Publications by authors named "Marc R Kamke"

20 Publications

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Alertness fluctuations when performing a task modulate cortical evoked responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Neuroimage 2020 12 28;223:117305. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia; School of Psychology, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Canada.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been widely used in human cognitive neuroscience to examine the causal role of distinct cortical areas in perceptual, cognitive and motor functions. However, it is widely acknowledged that the effects of focal cortical stimulation can vary substantially between participants and even from trial to trial within individuals. Recent work from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies has suggested that spontaneous fluctuations in alertness over a testing session can modulate the neural dynamics of cortical processing, even when participants remain awake and responsive to the task at hand. Here we investigated the extent to which spontaneous fluctuations in alertness during wake-to-sleep transition can account for the variability in neurophysiological responses to TMS. We combined single-pulse TMS with neural recording via electroencephalography (EEG) to quantify changes in motor and cortical reactivity with fluctuating levels of alertness defined objectively on the basis of ongoing brain activity. We observed rapid, non-linear changes in TMS-evoked responses with decreasing levels of alertness, even while participants remained responsive in the behavioural task. Specifically, we found that the amplitude of motor evoked potentials peaked during periods of EEG flattening, whereas TMS-evoked potentials increased and remained stable during EEG flattening and the subsequent occurrence of theta ripples that indicate the onset of NREM stage 1 sleep. Our findings suggest a rapid and complex reorganization of active neural networks in response to spontaneous fluctuations of alertness over relatively short periods of behavioural testing during wake-to-sleep transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.117305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762840PMC
December 2020

Stimulus-Driven Cortical Hyperexcitability in Individuals with Charles Bonnet Hallucinations.

Curr Biol 2018 11 25;28(21):3475-3480.e3. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

The University of Queensland, School of Psychology, St Lucia 4072, Australia; The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, St Lucia 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Throughout the lifespan, the cerebral cortex adapts its structure and function in response to changing sensory input [1, 2]. Whilst such changes are typically adaptive, they can be maladaptive when they follow damage to the peripheral nervous system, including phantom limb pain and tinnitus [3, 4]. An intriguing example occurs in individuals with acquired ocular pathologies-most commonly age-related macular degeneration (MD) [5]-who lose their foveal vision but retain intact acuity in the peripheral visual field. Up to 40% of ocular pathology patients develop long-term hallucinations involving flashes of light, shapes, or geometric patterns and/or complex hallucinations, including faces, animals, or entire scenes, a condition known as Charles Bonnet Syndrome (CBS) [6, 7, 8]. Though CBS was first described over 250 years ago [9, 10], the neural basis for the hallucinations remains unclear, with no satisfactory explanation as to why some individuals develop hallucinations, while many do not. An influential but untested hypothesis for the visual hallucinations in CBS is that retinal deafferentation causes hyperexcitability in early visual cortex. To assess this, we investigated electrophysiological responses to peripheral visual field stimulation in MD patients with and without hallucinations and in matched controls without ocular pathology. Participants performed a concurrent attention task within intact portions of their peripheral visual field, while ignoring flickering checkerboards that drove periodic electrophysiological responses. CBS individuals showed strikingly elevated visual cortical responses to peripheral field stimulation compared with patients without hallucinations and controls, providing direct support for the hypothesis of visual cortical hyperexcitability in CBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.08.058DOI Listing
November 2018

Corticospinal Plasticity in Bilateral Primary Motor Cortices Induced by Paired Associative Stimulation to the Dominant Hemisphere Does Not Differ between Young and Older Adults.

Neural Plast 2017 24;2017:8319049. Epub 2017 Sep 24.

Queensland Brain Institute, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Older adults have been shown to exhibit a reduction in the lateralization of neural activity. Although neuroplasticity induced by noninvasive brain stimulation has been reported to be attenuated in the targeted motor cortex of older adults, it remains possible that the plasticity effects may instead manifest in a more distributed (bilateral) network. Furthermore, attention, which modulates neuroplasticity in young adults, may influence these effects. To address these questions, plasticity was induced in young (19-32 years) and older (65-78 years) adults using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paired with peripheral nerve stimulation. The plasticity effects induced by this paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol in the targeted and nontargeted hemispheres were probed using TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of each hand. PAS-induced effects were highly variable across individuals, with only half of the participants in each group demonstrating the expected increase in MEP amplitude. Contrary to predictions, however, PAS-induced corticospinal plasticity manifests predominately in the targeted hemisphere for both young and older adults. Attention to the target hand did not enhance corticospinal plasticity. The results suggest that plasticity does not manifest differently across bilateral corticospinal pathways between young and older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8319049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5632910PMC
July 2018

Role of the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention: An rTMS study.

