% of active PWID were HCV-RNA+, with 55 new viraemic infections occurring annually. By 2030, a 60% reduction in the HCV+ PWID population would be expected. In the absence of behavioural changes, the number of secondary infections would increase under all treatment scenarios. With high level treatment, the number of secondary infections would peak and then drop, corresponding to depletion of the viral pool. In Switzerland, 5% treatment of the 2015 HCV+ PWID population per year would result in a 95% reduction in total cases by 2030, whereas ≥10% treatment would result in a >99% reduction.

Conclusions: Timely treatment of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs is necessary to reduce the prevalence and prevent new infections in Switzerland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2017.14543DOI Listing
July 2018

Novel remote electronic medication supply model for opioid-dependent outpatients with polypharmacy--first long-term case study.

Harm Reduct J 2017 08 16;14(1):56. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with substance use disorders grow older thanks to effective treatments. Together with a high prevalence of comorbidities, psychological problems, and low social support, these patients are at high risk for medication non-adherence. Established treatment facilities face challenges to accommodate these complex patients within their setting. Electronic medication management aids (e-MMAs) might be appropriate to simultaneously monitor and improve adherence for these patients.

Case Presentation: We report the first long-term experiences with a novel remote electronic medication supply model for two opioid-dependent patients with HIV. John (beginning dementia, 52 years, 6 tablets daily at 12 am) and Mary (frequent drug holidays, 48 years, 5-6 tablets daily at 8 pm) suffered from disease progression due to non-adherence. We electronically monitored adherence and clinical outcomes during 659 (John) and 953 (Mary) days between July 2013 and April 2016. Both patients retrieved over 90% of the pouches within 75 min of the scheduled time. Technical problems occurred in 4% (John) and 7.2% (Mary) of retrievals, but on-site support was seldom required. Viral loads fell below detection limits during the entire observation period.

Conclusions: Continuous medication supply and persistence with treatment of over 1.7 years, timing adherence of more than 90%, and suppressed HIV viral load are first results supporting the feasibility of the novel supply model for patients on opioid-assisted treatment and polypharmacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12954-017-0182-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5559800PMC
August 2017

Trends in HCV treatment uptake, efficacy and impact on liver fibrosis in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

Liver Int 2018 03 23;38(3):424-431. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background & Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies with interferon-free second-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are highly effective and well tolerated. They have the potential to increase treatment eligibility and efficacy in HIV-infected patients. We assessed the impact of DAAs on treatment uptake and efficacy, as well as its impact on the burden of liver disease in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS).

Methods: We describe clinical and virological characteristics of patients treated with second-generation DAAs. We compared treatment incidence, sustained virological response (SVR)12 and liver fibrosis stages between three time periods: period 1, 01/2009-08/2011 (prior to the availability of DAAs); period 2, 09/2011-03/2014 (first generation DAAs); period 3, 04/2014-12/2015 (second generation DAAs).

Results: At the beginning of the third period, 876 SHCS participants had a chronic HCV infection of whom 180 (20%) started treatment with a second-generation DAA. Three-quarters of them had advanced liver fibrosis (Metavir ≥ F3) of whom 80% were cirrhotics. SVR12 was achieved in 173/180 (96%) patients, three patients died and four experienced a virological failure. Over the three time periods, treatment uptake (4.5/100 py, 5.7/100 py, 22.4/100 py) and efficacy (54%, 70%, 96% SVR12) continuously increased. The proportion of cirrhotic patients with replicating HCV infection in the SHCS declined from 25% at the beginning to 12% at the end of the last period.

Conclusions: After the introduction of second-generation DAAs, we observed an increase in treatment uptake and efficacy which resulted in a significant reduction in the number of cirrhotic patients with a replicating HCV infection in the SHCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.13528DOI Listing
March 2018

Switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate to tenofovir alafenamide coformulated with rilpivirine and emtricitabine in virally suppressed adults with HIV-1 infection: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3b, non-inferiority study.

