Publications by authors named "Marc J van Houwelingen"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel Methods for Quantification of Vasodepression and Cardioinhibition During Tilt-Induced Vasovagal Syncope.

Circ Res 2020 08 28;127(5):e126-e138. Epub 2020 May 28.

Cardiovascular Division, Arrhythmia Center, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (D.G.B.).

Rationale: Assessing the relative contributions of cardioinhibition and vasodepression to the blood pressure (BP) decrease in tilt-induced vasovagal syncope requires methods that reflect BP physiology accurately.

Objective: To assess the relative contributions of cardioinhibition and vasodepression to tilt-induced vasovagal syncope using novel methods.

Methods And Results: We studied the parameters determining BP, that is, stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR), in 163 patients with tilt-induced vasovagal syncope documented by continuous ECG and video EEG monitoring. We defined the beginning of cardioinhibition as the start of an HR decrease (HR) before syncope and used logarithms of SV, HR, and TPR ratios to quantify the multiplicative relation BP=SV·HR·TPR. We defined 3 stages before syncope and 2 after it based on direction changes of these parameters. The earliest BP decrease occurred 9 minutes before syncope. Cardioinhibition was observed in 91% of patients at a median time of 58 seconds before syncope. At that time, SV had a strong negative effect on BP, TPR a lesser negative effect, while HR had increased (all <0.001). At the onset of cardioinhibition, the median HR was at 98 bpm higher than baseline. Cardioinhibition thus initially only represented a reduction of the corrective HR increase but was nonetheless accompanied by an immediate acceleration of the ongoing BP decrease. At syncope, SV and HR contributed similarly to the BP decrease (<0.001), while TPR did not affect BP.

Conclusions: The novel methods allowed the relative effects of SV, HR, and TPR on BP to be assessed separately, although all act together. The 2 major factors lowering BP in tilt-induced vasovagal syncope were reduced SV and cardioinhibition. We suggest that the term vasodepression in reflex syncope should not be limited to reduced arterial vasoconstriction, reflected in TPR, but should also encompass venous pooling, reflected in SV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.316662DOI Listing
August 2020

A modified device for continuous non-invasive blood pressure measurements in humans under hyperbaric and/or oxygen-enriched conditions.

Diving Hyperb Med 2016 Mar;46(1):38-42

Department of Internal Medicine Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam The Netherlands Phone: +31-(0)20-566-5808, E-mail:

Background: It would be desirable to safely and continuously measure blood pressure noninvasively under hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions, in order to explore haemodynamic responses in humans under these conditions.

Methods: A systematic analysis according to 'failure mode and effects analysis' principles of a commercially available beat-by-beat non-invasive blood pressure monitoring device was performed using specifications provided by the manufacturer. Possible failure modes related to pressure resistance and fire hazard in hyperbaric and oxygen-enriched environments were identified and the device modified accordingly to mitigate these risks. The modified device was compared to an unaltered device in five healthy volunteers under normobaric conditions. Measurements were then performed under hyperbaric conditions (243 kPa) in five healthy subjects.

Results: Modifications required included: 1) replacement of the carbon brush motorized pump by pressurized air connected through a balanced pressure valve; 2) modification of the 12V power supply connection in the multiplace hyperbaric chamber, and 3) replacement of gas-filled electrolytic capacitors by solid equivalents. There was concurrence between measurements under normobaric conditions, with no significant differences in blood pressure. Measurements under pressure were achieved without problems and matched intermittent measurement of brachial arterial pressure.

