Publications by authors named "Marc Giovannini"

216 Publications

Benefit of radiofrequency ablation after widespread endoscopic resection of neoplastic Barrett's esophagus in daily practice.

Ann Gastroenterol 2022 Jan-Feb;35(1):34-41. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Division of Gastroenterology, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Marseille, France (Fabrice Caillol, Erwan Bories, Jean Philippe Ratone, Marc Giovannini).

Background: High-grade dysplasia (HGD) and intramucosal carcinoma (IMC) in Barrett's esophagus (BE) are now well-established indications for endoscopic resection (ER). Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can be combined with ER in case of flat or long-segment BE ablation. We report here our experience of complementary RFA after widespread ER of neoplastic BE in daily practice.

Method: We retrospectively reviewed data of 89 patients, treated between 2006 and 2013 by ER alone (group 1) or by ER combined with RFA (group 2).

Results: Fifty-five patients in group 1 (7F/48M, mean age 68 years) underwent widespread ER with eradication of residual non-dysplastic BE. Complete eradication of HGD/IMC and intestinal metaplasia (IM) was achieved in 32/32 (100%) and 48/55 (87.3%) patients, respectively. Thirty-four patients in group 2 (3F/31M, mean age 67 years) had a multimodal treatment strategy, with widespread ER followed by RFA. Mean Prague classification of BE in this group was significantly longer (C4.4M6.6 vs. C2.7M4.5, P<0.001). Complete eradication of HGD/IMC and non-dysplastic BE was confirmed in 26/27 (96.3%) and 20/34 (58.8%) patients, respectively. There was no significant difference between groups concerning adverse events (16.4% vs. 23.5%, P=0.58) or recurrence rate of HGD/IMC (9.1% vs. 14.7%, P=0.42). The mismatch rate between preoperative and final histological diagnosis was high in both groups, at 45.5% and 26.5%.

Conclusions: A combination of ER and RFA can treat significantly longer neoplastic BE than ER alone, with the same efficiency and safety. Widespread ER, in contrast, is the only method of obtaining a reliable histological diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20524/aog.2021.0685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713341PMC
December 2021

Management of non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors by endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation: Retrospective study in two tertiary centers.

Dig Endosc 2021 Dec 28. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Division of, Gastroenterology, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Marseille, France.

Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in investigating endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) for the management of small non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (nf pNETs).

Patients And Methods: A bicentric retrospective study was performed that included patients with histologically confirmed nf pNETs who were consecutively treated by EUS-RFA between December 2015 and March 2021 at two tertiary referral centers.

Results: In 27 patients (mean age 65.0 years, 52% male), EUS-RFA was successfully performed. All patients had sporadic G1 lesions (mean size 14.0 ± 4.6 mm, 7% uncinated process, 22% head, 11% body, 19% body/tail junction, and 41% tail). Overall, 9/27 lesions (33%) were cystic. The mean hospital stay was 3.2 days. Complete treatment response was confirmed in 25/27 patients (93%) on cross-sectional imaging (mean follow-up 15.7 ± 12.2 months, range 2-41 months). Two patients had two EUS-RFA sessions until complete necrosis was observed. Periprocedural acute pancreatitis occurred in 4/27 (14.8%), three of them were treated by endoscopic cystogastrostomy (11.1%). One patient underwent secondary surgery. The histopathology of the resected specimen revealed 3 mm of residual tumor tissue.

Conclusion: EUS-RFA seems to be a promising treatment strategy for the management of small nf pNETs with excellent efficacy. Further evidence focusing on long-term survival, safety profile and recurrence is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.14224DOI Listing
December 2021

The Management of a Comprehensive Cancer Center during the First Six Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the South of France: Lessons from the Paoli-Calmettes Institute's Experience.

Clin Hematol Int 2021 Dec 27;3(4):119-129. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Aix-Marseille University (AMU), Marseille, France.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was rapidly established that cancer patients have an increased risk of developing severe forms of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) due to a backlog of cancer diagnostics and immunosuppressive treatments. Cancer centers had to quickly adapt to continue cancer therapies despite the high infection risks and major disruptions in the French healthcare system. We described and analyzed the impact of the pandemic in our institution: management adjustments, COVID-19 infection rates in patients and staff, and impacts on clinical activities and finances during the first wave of the pandemic from March to September 2020. We also compared the results to the clinical activity data from preceding periods. A crisis unit was rapidly created that met 27 times over 66 days, generating numerous changes in hospital protocol. While our area was devastated by the pandemic, the infection rate of our staff and patients remained low (less than 1.5% of all employees). However, the lockdown period was accompanied with a reduction of most clinical activities, leading to decreases of 43%, 36%, 36%, 1%, and 10% in surgery, endoscopy, radiotherapy, and in- and out-patient chemotherapy sessions, respectively, with substantial financial loss. Our report highlights the need for the rapid creation, implementation, and adaptation of new protocols during a pandemic's evolution to prevent disease transmission. Lessons from this situation should provide motivation to better prepare for/limit the dismantling of cancer therapies that can dramatically impact patient care and have deleterious consequences on an institution's financial situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210919.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8690701PMC
December 2021

Therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound: European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) Guideline.