Cortex 2018 02 16;99:30-38. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Australia; School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Australia.

Selective attention is the process of directing limited capacity resources to behaviourally relevant stimuli while ignoring competing stimuli that are currently irrelevant. Studies in healthy human participants and in individuals with focal brain lesions have suggested that the right parietal cortex is crucial for resolving competition for attention. Following right-hemisphere damage, for example, patients may have difficulty reporting a brief, left-sided stimulus if it occurs with a competitor on the right, even though the same left stimulus is reported normally when it occurs alone. Such "extinction" of contralesional stimuli has been documented for all the major sense modalities, but it remains unclear whether its occurrence reflects involvement of one or more specific subregions of the temporo-parietal cortex. Here we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the right hemisphere to examine the effect of disruption of two candidate regions - the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG) - on auditory selective attention. Eighteen neurologically normal, right-handed participants performed an auditory task, in which they had to detect target digits presented within simultaneous dichotic streams of spoken distractor letters in the left and right channels, both before and after 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the SMG, STG or a somatosensory control site (S1). Across blocks, participants were asked to report on auditory streams in the left, right, or both channels, which yielded focused and divided attention conditions. Performance was unchanged for the two focused attention conditions, regardless of stimulation site, but was selectively impaired for contralateral left-sided targets in the divided attention condition following stimulation of the right SMG, but not the STG or S1. Our findings suggest a causal role for the right inferior parietal cortex in auditory selective attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.10.003DOI Listing
February 2018

Associative plasticity in the human motor cortex is enhanced by concurrently targeting separate muscle representations with excitatory and inhibitory protocols.

J Neurophysiol 2016 Apr 10;115(4):2191-8. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; and School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Paired associative stimulation (PAS) induces changes in the excitability of human sensorimotor cortex that outlast the procedure. PAS typically involves repeatedly pairing stimulation of a peripheral nerve that innervates an intrinsic hand muscle with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the representation of that muscle in the primary motor cortex. Depending on the timing of the stimuli (interstimulus interval of 25 or 10 ms), PAS leads to either an increase (PAS25) or a decrease (PAS10) in excitability. Both protocols, however, have been associated with an increase in excitability of nearby muscle representations not specifically targeted by PAS. Based on these spillover effects, we hypothesized that an additive, excitability-enhancing effect of PAS25 applied to one muscle representation may be produced by simultaneously applying PAS25 or PAS10 to a nearby representation. In different experiments prototypical PAS25 targeting the left thumb representation [abductor pollicis brevis (APB)] was combined with either PAS25 or PAS10 applied to the left little finger representation [abductor digiti minimi (ADM)] or, in a control experiment, with PAS10 also targeting the APB. In an additional control experiment PAS10 targeted both representations. The plasticity effects were quantified by measuring the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded before and after PAS. As expected, prototypical PAS25 was associated with an increase in MEP amplitude in the APB muscle. This effect was enhanced when PAS also targeted the ADM representation but only when a different interstimulus timing (PAS10) was used. These results suggest that PAS-induced plasticity is modified by concurrently targeting separate motor cortical representations with excitatory and inhibitory protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00794.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869502PMC
April 2016

Plasticity Induced by Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation in Bilateral Motor Cortices Is Not Altered in Older Adults.

Neural Plast 2015 6;2015:323409. Epub 2015 May 6.

The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Numerous studies have reported that plasticity induced in the motor cortex by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is attenuated in older adults. Those investigations, however, have focused solely on the stimulated hemisphere. Compared to young adults, older adults exhibit more widespread activity across bilateral motor cortices during the performance of unilateral motor tasks, suggesting that the manifestation of plasticity might also be altered. To address this question, twenty young (<35 years old) and older adults (>65 years) underwent intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) whilst attending to the hand targeted by the plasticity-inducing procedure. The amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by single pulse TMS was used to quantify cortical excitability before and after iTBS. Individual responses to iTBS were highly variable, with half the participants showing an unexpected decrease in cortical excitability. Contrary to predictions, however, there were no age-related differences in the magnitude or manifestation of plasticity across bilateral motor cortices. The findings suggest that advancing age does not influence the capacity for, or manifestation of, plasticity induced by iTBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/323409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438185PMC
March 2016

Intermanual transfer and bilateral cortical plasticity is maintained in older adults after skilled motor training with simple and complex tasks.