Conclusion: The modified system provides safe, stable, continuous non-invasive blood pressure trends under both normobaric and hyperbaric conditions.
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March 2016

A novel approach to assess hemorrhagic shock severity using the arterially determined left ventricular isovolumic contraction period.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2013 Dec 11;305(12):H1790-7. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Experimental Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Cardiovascular Research School Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus University Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;

Recently, the ventilatory variation in pre-ejection period (ΔPEP) was found to be useful in the prediction of fluid-responsiveness of patients in shock. In the present study we investigated the behavior of the ventilation-induced variations in the systolic timing intervals in response to a graded hemorrhage protocol. The timing intervals studied included the ventilatory variation in ventricular electromechanical delay (ΔEMD), isovolumic contraction period (determined from the arterial pressure waveform, ΔAIC), pulse travel time (ΔPTT), and ΔPEP. ΔAIC and ΔPEP were evaluated in the aorta and carotid artery (annotated by subscripts Ao and CA) and were compared with the responses of pulse pressure variation (ΔPPAo) and stroke volume variation (ΔSV). The graded hemorrhage protocol, followed by resuscitation using norepinephrine and autologous blood transfusion, was performed in eight anesthetized Yorkshire X Landrace swine. ΔAICAo, ΔAICCA, ΔPEPAo, ΔPEPCA, ΔPPAo, ΔPPCA, and ΔSV showed significant increases during the graded hemorrhage and significant decreases during the subsequent resuscitation. ΔAICAo, ΔAICCA, ΔPEPAo, and ΔPEPCA all correlated well with ΔPPAo and ΔSV (all r ≥ 0.8, all P < 0.001). ΔEMD and ΔPTT did not significantly change throughout the protocol. In contrast with ΔPEPAo, which was significantly higher than ΔPEPCA (P < 0.01), ΔAICAo was not different from ΔAICCA. In conclusion, ventilation-induced preload variation principally affects the arterially determined isovolumic contraction period (AIC). Moreover, ΔAIC can be determined solely from the arterial pressure waveform, whereas ΔPEP also requires ECG measurement. Importantly, ΔAIC determined from either the carotid or aortic pressure waveform are interchangeable, suggesting that, in contrast with ΔPEP, ΔAIC may be site independent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00504.2013DOI Listing
December 2013

Initiation of ventricular contraction as reflected in the aortic pressure waveform.

Physiol Meas 2012 Apr 14;33(4):557-69. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Experimental Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research Institute COEUR, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Prior to aortic valve opening, aortic pressure is perturbed by ventricular contraction. The onset of this pressure perturbation coincides with the onset of the left ventricular (LV) isovolumic contraction, and hence will be referred to as the start of the arterially detected isovolumic contraction (AIC(start)). In the present study we test the hypothesis that the pressure perturbation indeed has a cardiac origin. In ten Yorkshire-Landrace swine, waveform intensity analysis demonstrated that AIC(start) was followed by a positive intensity wave (0.3 × 10(5) ± 0.3 × 10(5) W (m(2) s(2))(-1)). Timing analysis of LV and aortic pressure waveform showed that AIC(start) was preceded by a LV pressure perturbation (3.8 ± 1.8 ms, p < 0.001). These novel cardiac timing and aortic wave intensity findings reveal the cardiac origin of the pressure perturbation. In 15 Yorkshire-Landrace swine, myocardial motion analysis showed a significantly higher rate of segment shortening during the first part of the LV pressure perturbation. Therefore, both the LV and aortic pressure perturbation are most likely caused by the early phase of myocardial contraction, which also causes mitral valve closure. Consequently, AIC(start) is useful in the determination of the isovolumic contraction period, a well-known marker to quantify cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/33/4/557DOI Listing
April 2012

Coronary-aortic interaction during ventricular isovolumic contraction.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2011 Aug 13;49(8):917-24. Epub 2011 Apr 13.