Endoscopy 2021 Dec 22. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

1: ESGE recommends the use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) over percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in malignant distal biliary obstruction when local expertise is available.Strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence. 2: ESGE suggests EUS-BD with hepaticogastrostomy only for malignant inoperable hilar biliary obstruction with a dilated left hepatic duct when inadequately drained by ERCP and/or PTBD in high volume expert centers.Weak recommendation, moderate quality evidence. 3: ESGE recommends that EUS-guided pancreatic duct (PD) drainage should only be considered in symptomatic patients with an obstructed PD when retrograde endoscopic intervention fails or is not possible.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence. 4: ESGE recommends rendezvous EUS techniques over transmural PD drainage in patients with favorable anatomy owing to its lower rate of adverse events.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence. 5: ESGE recommends that, in patients at high surgical risk, EUS-guided gallbladder drainage (GBD) should be favored over percutaneous gallbladder drainage where both techniques are available, owing to the lower rates of adverse events and need for re-interventions in EUS-GBD.Strong recommendation, high quality of evidence. 6: ESGE recommends EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE), in an expert setting, for malignant gastric outlet obstruction, as an alternative to enteral stenting or surgery.Strong recommendation, low quality evidence. 7: ESGE recommends that EUS-GE may be considered in the management of afferent loop syndrome, especially in the setting of malignancy or in poor surgical candidates. Strong recommendation, low quality evidence. 8: ESGE suggests that endoscopic ultrasound-directed transgastric ERCP (EDGE) can be offered, in expert centers, to patients with a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass following multidisciplinary decision-making, with the aim of overcoming the invasiveness of laparoscopy-assisted ERCP and the limitations of enteroscopy-assisted ERCP.Weak recommendation, low quality evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1717-1391DOI Listing
December 2021

EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation for pancreatic insulinoma: experience in 2 tertiary centers.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background And Aims: Insulinoma is the most frequent functional neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas and preserving surgery its treatment of choice. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) is a novel and promising technique that induces tissue necrosis of localized lesions. This article presents a preliminary clinical experience in treating pancreatic insulinomas <2 cm by EUS-RFA, focusing on safety and efficacy.

Methods: Clinical course of patients with pancreatic insulinoma treated by EUS-RFA at 2 tertiary referral centers was analyzed.

Results: Between November 2017 and December 2020, 7 patients were included (6/7 female; mean age 66 years). EUS-RFA was feasible in all patients (7/7) with immediate hypoglycemia relief after only 1 single treatment session, 6 out of 7 achieved complete response by cross-sectional imaging and remained asymptomatic (median follow-up 21 months; range 3-38). Three patients had minor adverse events. One elderly patient developed a large retrogastric collection 15 days after treatment, and died 1 month after EUS-RFA.

Conclusion: Management of pancreatic NETs <2 cm by EUS-RFA seems effective with an acceptable safety profile. Yet, further evidence focusing on long-term survival and recurrence is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.11.045DOI Listing
December 2021

Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation as an Future Alternative to Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Metastases from Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Prospective Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 20;13(21). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 13009 Marseille, France.

Background: Pancreatic metastases (PM) from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are rare, are associated with favorable outcomes and are usually handled by surgery or VEGFR inhibitors, which both have side effects. Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an innovative approach to treat focally deep metastases and could be a relevant technique to control PM from RCC.

Methods: This monocentric, prospective study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EUS-RFA to treat PM. We included patients with confirmed and progressive PM from RCC. PM was ablated under general anesthesia with a linear EUS scope and a EUS-RFA 19-gauge needle electrode placed into the tumor.

Results: Twelve patients from Paoli-Calmettes Institute were recruited between May 2017 and December 2019. Median age was 70.5 years (range 61-75), 50% were female, 100% were ECOG 0-1. At inclusion, mean PM size was 17 mm (range 3-35 mm); and all were progressive before EUS-RFA. Seven patients had EUS-RFA as the only treatment for RCC. We performed 26 EUS-RFA procedures and 21 PM was ablated. Median follow up was 27.7 months (range 6.4-57.1). For evaluable PM, the 6- and 12-month focal control rates were 84% and 73% respectively. One patient treated with TKI developed a paraduodenal abscess 2 months after EUS-RFA and another patient with biliary stent developed hepatic abscesses few days after EUS-RFA. No other severe side effects were experienced.

Conclusions: in this series, which is the largest ever reported, we showed that EUS-RFA is feasible and yields an excellent local control rate for PM from mRCC. With manageable complications, it could be a valuable alternative to pancreatic surgery in well-selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582413PMC
October 2021

Learning in therapeutic EUS.

Authors:
Marc Giovannini

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Sep-Oct;10(5):317-318

Department of Medico-Surgical, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Marseille, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-21-00205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8544006PMC
October 2021

Hepaticogastrostomy choledochoduodenostomy: An international multicenter study on their long-term patency.

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical Hospital, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.

Background And Objectives: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) offers minimally invasive decompression when conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography fails. Stents can be placed from the intrahepatic ducts into the stomach (hepaticogastrostomy [HG]) or from the extrahepatic bile duct into the small intestine (choledochoduodenostomy [CCD]). Long-term patency of these stents is unknown. In this study, we aim to compare long-term patency of CCD versus HG.

Methods: Consecutive patients from 12 centers were included in a registry over 14 years. Demographics, procedure info, adverse events, and follow-up data were collected. Student's t-test, Chi-square, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Only patients with at least 6-month follow-up or who died within 6-month postprocedure were included.

Results: One-hundred and eighty-two patients were included (93% male; mean age: 70; HG n = 95, CCD n = 87). No significant difference in indication, diagnosis, dissection instrument, or stent type was seen between the two groups. Technical success was 92% in both groups. Clinical success was achieved in 75/87 (86%) in the HG group and 80/80 (100%) in the CCD group. A trend toward higher adverse events was seen in the CCD group. A total of 25 patients out of 87 needed stent revision in the HG group (success rate 71%), while eight out of 80 were revised in the CCD group (success rate 90%). Chi square shows CCD success higher than HG (90% vs. 71%, P = 0.010). After adjusting for diagnosis, jaundice or cholangitis presentation, instrument used for dissection, and gender, CCD was 4.5 times more likely than HG to achieve longer stent patency or manage obstruction (odds ratio 4.5; 95% 1.1548-17.6500, P = 0.0302).