Front Aging Neurosci 2015 7;7:73. Epub 2015 May 7.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD, Australia.

Intermanual transfer refers to the phenomenon whereby unilateral motor training induces performance gains in both the trained limb and in the opposite, untrained limb. Evidence indicates that intermanual transfer is attenuated in older adults following training on a simple ballistic movement task, but not after training on a complex task. This study investigated whether differences in plasticity in bilateral motor cortices underlie these differential intermanual transfer effects in older adults. Twenty young (<35 years-old) and older adults (>65 years) trained on a simple (repeated ballistic thumb abduction) and complex (sequential finger-thumb opposition) task in separate sessions. Behavioral performance was used to quantify intermanual transfer between the dominant (trained) and non-dominant (untrained) hands. The amplitude of motor-evoked potentials induced by single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to investigate excitability changes in bilateral motor cortices. Contrary to predictions, both age groups exhibited performance improvements in both hands after unilateral skilled motor training with simple and complex tasks. These performance gains were accompanied by bilateral increases in cortical excitability in both groups for the simple but not the complex task. The findings suggest that advancing age does not necessarily influence the capacity for intermanual transfer after training with the dominant hand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423452PMC
May 2015

Electrophysiological evidence for altered visual, but not auditory, selective attention in adolescent cochlear implant users.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Nov 24;78(11):1908-16. Epub 2014 Aug 24.

The University of Queensland, The Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Selective attention fundamentally alters sensory perception, but little is known about the functioning of attention in individuals who use a cochlear implant. This study aimed to investigate visual and auditory attention in adolescent cochlear implant users.

Methods: Event related potentials were used to investigate the influence of attention on visual and auditory evoked potentials in six cochlear implant users and age-matched normally-hearing children. Participants were presented with streams of alternating visual and auditory stimuli in an oddball paradigm: each modality contained frequently presented 'standard' and infrequent 'deviant' stimuli. Across different blocks attention was directed to either the visual or auditory modality.

Results: For the visual stimuli attention boosted the early N1 potential, but this effect was larger for cochlear implant users. Attention was also associated with a later P3 component for the visual deviant stimulus, but there was no difference between groups in the later attention effects. For the auditory stimuli, attention was associated with a decrease in N1 latency as well as a robust P3 for the deviant tone. Importantly, there was no difference between groups in these auditory attention effects.

Conclusion: The results suggest that basic mechanisms of auditory attention are largely normal in children who are proficient cochlear implant users, but that visual attention may be altered. Ultimately, a better understanding of how selective attention influences sensory perception in cochlear implant users will be important for optimising habilitation strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.08.023DOI Listing
November 2014

Contingent capture of involuntary visual spatial attention does not differ between normally hearing children and proficient cochlear implant users.

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2014 ;32(6):799-811

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Purpose: Evidence suggests that deafness-induced changes in visual perception, cognition and attention may compensate for a hearing loss. Such alterations, however, may also negatively influence adaptation to a cochlear implant. This study investigated whether involuntary attentional capture by salient visual stimuli is altered in children who use a cochlear implant.

Methods: Thirteen experienced implant users (aged 8-16 years) and age-matched normally hearing children were presented with a rapid sequence of simultaneous visual and auditory events. Participants were tasked with detecting numbers presented in a specified color and identifying a change in the tonal frequency whilst ignoring irrelevant visual distractors.

Results: Compared to visual distractors that did not possess the target-defining characteristic, target-colored distractors were associated with a decrement in visual performance (response time and accuracy), demonstrating a contingent capture of involuntary attention. Visual distractors did not, however, impair auditory task performance. Importantly, detection performance for the visual and auditory targets did not differ between the groups.

Conclusion: These results suggest that proficient cochlear implant users demonstrate normal capture of visuospatial attention by stimuli that match top-down control settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-140399DOI Listing
July 2015

Contingent capture of involuntary visual attention interferes with detection of auditory stimuli.

Front Psychol 2014 2;5:528. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland St. Lucia, QLD, Australia.