Experimental Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, Cardiovascular Research Institute COEUR, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 50, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

In earlier work, we suggested that the start of the isovolumic contraction period could be detected in arterial pressure waveforms as the start of a temporary pre-systolic pressure perturbation (AIC(start), start of the Arterially detected Isovolumic Contraction), and proposed the retrograde coronary blood volume flow in combination with a backwards traveling pressure wave as its most likely origin. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by means of a coronary artery occlusion protocol. In six Yorkshire × Landrace swine, we simultaneously occluded the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) artery for 5 s followed by a 20-s reperfusion period and repeated this sequence at least two more times. A similar procedure was used to occlude only the right coronary artery (RCA) and finally all three main coronary arteries simultaneously. None of the occlusion protocols caused a decrease in the arterial pressure perturbation in the aorta during occlusion (P > 0.20) nor an increase during reactive hyperemia (P > 0.22), despite a higher deceleration of coronary blood volume flow (P = 0.03) or increased coronary conductance (P = 0.04) during hyperemia. These results show that the pre-systolic aortic pressure perturbation does not originate from the coronary arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-011-0770-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3139876PMC
August 2011

Quantitative analysis of exercise-induced enhancement of early- and late-systolic retrograde coronary blood flow.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2010 Mar 10;108(3):507-14. Epub 2009 Dec 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.

Coronary blood flow (CBF) is reduced and transiently reversed during systole via cardiac contraction. Cardiac contractility, coronary tone, and arterial pressure each influence systolic CBF (CBF(SYS)), particularly by modulating the retrograde component of CBF(SYS). The effect of concurrent changes in these factors on CBF(SYS) during dynamic exercise has not been examined. Using chronically instrumented swine, we hypothesized that dynamic exercise enhances retrograde CBF(SYS). Phasic CBF was examined at rest and during treadmill exercise [2-5 miles/h (mph)]. Absolute values of mean CBF over the cardiac cycle (CBF(CYCLE)) as well as mean CBF in diastole (CBF(DIAS)) and mean CBF(SYS) were increased by exercise, while relative CBF(DIAS) and CBF(SYS) expressed as percentage of mean CBF(CYCLE) were principally unchanged. Early retrograde CBF(SYS) was present at rest and increased in magnitude (-33 +/- 4 ml/min) and as a percent of CBF(CYCLE) (-0.6 +/- 0.1%) at 5 mph. This reversal was transient, comprising 3.7 +/- 0.3% of cardiac cycle duration at 5 mph. Our results also reveal that moderately intense exercise (>3 mph) induced a second CBF reversal in late systole before aortic valve closure. At 5 mph, late retrograde CBF(SYS) amounted to -53 +/- 11 ml/min (-3.1 +/- 0.7% of CBF(CYCLE)) while occupying 11.1 +/- 0.3% of cardiac cycle duration. Wave-intensity analysis revealed that the second flow reversal coincided with an enhanced aortic forward-going decompression wave (vs. rest). Therefore, our data demonstrate a predictable increase in early-systolic CBF reversal during exercise and additionally that exercise induces a late-systolic CBF reversal related to the hemodynamic effects of left ventricular relaxation that is not predictable using current models of phasic CBF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01096.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2838641PMC
March 2010

The onset of ventricular isovolumic contraction as reflected in the carotid artery distension waveform.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2007 Mar;33(3):371-8

Department of Biophysics, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The blood pressure waveform carries information about the cardiac contraction and the impedance characteristics of the vascular bed. Here, we demonstrate that the start of isovolumic ventricular contraction is persistently reflected as an inflection point in the pressure wave as recorded in the aortic root (TP(IC)) as well as in the carotid artery distension waveform (TD(IC)) as it travels down the arterial tree. In a group of six patients with normal pressure gradients across the aortic valve after valve replacement, the TP(IC) had a small delay with respect to the onset of isovolumic ventricular contraction (<10 ms). In a group (n = 21) of young presumably healthy volunteers, the inflection point occurred persistently in the carotid distension waveform, as recorded by means of ultrasound, before the systolic foot (intersubject delay between inflection point and systolic foot: mean +/- SD = 40.0 +/- 9.4 ms, intrasubject SD 4.6 ms). Retrograde coronary blood flow during isovolumic ventricular contraction may be the origin of the persistent end-diastolic pressure and distension perturbation. This study shows that the duration of the isovolumic contraction can be reliably extracted from the carotid artery distension waveform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2006.08.014DOI Listing
March 2007
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