Conclusion: CCD is associated with superior long-term patency than HG but with a trend toward higher adverse events. This is particularly important in patients with increased survival. Additional studies are required before recommending a change in practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-21-00006DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term outcome after EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation: Prospective results in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

Endosc Int Open 2021 Aug 16;9(8):E1178-E1185. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Hopital Nord - Gastroenterology, Marseille, France.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA) for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasia (IPMN) with worrisome features or high-risk stigmata (WF/HRS) has been evaluated in few series with short-term outcomes. This study's primary endpoint was to assess the long-term efficacy of EUS-RFA in patients with NETs or pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) over at least 3 years. Twelve patients had 14 NETs with a mean 13.4-mm size (10-20) and 17 patients had a cystic tumor (16 IPMN, 1 MCA) with a 29.1-mm mean size (9-60 were included. They were treated with EUS-guided RFA, evaluated prospectively at 1 year, and followed annually for at least 3 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 42.9 months (36-53). Four patients died during follow-up (17-42 months) from unrelated diseases. At 1-year follow-up, and 85.7 % complete disappearance was seen in 12 patients with 14 NETs. At the end of follow-up (45.6 months), complete disappearance of tumors was seen in 85.7 % of cases. One case of late liver metastasis occurred in a patient with initial failure of EUS-RFA. At 1-year follow-up, a significant response was seen in 70.5 % of 15 patients with PCNs. At the end of the follow-up, there was a significant response in 66.6 % with no mural nodules. Two cases of distant pancreatic adenocarcinoma unrelated to IPMN occurred. EUS-RFA results for pancreatic NETs or PCNs appear to be stable during 42 months of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1479-2199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383082PMC
August 2021

Expert consensus on endoscopic papillectomy using a Delphi process.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 10 19;94(4):760-773.e18. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam Gastroenterology Endocrinology & Metabolism, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Consensus regarding an optimal algorithm for endoscopic treatment of papillary adenomas has not been established. We aimed to assess the existing degree of consensus among international experts and develop further concordance by means of a Delphi process.

Methods: Fifty-two international experts in the field of endoscopic papillectomy were invited to participate. Data were collected between August and December 2019 using an online survey platform. Three rounds were conducted. Consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement.

Results: Sixteen experts (31%) completed the full process, and consensus was achieved on 47 of the final 79 statements (59%). Diagnostic workup should include at least an upper endoscopy using a duodenoscope (100%) and biopsy sampling (94%). There should be selected use of additional abdominal imaging (75%-81%). Patients with (suspected) papillary malignancy or over 1 cm intraductal extension should be referred for surgical resection (76%). To prevent pancreatitis, rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be administered before resection (82%) and a pancreatic stent should be placed (100%). A biliary stent is indicated in case of ongoing bleeding from the papillary region (76%) or concerns for a (micro)perforation after resection (88%). Follow-up should be started 3 to 6 months after initial papillectomy and repeated every 6 to 12 months for at least 5 years (75%).

Conclusions: This is the first step in developing an international consensus-based algorithm for endoscopic management of papillary adenomas. Surprisingly, in many areas consensus could not be achieved. These aspects should be the focus of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.04.009DOI Listing
October 2021

Gastrointestinal Metastases From Primary Renal Cell Cancer: A Single Center Review.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:644301. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Department of Medical Oncology, Aix-Marseille University, Inserm, CNRS, CRCM, Marseille, France.

Digestive metastases (DMs) from renal cell cancer (RCC) are rare. Over the past decade, the overall survival of metastatic RCC (mRCC) has been improved by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The main objective of this study was to assess the incidence of metastases of the digestive tract in this new field of treatment. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the clinical characteristics, prognosis, treatments used for DMs, and median time between the diagnosis of RCC or mRCC and DMs. A retrospective analysis of data collected from all patients with mRCC between 2007 (the time of TKI was a standard of care) and 2019 was carried out at the Paoli-Calmettes Institute (Marseille, France). Computer research software using artificial intelligence (ConSoRe®) was used to identify patients and assess their characteristics. Between January 2007 and December 2019, 11 out of 660 (1.6%) mRCC patients had metastases of the gastrointestinal tract. The median age was 62 years. Of the 11 patients, 81.8% experienced digestive bleeding or anemia. Only 2 patients were asymptomatic. The metastases were mainly duodenal (50%) and gastric (41.6%). The median time from cancer diagnosis and from metastatic disease to gastrointestinal metastasis was 4.3 years (3 months-19.2 years) and 2.25 years (0 days-10.2 years), respectively. Local treatment was performed in 38.5% of cases by endoscopy (60%), surgery (20%) and radiotherapy (40%) with success rates of 33, 100, and 50%, respectively. Etiological treatment was modified following the discovery of DM in 84.6% of the cases. The median survival was 1 year from the diagnosis of DM (13 days-9.4 years). Two patients were still alive 2.9 and 9.4 years after the diagnosis of DM. This is the largest monocentric retrospective analysis of DM in patients with RCC. It seems to be a rare and late event in the course of the disease. Local treatment combined with systemic treatment could improve survival. In the context of prolonged survival with the new based immunotherapy treatments in mRCC, we suggest that unexplained anemia or persistent digestive symptoms could be explored by endoscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.644301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023271PMC
March 2021

Endoscopic management of concomitant biliary and duodenal malignant obstruction: Impact of the timing of drainage for one . two procedures and the modalities of biliary drainage.

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Mar-Apr;10(2):124-133

Endoscopy Unit, Paoli Calmette Institute, Marseille, France.

Background And Objectives: Concomitant biliary and duodenal malignant obstruction are a severe condition mainly managed by duodenal and biliary stenting, which can be performed simultaneously (SAMETIME) or in two distinct procedures (TWO-TIMES). We conducted a single-center retrospective study to evaluate the feasibility of a SAMETIME procedure and the impact of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-hepaticogastrostomy in double malignant obstructions.