The involuntary capture of attention by salient visual stimuli can be influenced by the behavioral goals of an observer. For example, when searching for a target item, irrelevant items that possess the target-defining characteristic capture attention more strongly than items not possessing that feature. Such contingent capture involves a shift of spatial attention toward the item with the target-defining characteristic. It is not clear, however, if the associated decrements in performance for detecting the target item are entirely due to involuntary orienting of spatial attention. To investigate whether contingent capture also involves a non-spatial interference, adult observers were presented with streams of visual and auditory stimuli and were tasked with simultaneously monitoring for targets in each modality. Visual and auditory targets could be preceded by a lateralized visual distractor that either did, or did not, possess the target-defining feature (a specific color). In agreement with the contingent capture hypothesis, target-colored distractors interfered with visual detection performance (response time and accuracy) more than distractors that did not possess the target color. Importantly, the same pattern of results was obtained for the auditory task: visual target-colored distractors interfered with sound detection. The decrement in auditory performance following a target-colored distractor suggests that contingent capture involves a source of processing interference in addition to that caused by a spatial shift of attention. Specifically, we argue that distractors possessing the target-defining characteristic enter a capacity-limited, serial stage of neural processing, which delays detection of subsequently presented stimuli regardless of the sensory modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4040937PMC
June 2014

Visual spatial attention has opposite effects on bidirectional plasticity in the human motor cortex.

J Neurosci 2014 Jan;34(4):1475-80

Queensland Brain Institute, School of Psychology, and School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are key mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that are thought to act in concert to shape neural connections. Here we investigated the influence of visual spatial attention on LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity in the human motor cortex. Plasticity was induced using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which involves repeated pairing of peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter functional responses in the thumb area of the primary motor cortex. PAS-induced changes in cortical excitability were assessed using motor-evoked potentials. During plasticity induction, participants directed their attention to one of two visual stimulus streams located adjacent to each hand. When participants attended to visual stimuli located near the left thumb, which was targeted by PAS, LTP-like increases in excitability were significantly enhanced, and LTD-like decreases in excitability reduced, relative to when they attended instead to stimuli located near the right thumb. These differential effects on (bidirectional) LTP-like and LTD-like plasticity suggest that voluntary visual attention can exert an important influence on the functional organization of the motor cortex. Specifically, attention acts to both enhance the strengthening and suppress the weakening of neural connections representing events that fall within the focus of attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1595-13.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6705316PMC
January 2014

Parietal disruption alters audiovisual binding in the sound-induced flash illusion.

Neuroimage 2012 Sep 30;62(3):1334-41. Epub 2012 May 30.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, QLD 4072, Australia.

Selective attention and multisensory integration are fundamental to perception, but little is known about whether, or under what circumstances, these processes interact to shape conscious awareness. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the causal role of attention-related brain networks in multisensory integration between visual and auditory stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion. The flash illusion is a widely studied multisensory phenomenon in which a single flash of light is falsely perceived as multiple flashes in the presence of irrelevant sounds. We investigated the hypothesis that extrastriate regions involved in selective attention, specifically within the right parietal cortex, exert an influence on the multisensory integrative processes that cause the flash illusion. We found that disruption of the right angular gyrus, but not of the adjacent supramarginal gyrus or of a sensory control site, enhanced participants' veridical perception of the multisensory events, thereby reducing their susceptibility to the illusion. Our findings suggest that the same parietal networks that normally act to enhance perception of attended events also play a role in the binding of auditory and visual stimuli in the sound-induced flash illusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.05.063DOI Listing
September 2012

Is the whole really more than the sum of its parts? Estimates of average size and orientation are susceptible to object substitution masking.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2013 Feb 28;39(1):233-44. Epub 2012 May 28.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

We have a remarkable ability to accurately estimate average featural information across groups of objects, such as their average size or orientation. It has been suggested that, unlike individual object processing, this process of feature averaging occurs automatically and relatively early in the course of perceptual processing, without the need for objects to be processed to the same extent as is required for individual object identification. Here, we probed the processing stages involved in feature averaging by examining whether feature averaging is resistant to object substitution masking (OSM). Participants estimated the average size (Experiment 1) or average orientation (Experiment 2) of groups of briefly presented objects. Masking a subset of the objects using OSM reduced the extent to which these objects contributed to estimates of both average size and average orientation. Contrary to previous findings, these results suggest that feature averaging benefits from late stages of processing, subsequent to the initial registration of featural information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0028762DOI Listing
February 2013

Visual attentional load influences plasticity in the human motor cortex.