Lancet HIV 2017 05 2;4(5):e195-e204. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Tenofovir alafenamide, a tenofovir prodrug, results in 90% lower tenofovir plasma concentrations than does tenofovir disproxil fumarate, thereby minimising bone and renal risks. We investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of switching to a single-tablet regimen containing rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide compared with remaining on rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial, HIV-1-infected adults were screened and enrolled at 119 hospitals in 11 countries in North America and Europe. Participants were virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per mL) on rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for at least 6 months before enrolment and had creatinine clearance of at least 50 mL/min. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive a single-tablet regimen of either rilpivirine (25 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg), and tenofovir alafenamide (25 mg) or to remain on a single-tablet regimen of rilpivirine (25 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg), with matching placebo, once daily for 96 weeks. Investigators, participants, study staff, and those assessing outcomes were masked to treatment group. All participants who received one dose of study drug and were on the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimen before screening were included in primary efficacy analyses. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants with less than 50 copies per mL of plasma HIV-1 RNA at week 48 (by the US Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm), with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 8%. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01815736.

Findings: Between Jan 26, 2015, and Aug 25, 2015, 630 participants were randomised (316 to the tenofovir alafenamide group and 314 to the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group). At week 48, 296 (94%) of 316 participants on tenofovir alafenamide and 294 (94%) of 313 on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate had maintained less than 50 copies per mL HIV-1 RNA (difference -0·3%, 95·001% CI -4·2 to 3·7), showing non-inferiority of tenofovir alafenamide to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Numbers of adverse events were similar between groups. 20 (6%) of 316 participants had study-drug related adverse events in the tenofovir alafenamide group compared with 37 (12%) of 314 in the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate group; none of these were serious.

Interpretation: Switching to rilpivirine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide was non-inferior to continuing rilpivirine, emtricitabine, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in maintaining viral suppression and was well tolerated at 48 weeks. These findings support guidelines recommending tenofovir alafenamide-based regimens, including coformulation with rilpivirine and emtricitabine, as initial and ongoing treatment for HIV-1 infection.

Funding: Gilead Sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30031-0DOI Listing
May 2017

Sexual Activity Without Condoms and Risk of HIV Transmission in Serodifferent Couples When the HIV-Positive Partner Is Using Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

JAMA 2016 Jul;316(2):171-81

Department of Infectious Diseases/CHIP, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Importance: A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex.

Objective: To evaluate the rate of within-couple HIV transmission (heterosexual and men who have sex with men [MSM]) during periods of sex without condoms and when the HIV-positive partner had HIV-1 RNA load less than 200 copies/mL.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The prospective, observational PARTNER (Partners of People on ART-A New Evaluation of the Risks) study was conducted at 75 clinical sites in 14 European countries and enrolled 1166 HIV serodifferent couples (HIV-positive partner taking suppressive ART) who reported condomless sex (September 2010 to May 2014). Eligibility criteria for inclusion of couple-years of follow-up were condomless sex and HIV-1 RNA load less than 200 copies/mL. Anonymized phylogenetic analysis compared couples' HIV-1 polymerase and envelope sequences if an HIV-negative partner became infected to determine phylogenetically linked transmissions.

Exposures: Condomless sexual activity with an HIV-positive partner taking virally suppressive ART.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Risk of within-couple HIV transmission to the HIV-negative partner.

Results: Among 1166 enrolled couples, 888 (mean age, 42 years [IQR, 35-48]; 548 heterosexual [61.7%] and 340 MSM [38.3%]) provided 1238 eligible couple-years of follow-up (median follow-up, 1.3 years [IQR, 0.8-2.0]). At baseline, couples reported condomless sex for a median of 2 years (IQR, 0.5-6.3). Condomless sex with other partners was reported by 108 HIV-negative MSM (33%) and 21 heterosexuals (4%). During follow-up, couples reported condomless sex a median of 37 times per year (IQR, 15-71), with MSM couples reporting approximately 22,000 condomless sex acts and heterosexuals approximately 36,000. Although 11 HIV-negative partners became HIV-positive (10 MSM; 1 heterosexual; 8 reported condomless sex with other partners), no phylogenetically linked transmissions occurred over eligible couple-years of follow-up, giving a rate of within-couple HIV transmission of zero, with an upper 95% confidence limit of 0.30/100 couple-years of follow-up. The upper 95% confidence limit for condomless anal sex was 0.71 per 100 couple-years of follow-up.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among serodifferent heterosexual and MSM couples in which the HIV-positive partner was using suppressive ART and who reported condomless sex, during median follow-up of 1.3 years per couple, there were no documented cases of within-couple HIV transmission (upper 95% confidence limit, 0.30/100 couple-years of follow-up). Additional longer-term follow-up is necessary to provide more precise estimates of risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.5148DOI Listing
July 2016