Patients And Methods: From January 1, 2011, to January 1, 2018, patients with concomitant malignant bilioduodenal obstruction treated endoscopically were included. The primary endpoint was hospitalization duration. The secondary endpoints were bilioduodenal reintervention rates, adverse event rates, and overall survival. Patients were divided into groups for statistical analysis: (i) divided according to the timing of biliary drainage: SAMETIME vs. TWO-TIMES group, (ii) divided based on the biliary drainage method: EUS-HG group underwent hepaticogastrostomy, while DUODENAL ACCESS group underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic drainage (PCTD) or EUS-guided choledocoduodenostomy (EUS-CD).

Results: Thirty-one patients were included (19 women, median age = 71 years). Stenosis was mainly related to pancreatic cancer (17 patients, 54.8%). Sixteen patients were in the SAMETIME group, and 15 were in the TWO-TIMES group. Biliary drainage was performed by EUS-HG in 11 (35.%) patients, PCTD in 11 (35.%), ERCP in 8 (25.8%) and choledoduodenostomy in 1. Thirty patients died during follow-up. The median survival was 77 days (9% confidence interval [37-140]). The mean hospitalization duration was lower in the SAMETIME group: 7.5 vs. 12.6 days, P = 0.04. SAMETIME group patients tended to have a lower complication than TWO-TIMES (26.7% vs. 56.3%, P = 0.10). The EUS-HG group tended to have a lower complication rate (5% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.07) and less biliary endoscopic revision (30% vs. 9.1%, P = 0.37) than DUODENAL ACCESS.

Conclusions: SAMETIME drainage is associated with a lower hospital stay without increased morbidity. EUS-HG could provide better access because it did not exhibit a higher complication rate and showed a tendency toward better patency and fewer complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-20-00159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098836PMC
April 2021

Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation or surveillance in patients with Barrett's oesophagus with confirmed low-grade dysplasia: a multicentre randomised trial.

Gut 2021 06 8;70(6):1014-1022. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Hopital Cochin, Paris, Île-de-France, France.

Objective: Due to an annual progression rate of Barrett's oesophagus (BO) with low-grade dysplasia (LGD) between 9% and 13% per year endoscopic ablation therapy is preferred to surveillance. Since this recommendation is based on only one randomised trial, we aimed at checking these results by another multicentre randomised trial with a similar design.

Design: A prospective randomised study was performed in 14 centres comparing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) (maximum of 4 sessions) to annual endoscopic surveillance, including patients with a confirmed diagnosis of BO with LGD. Primary outcome was the prevalence of LGD at 3 years. Secondary outcomes were the prevalence of LGD at 1 year, the complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) at 3 years, the rate of neoplastic progression at 3 years and the treatment-related morbidity.

Results: 125 patients were initially included, of whom 82 with confirmed LGD (76 men, mean age 62.3 years) were finally randomised, 40 patients in the RFA and 42 in the surveillance group. At 3 years, CE-IM rates were 35% vs 0% in the RFA and surveillance groups, respectively (p<0.001). At the same time, the prevalence LGD was 34.3% (95% CI 18.6 to 50.0) in the RFA group vs 58.1% (95% CI 40.7 to 75.4) in the surveillance group (OR=0.38 (95% CI 0.14 to 1.02), p=0.05). Neoplastic progression was found in 12.5% (RFA) vs 26.2% (surveillance; p=0.15). The complication rate was maximal after the first RFA treatment (16.9%).

Conclusion: RFA modestly reduced the prevalence of LGD as well as progression risk at 3 years. The risk-benefit balance of endoscopic ablation therapy should therefore be carefully weighted against surveillance in patients with BO with confirmed LGD.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01360541.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322082DOI Listing
June 2021

Preoperative EUS evaluation of the response to neoadjuvant therapy for gastric and esophagogastric junction cancer is correlated with survival: A single retrospective study of 97 patients.

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Mar-Apr;10(2):103-110

Department of Endoscopy, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Background And Objectives: The European Society for Medical Oncology suggests performing EUS staging for esophagogastric junction and gastric cancers to further assess the T and N stages. The use of EUS after neoadjuvant therapy (NT) is still under debate. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of EUS after NT to staging, therapeutic choices, and prognosis prediction.

Subjects And Methods: In 97 patients with esophagogastric junction and gastric cancers who received NT (chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy) followed by carcinologic surgery, EUS was performed before (uT, uN) and after (yuT, yuN) NT. We compared the results of EUS staging after NT (yuT and yuN) and final histology (ypT and ypN). We analyzed the correlation between overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and the objective and subjective responses to NT evaluated by EUS (comparison of uT and yuT and uN and yuN with OS and DFS).

Results: EUS staging detected metastasis that went undetected by computed tomography in 16% of metastatic patients. The accuracy between EUS after NT and postoperative pathological findings was 44.4% (34.2%; 54.7%) for T stage and 49.3% (37.5%; 61.1%) for N stage. On multivariate analysis, OS had significantly correlated with the objective response to NT. In the case of a response to NT, the median OS was 64.77 months, and in the case of stable disease, the median OS was 22.9 months (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: EUS after NT can be used for staging. Despite its moderate accuracy, the evaluation of the response to NT by EUS seems to be correlated with patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-20-00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098840PMC
March 2021

Endoscopic mucosal resection of sporadic duodenal nonampullary adenoma: outcomes of 130 patients with a long-term follow up in two tertiary French centers.

Ann Gastroenterol 2021 27;34(2):169-176. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Gastroenterology Unit, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Marseille Nord, Chemin des Bourrely (Solène Hoibian, Jean-Michel Gonzalez, Jean-Charles Grimaud, Marc Barthet).