J Neurosci 2012 May;32(20):7001-8

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Neural plasticity plays a critical role in learning, memory, and recovery from injury to the nervous system. Although much is known about the physical and physiological determinants of plasticity, little is known about the influence of cognitive factors. In this study, we investigated whether selective attention plays a role in modifying changes in neural excitability reflecting long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity. We induced LTP-like effects in the hand area of the human motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). During the induction of plasticity, participants engaged in a visual detection task with either low or high attentional demands. Changes in neural excitability were assessed by measuring motor-evoked potentials in a small hand muscle before and after the TMS procedures. In separate experiments plasticity was induced either by paired associative stimulation (PAS) or intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). Because these procedures induce different forms of LTP-like effects, they allowed us to investigate the generality of any attentional influence on plasticity. In both experiments reliable changes in motor cortex excitability were evident under low-load conditions, but this effect was eliminated under high-attentional load. In a third experiment we investigated whether the attentional task was associated with ongoing changes in the excitability of motor cortex, but found no difference in evoked potentials across the levels of attentional load. Our findings indicate that in addition to their role in modifying sensory processing, mechanisms of attention can also be a potent modulator of cortical plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1028-12.2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6622206PMC
May 2012

Perceptual load influences auditory space perception in the ventriloquist aftereffect.

Cognition 2011 Jan 25;118(1):62-74. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute and School of Psychology, QLD 4072, Australia.

A period of exposure to trains of simultaneous but spatially offset auditory and visual stimuli can induce a temporary shift in the perception of sound location. This phenomenon, known as the 'ventriloquist aftereffect', reflects a realignment of auditory and visual spatial representations such that they approach perceptual alignment despite their physical spatial discordance. Such dynamic changes to sensory representations are likely to underlie the brain's ability to accommodate inter-sensory discordance produced by sensory errors (particularly in sound localization) and variability in sensory transduction. It is currently unknown, however, whether these plastic changes induced by adaptation to spatially disparate inputs occurs automatically or whether they are dependent on selectively attending to the visual or auditory stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that robust auditory spatial aftereffects can be induced even in the presence of a competing visual stimulus. Importantly, we found that when attention is directed to the competing stimuli, the pattern of aftereffects is altered. These results indicate that attention can modulate the ventriloquist aftereffect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2010.09.009DOI Listing
January 2011

Effects of restricted basilar papillar lesions and hair cell regeneration on auditory forebrain frequency organization in adult European starlings.

J Neurosci 2009 May;29(21):6871-82

School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800, Australia.

The frequency organization of neurons in the forebrain Field L complex (FLC) of adult starlings was investigated to determine the effects of hair cell (HC) destruction in the basal portion of the basilar papilla (BP) and of subsequent HC regeneration. Conventional microelectrode mapping techniques were used in normal starlings and in lesioned starlings either 2 d or 6-10 weeks after aminoglycoside treatment. Histological examination of the BP and recordings of auditory brainstem evoked responses confirmed massive loss of HCs in the basal portion of the BP and hearing losses at frequencies >2 kHz in starlings tested 2 d after aminoglycoside treatment. In these birds, all neurons in the region of the FLC in which characteristic frequencies (CFs) normally increase from 2 to 6 kHz had CF in the range of 2-4 kHz. The significantly elevated thresholds of responses in this region of altered tonotopic organization indicated that they were the residue of prelesion responses and did not reflect CNS plasticity. In the long-term recovery birds, there was histological evidence of substantial HC regeneration. The tonotopic organization of the high-frequency region of the FLC did not differ from that in normal starlings, but the mean threshold at CF in this frequency range was intermediate between the values in the normal and lesioned short-recovery groups. The recovery of normal tonotopicity indicates considerable stability of the topography of neuronal connections in the avian auditory system, but the residual loss of sensitivity suggests deficiencies in high-frequency HC function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5513-08.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2702516PMC
May 2009

PLASTICITY IN THE ADULT CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM.