Background: The long-term outcomes and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of sporadic duodenal adenoma (SDA), and the management of adverse events need to be confirmed.

Methods: A bicentric retrospective study was performed including all patients who underwent EMR for SDAs from 2003-2016. The primary aim was to evaluate the efficiency of EMR for SDA. The secondary objectives were to assess safety, recurrence management, predictive factors for treatment success, and adverse events.

Results: One hundred thirty patients (134 procedures) were included (median age 65 years, 49.3% male). The mean SDA size was 20.7 (range 5-50) mm. Of the SDAs, 58.2% were category 3 of the Vienna classification, 35.8% were category 4, and 5.9% were category 5. The median follow up was 25.0 (range 2-120) months. Complete mucosal resection was achieved for 129/134 lesions (96.2%), with en bloc resection in 59/134 (44%). Recurrence occurred in 28.6% of cases (30/105 procedures). Recurrence was successfully treated by new endoscopic procedures in 72.2% (13/18) and by surgery in 27.8% (5/18). Delayed bleeding occurred in 13.4% of cases (18/134) and was successfully managed endoscopically. The perforation rate was 3.7% (5/134); perforations were managed without surgery in 60% (3/5 patients) of cases.

Conclusions: Endoscopic treatment of SDA appears to be effective and relatively safe in tertiary centers. All bleeding complications were endoscopically controlled, and perforation was rare. Recurrence was frequent but could be managed endoscopically. EMR is confirmed as a first-line treatment in cases of SDA, and surgery is useful only if repeated EMRs fail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20524/aog.2021.0581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903584PMC
January 2021

An international study of interobserver variability of "string sign" of pancreatic cysts among experienced endosonographers.

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Jan-Feb;10(1):39-50

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background And Objectives: No single optimal test reliably determines the pancreatic cyst subtype. Following EUS-FNA, the "string sign" test can differentiate mucinous from nonmucinous cysts. However, the interobserver variability of string sign results has not been studied.

Methods: An experienced endosonographer performed EUS-FNA of pancreatic cysts on different patients and was recorded on video performing the string sign test for each. The videos were shared internationally with 14 experienced endosonographers, with a survey for each video: "Is the string sign positive?" and "If the string sign is positive, what is the length of the formed string?" Also asked "What is the cutoff length for string sign to be considered positive?" Interobserver variability was assessed using the kappa statistic (κ).

Results: A total of 112 observations were collected from 14 endosonographers. Regarding string sign test positivity, κ was 0.6 among 14 observers indicating good interrater agreement (P < 0.001) while κ was 0.38 when observers were compared to the index endosonographer demonstrating marginal agreement (P < 0.001). Among observations of the length of the string in positive samples, 89.8% showed >5 mm of variability (P < 0.001), indicating marked variability. There was poor agreement on the cutoff length for a string to be considered positive.

Conclusion: String sign of pancreatic cysts has a good interobserver agreement regarding its positivity that can help in differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous pancreatic cysts. However, the agreement is poor on the measured length of the string and the cutoff length of the formed string to be considered a positive string sign.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_73_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980687PMC
January 2021

Feasibility of EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy for inoperable malignant hilar biliary strictures.

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Jan-Feb;10(1):51-56

Department of Endoscopy, Institut Paoli-Calmette, Marseille, France.

Background And Objectives: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has emerged as a complementary technique for primary drainage or as a rescue technique after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of EUS-BD for malignant hilar stenosis (MHS), both as an initial and rescue procedure.

Patients And Methods: This study was a retrospective work based on a prospective registry of patients with malignant drainage stenosis of the hilum. For this analysis, only patients who underwent EUS-BD drainage were included. The drainage procedure could be performed by EUS-BD alone or in combination with another technique, for initial drainage or reintervention.

Results: Between January 2015 and September 2018, 20 patients were included. The mean patient age was 68 years. Seven patients had primary liver tumors and 13 had obstructions caused by metastasis. Four patients had Type II stenosis, 7 had Type IIIA, 2 had Type IIIb, and 7 had Type IV stenosis. Sixteen patients underwent EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) for initial drainage and four as reintervention. For initial drainage, 2 patients underwent EUS-HGS alone and 14 underwent EUS-HGS in combination with another technique: 11 combined with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), 2 with percutaneous transhepatic drainage, and 1 with ERCP and percutaneous transhepatic drainage. The technical success rate for EUS-HGS in the drainage of MHS was 100%, and the clinical success rate was 95%. The mean percentage of liver drained was 84%, with an average 1.7 endoscopic sessions and an average 2.7 protheses. The early complication rate was 35% and the mortality rate was 5%. Five EUS-HGS/ERCP combination drainage procedures were performed in one session and six were performed in two sessions with similar complication rates and percentages of liver segments drained.

Conclusion: EUS-BD is a feasible and safe technique for initial drainage and for reintervention procedures. The EUS-HGS/ERCP combination seemed to be useful in cases of complex stenosis and could be performed during the same session or in two sessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_68_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980690PMC
January 2021

Comparison of endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy and the antegrade technique in the management of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction: study protocol for a prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Sep 29;21(1):817. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of gastroenterology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Shenyang, 110004, China.

Background: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) is used after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Based on existing studies, intrahepatic (IH) approaches are preferred in patients with dilated IH bile ducts. Both ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) and ultrasound-guided antegrade treatment (EUS-AG) are appropriate for patients with unreachable papillae. Nevertheless, there have been no direct comparisons between these two approaches. Therefore, we aim to evaluate and compare the safety and efficiency of EUS-HGS and EUS-AG in patients with an unreachable papilla.

Methods: This is a prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre study with two parallel groups without masking. One hundred forty-eight patients from three hospitals who met the inclusion criteria will be randomly assigned (1:1) to undergo either EUS-HGS or EUS-AG for relief of malignant biliary obstruction. The final study follow-up is scheduled at 1 year postoperatively. The primary endpoint is efficiency, described by technical and clinical success rates of EUS-HGS and EUS-AG in patients with unreachable papillae. The secondary endpoints include stent patency, overall survival rates, complication rates, length of hospital stays, and hospitalisation expenses. The chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier methods, log-rank test, and Cox regression analysis will be used to analyse the data.

Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare these two EUS-BD approaches directly using a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial design. The clinical economic indexes will also be compared, as they may also affect the patient's choice. The result may contribute to establishing a strategic guideline for choosing IH EUS-BD approaches.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) ChiCTR1900020737 . Registered on 15 January 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04758-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525949PMC
September 2020

Is Piecemeal Endoscopic Resection Acceptable for Early Colorectal Cancers in Certain Situations? A Single-Center French Study.

J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2020 Sep 9;29(3):353-360. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Endoscopy Unit, Marseille, France.

Background And Aims: The use of endoscopic treatment for early colorectal cancer (ECC) is increasing. The European guidelines suggest performing piecemeal endoscopic resection (pmR) for benign lesions and en bloc resection for ECC, especially for patients with favorable lymph node involvement risk evaluations. However, en bloc resections for lesions larger than two centimeters require invasive endoscopic techniques. Our retrospective single-center study aimed to determine the clinical impact of performing pmR for ECC rather than traditional en bloc resection.

Methods: A single-center study was performed between January 2012 and September 2017. All ECC patients were included. The main objective was to evaluate the number of patients who potentially underwent unnecessary surgery due to piecemeal resection. The secondary endpoints were as follows: disease-free survival (DFS), defined as the time from pmR to endoscopic failure (local recurrence not treatable by endoscopy), complication rate, number of patients who did not undergo surgery by default, and factors predictive of outcomes and complications.

Results: One hundred and forty-six ECC endoscopically treated patients were included. In total, 85 patients were excluded (71 who underwent en bloc resection, 14 with pending follow-up). Data from 61 patients (33 women and 28 men) were analyzed. Two patients underwent potentially unnecessary surgery [3.28% (0.9%- 11.2%)]. The DFS rate was 87% (75%-93%) at 6 months and 85% [72%-92%] at 12 months. The median follow- up time was 16.5 months (12.4-20.9). Three patients (4.9%) had complications. One patient did not undergo surgery by default. A Paris classification of 0-2c (HR=9.3 (2.4-35.9), p<0.001) and Vienna classification of 5 [HR=16.3 (3.3-80.4), p<0.001] were factors associated with poor DFS.

Conclusion: Performing pmR in place of en bloc resection for ECC had a limited impact on patients. If the pathology (especially deep margins) is analyzable, careful monitoring could be acceptable in ECC patients who undergo pmR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15403/jgld-1568DOI Listing
September 2020

An international, multi-institution survey on performing EUS-FNA and fine needle biopsy.

Endosc Ultrasound 2020 Sep-Oct;9(5):319-328

Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background And Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and fine needle biopsy (FNB) are effective techniques that are widely used for tissue acquisition. However, it remains unclear how to obtain high-quality specimens. Therefore, we conducted a survey of EUS-FNA and FNB techniques to determine practice patterns worldwide and to develop strong recommendations based on the experience of experts in the field.

Methods: This was a worldwide multi-institutional survey among members of the International Society of EUS Task Force (ISEUS-TF). The survey was administered by E-mail through the SurveyMonkey website. In some cases, percentage agreement with some statements was calculated; in others, the options with the greatest numbers of responses were summarized. Another questionnaire about the level of recommendation was designed to assess the respondents' answers.

Results: ISEUS-TF members developed a questionnaire containing 17 questions that was sent to 53 experts. Thirty-five experts completed the survey within the specified period. Among them, 40% and 54.3% performed 50-200 and more than 200 EUS sampling procedures annually, respectively. Some practice patterns regarding FNA/FNB were recommended.

Conclusion: This is the first worldwide survey of EUS-FNA and FNB practice patterns. The results showed wide variations in practice patterns. Randomized studies are urgently needed to establish the best approach for optimizing the FNA/FNB procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_56_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811723PMC
September 2020

A single-center experience with pancreatic cystic neuroendocrine tumors.

World J Surg Oncol 2020 Aug 15;18(1):208. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Surgery, CNRS, Inserm, CRCM, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are rare, with a significant malignant potential. This study aimed to determine outcomes of patients with resected PNETs according to the cystic component and confirm the accuracy of preoperative staging.

Methods: From 1997 to 2016, 106 patients underwent resection of PNETs, including 73 purely solid (S-PNETs, 69%), 21 mixed (M-PNETs, 20%), and 12 purely cystic lesions (C-PNETs, 11%). To ensure consistent comparisons of overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survival outcomes between the 3 groups, the patients were matched according to the World Health Organization (WHO) grade and tumor height.

Results: Overall, the rate of correlation between the preoperative and pathological diagnoses was low in the C-PNET group (33%, P = 0.03). None of the 24 patients (23%) with metastatic disease at the time of surgery were in the C-PNET group. Furthermore, significantly more parenchyma-sparing resections (P = 0.039) and fewer enlarged resections (P = 0.019) were achieved in the C-PNET group. C-PNET group had a significantly lower node invasion rate than the S-PNET and M-PNET groups (8% vs. 41% and 24%, P = 0.004). Although median OS was comparable in all 3 groups before (P = 0.3) and after (P = 0.18) matching, higher median DFS was observed in the C-PNET group than in the other groups after matching (P = 0.038).