Acoust Aust 2006 Apr;34(1):13-17

The central auditory system retains into adulthood a remarkable capacity for plastic changes in the response characteristics of single neurons and the functional organization of groups of neurons. The most dramatic examples of this plasticity are provided by changes in frequency selectivity and organization as a consequence of either partial hearing loss or procedures that alter the significance of particular frequencies for the organism. Changes in temporal resolution are also seen as a consequence of altered experience. These forms of plasticity are likely to contribute to the improvements exhibited by cochlear implant users in the post-implantation period.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1892193PMC
April 2006

Basal forebrain cholinergic input is not essential for lesion-induced plasticity in mature auditory cortex.

Neuron 2005 Nov;48(4):675-86

School of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.

The putative role of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mediating lesion-induced plasticity in topographic cortical representations was investigated. Cholinergic immunolesions were combined with unilateral restricted cochlear lesions in adult cats, demonstrating the consequence of cholinergic depletion on lesion-induced plasticity in primary auditory cortex (AI). Immunolesions almost eliminated the cholinergic input to AI, while cochlear lesions produced broad high-frequency hearing losses. The results demonstrate that the near elimination of cholinergic input does not disrupt reorganization of the tonotopic representation of the lesioned (contralateral) cochlea in AI and does not affect the normal representation of the unlesioned (ipsilateral) cochlea. It is concluded that cholinergic basal forebrain input to AI is not essential for the occurrence of lesion-induced plasticity in AI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2005.09.014DOI Listing
November 2005

Origin and immunolesioning of cholinergic basal forebrain innervation of cat primary auditory cortex.

Hear Res 2005 Aug;206(1-2):89-106

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology, Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Vic. 3800, Australia.

Numerous studies have implicated the cholinergic basal forebrain (cBF) in the modulation of auditory cortical responses. This study aimed to accurately define the sources of cBF input to primary auditory cortex (AI) and to assess the efficacy of a cholinergic immunotoxin in cat. Three anaesthetized cats received multiple injections of horseradish-peroxidase conjugated wheatgerm-agglutin into physiologically identified AI. Following one to two days survival, tetramethylbenzidine histochemistry revealed the greatest number of retrogradely labeled cells in ipsilateral putamen, globus pallidus and internal capsule, and smaller numbers in more medial nuclei of the basal forebrain (BF). Concurrent choline acetyltransferase immunohistochemistry showed that almost 80% of the retrogradely labeled cells in BF were cholinergic, with the vast majority of these cells arising from the more lateral BF nuclei identified above. In the second part of the study, unilateral intraparenchymal injections of the cholinergic immunotoxin ME20.4-SAP were made into the putamen/globus pallidus nuclei of six cats. Immuno- and histochemistry revealed a massive reduction in the number of cholinergic cells in and around the targeted area, and a corresponding reduction in the density of cholinergic fibers in auditory cortex. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for investigations of the role of the cBF in cortical plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2004.12.014DOI Listing
August 2005

Plasticity in the tonotopic organization of the medial geniculate body in adult cats following restricted unilateral cochlear lesions.

J Comp Neurol 2003 May;459(4):355-67

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Psychological Medicine, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.

To investigate subcortical contributions to cortical reorganization, the frequency organization of the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body (MGv) in six normal adult cats and in eight cats with restricted unilateral cochlear lesions was investigated using multiunit electrophysiological recording techniques. The tonotopic organization of MGv in the lesioned animals, with severe mid-to-high frequency hearing losses, was investigated 40-186 days following the lesioning procedure. Frequency maps were generated from neural responses to pure tone bursts presented separately to each ear under barbiturate anesthesia. Consideration of the frequency organization in normal animals, and of the apparently normal representation of the ipsilateral (unlesioned) cochlea in lesioned animals, allowed for a detailed specification of the extent of changes observed in MGv. In the lesioned animals it was found that, in the region of MGv in which mid-to-high frequencies are normally represented, there was an "expanded representation" of lesion-edge frequencies. Neuron clusters within these regions of enlarged representation that had "new" characteristic frequencies displayed response properties (latency, bandwidth) very similar to those in normal animals. Thresholds of these neurons were not consistent with the argument that the changes merely reflect the residue of prelesion responses, suggesting a dynamic process of reorganization. The tonotopic reorganization observed in MGv is similar to that seen in the primary auditory cortex and is more extensive than the reorganization found in the auditory midbrain, suggesting that the auditory thalamus plays an important role in cortical plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.10586DOI Listing
May 2003
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