Conclusion: C-PNET was associated with a better prognosis than PNET with a solid component. The results support a wait-and-see policy in cases wherein a reliable preoperative diagnosis remains challenging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-020-01994-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429455PMC
August 2020

Salvage endoscopic resection after definitive chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer: a Western experience.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 04 4;93(4):888-898.e1. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is increasingly used as a nonsurgical treatment for esophageal cancer. In Japanese studies, salvage endoscopic resection (ER) has emerged as a promising strategy for local failure after definitive CRT. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of salvage ER in a Western setting.

Methods: Gastroenterologists from Europe and the United States were invited to submit their experience with salvage endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) after definitive CRT. Participating gastroenterologists completed an anonymized database, including patient demographics, clinicopathologic variables, and follow-up on survival and recurrence.

Results: Gastroenterologists from 10 endoscopic units in 6 European countries submitted information on 25 patients. A total of 35 salvage ER procedures were performed, of which 69% were ESD and 31% EMR. Most patients had squamous cell carcinoma (64%) of the middle or lower esophagus (68%) staged as cT2-3 (68%) and cN+ (52%) before definitive CRT. The median time from end of definitive CRT to ER was 22 months (interquartile range, 6-47). The en-bloc resection rate was 92% for ESD and 46% for EMR. During a median of 24 months (interquartile range, 12-59) of follow-up after salvage ER, 52% developed a recurrence (11 locoregional, 2 distant). The 5-year recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and disease-specific survival were 36%, 52%, and 79%, respectively. No major intra- or postprocedural adverse events, such as bleeding or perforation, were reported.

Conclusions: In carefully selected esophageal cancer patients, salvage ER is technically feasible after definitive CRT. Further prospective research is recommended to validate the safety and effectivity of salvage ER for the management of local failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.07.062DOI Listing
April 2021

Establishment of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma molecular gradient (PAMG) that predicts the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jul 3;57:102858. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, CRCM, Inserm, CNRS, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Background: A significant gap in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient's care is the lack of molecular parameters characterizing tumours and allowing a personalized treatment.

Methods: Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) were obtained from 76 consecutive PDAC and classified according to their histology into five groups. A PDAC molecular gradient (PAMG) was constructed from PDX transcriptomes recapitulating the five histological groups along a continuous gradient. The prognostic and predictive value for PMAG was evaluated in: i/ two independent series (n = 598) of resected tumours; ii/ 60 advanced tumours obtained by diagnostic EUS-guided biopsy needle flushing and iii/ on 28 biopsies from mFOLFIRINOX treated metastatic tumours.

Findings: A unique transcriptomic signature (PAGM) was generated with significant and independent prognostic value. PAMG significantly improves the characterization of PDAC heterogeneity compared to non-overlapping classifications as validated in 4 independent series of tumours (e.g. 308 consecutive resected PDAC, uHR=0.321 95% CI [0.207-0.5] and 60 locally-advanced or metastatic PDAC, uHR=0.308 95% CI [0.113-0.836]). The PAMG signature is also associated with progression under mFOLFIRINOX treatment (Pearson correlation to tumour response: -0.67, p-value < 0.001).

Interpretation: PAMG unify all PDAC pre-existing classifications inducing a shift in the actual paradigm of binary classifications towards a better characterization in a gradient.

Funding: Project funding was provided by INCa (Grants number 2018-078 and 2018-079, BACAP BCB INCa_6294), Canceropole PACA, DGOS (labellisation SIRIC), Amidex Foundation, Fondation de France, INSERM and Ligue Contre le Cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334821PMC
July 2020

Clinical impact of strain histogram EUS elastography and contrast-enhanced EUS for the differential diagnosis of focal pancreatic masses: A prospective multicentric study.

Endosc Ultrasound 2020 Mar-Apr;9(2):116-121

Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania.

Background: Recent advances in EUS techniques (real-time EUS elastography and contrast-enhanced EUS) have allowed a better characterization of focal pancreatic masses. Mean strain histograms (SHs) are considered a good parameter for the semi-quantitative evaluation of focal pancreatic masses, alongside complementary contrast-enhanced EUS parameters which can be quantified during both the early arterial and late venous phase.

Materials And Methods: The study design was prospective, blinded, and multicentric, assessing real-time EUS elastography and contrast-enhanced EUS results for the characterization of focal pancreatic masses using parametric measurements, in comparison with pathology which is the gold standard. SHs were performed based on the embedded software of the ultrasound system, with the values being reversed as opposed to our initially published data on hue histograms. Consequently, a cutoff of 80 was derived from previous multicentric trials. Contrast-enhanced EUS also allowed the focal masses to be classified as hyper-, iso-, or hypoenhanced in comparison with the normal pancreatic parenchyma. EUS-FNA was then performed for all patients, with a positive cytological diagnosis taken as a final proof of malignancy for the pancreatic masses. The diagnoses obtained by EUS-FNA were verified further either by surgery or during a clinical follow-up of at least 6 months.

Results: A total number of 97 consecutive patients with focal pancreatic masses were included in the study. Based on previously defined cutoffs of 80, the values of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the mean SHs for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer were 100%, 29.63%, 78.65%, 100%, and 80.41%, respectively. Corresponding values for contrast-enhanced EUS (taking into consideration hypoenhencement as a predictive factor of malignancy) were 98.57%, 77.78%, 92%, 95.45%, and 92.78%, respectively. Combining contrast enhancement-EUS (hypoenhencement) and semi-quantitative EUS elastography (SH cutoffs <80), the resulting values corresponding for sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 98.57%, 81.48%, and 93.81%, respectively.

Conclusion: The current study using objective parametric tools for both EUS elastography and contrast-enhanced EUS confirmed the results of previous studies and meta-analyses that indicated a complementary role for the differential diagnosis of focal pancreatic masses. Moreover, the best values for the receiver operating curves were obtained using a sequential clinical algorithm based on the initial use of elastography, followed by contrast enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_69_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279079PMC
April 2020

Outcomes of patients with initially locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma who did not benefit from resection: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Cancer 2020 Mar 12;20(1):203. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Surgery, Aix-Marseille University, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, CRCM, Marseille, France.

Background: The current study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with unresectable non-metastatic locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (LAPA) who did not benefit from resection considering the treatment strategy in the clinical settings.

Methods: Between 2010 and 2017, a total of 234 patients underwent induction chemotherapy for LAPA that could not be treated with surgery. After oncologic restaging, continuous chemotherapy or chemoradiation (CRT) was decided for patients without metastatic disease. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine overall survival (OS), and the Wilcoxon test to compare survival curves. Multivariate analysis was performed using the stepwise logistic regression method.

Results: FOLFIRINOX was the most common induction regimen (168 patients, 72%), with a median of 6 chemotherapy cycles and resulted in higher OS, compared to gemcitabine (19 vs. 16 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.86-1.6, P = .03). However, no difference was observed after adjusting for age (≤75 years) and performance status score (0-1). At restaging, 187 patients (80%) had non-metastatic disease: CRT was administered to 126 patients (67%) while chemotherapy was continued in 61 (33%). Patients who received CRT had characteristics comparable to those who continued with chemotherapy, with similar OS. They also had longer progression-free survival (median 13.3 vs. 9.6 months, HR = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1-1.9, P < .01) and limited short-term treatment-related toxicity.

Conclusions: The median survival of patients who could not undergo surgery was 19 months. Hence, CRT should not be eliminated as a treatment option and may be useful as a part of optimised sequential chemotherapy for both local and metastatic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6690-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068994PMC
March 2020

Borderline or locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A single center experience on the FOLFIRINOX induction regimen.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2020 08 27;46(8):1510-1515. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Aix-Marseille University, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Department of Surgery, CNRS, Inserm, CRCM, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aimed to determine the impact of FOLFIRINOX neoadjuvant therapy on patients with non-metastatic borderline/locally advanced (BL/LA) pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), in current practice.

Material And Methods: From 2010 to 2017, 258 patients with BL/LA PDAC from a single high-volume institution received FOLFIRINOX neoadjuvant treatment.

Results: The 258 patients received a median number of 6 cycles of FOLFIRINOX (range, 3-16); 98 (38%) patients underwent curative surgery, and 160 (62%) continued medical treatment. A venous resection was performed in 57 patients (58%), and an arterial resection in 12 (12%). The postoperative 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 6.1% and 8.2%, respectively. Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 57 patients (59%). The median overall survival (OS) in patients who did (n = 98) or did not (n = 160) undergo surgical resection were 39 months and 19 months, respectively (P < 0.001). In resected patients, the ASA 3 score (P < 0.01), venous resection (P < 0.01), hemorrhage (P < 0.01), and R1 margin status (P = 0.03) were found to negatively influence the OS. The median OS was significantly higher in patients who did not require a venous resection (not reached vs. 26.5 months, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Neoadjuvant FOLFIRINOX provided a survival benefit in BL/LA PDAC patients, particularly in those who did not ultimately require venous resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.02.037DOI Listing
August 2020

Risk of neoplastic change in large gastric hyperplastic polyps and recurrence after endoscopic resection.

Endoscopy 2020 06 2;52(6):444-453. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Service d'Hépato-Gastro-Entérologie et d'Endoscopie Digestive, Lyon, France.

Background: Gastric hyperplastic polyps (GHPs) have a risk of neoplastic transformation reaching 5 %. Current endoscopic resection techniques appear suboptimal with a high risk of local recurrence. This study assessed the outcomes of endoscopic resection for GHPs and identified risk factors for recurrence and neoplastic transformation.

Methods: This retrospective, multicenter, European study included adult patients with at least one GHP ≥ 10 mm who underwent endoscopic resection and at least one follow-up endoscopy. Patients with recurrent GHPs or hereditary gastric polyposis were excluded. All data were retrieved from the endoscopy, pathology, and hospitalization reports.

Results: From June 2007 to August 2018, 145 GHPs in 108 patients were included. Recurrence after endoscopic resection was 51.0 % (74 /145) in 55 patients. R0 resection or en bloc resection did not impact the risk of polyp recurrence. In multivariate analysis, cirrhosis was the only risk factor for recurrence (odds ratio [OR] 4.82, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.33 - 17.46;  = 0.02). Overall, 15 GHPs (10.4 %) showed neoplastic transformation, with size > 25 mm (OR 10.24, 95 %CI 2.71 - 38.69;  < 0.001) and presence of intestinal metaplasia (OR 5.93, 95 %CI 1.56 - 22.47;  = 0.01) being associated with an increased risk of neoplastic transformation in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: Results confirmed the risk of recurrence and neoplastic transformation of large GHPs. The risk of neoplastic change was significantly increased for lesions > 25 mm, with a risk of high grade dysplasia appearing in polyps ≥ 50 mm. The risk of recurrence was high, particularly in cirrhosis patients, and long-term follow-up is recommended in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1117-3166DOI Listing
June 2020

Drainage of the right liver using EUS guidance.

Endosc Ultrasound 2019 Nov 28;8(Suppl 1):S50-S56. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Endoscopy Unit, Paoli Calmettes Institute, Marseille, France.

Hepaticogastrostomy (HGS) has been reported for the management of palliative malignant hilar stricture and involves draining the left liver as rescue therapy. For the management of this complex stenosis, another new option for draining the right liver under EUS guidance was introduced. Ten publications involving 38 patients have been reported in the literature, in which the following two main techniques have been described: direct puncture of the right liver from the bulbus and the bridge technique allowing the drainage of the right liver across the left liver through HGS. In this review, we describe the techniques used and the potential advantages and complications of these procedures. Although this kind of drainage is demanding and probably limited to specific patients, EUS-biliary drainage of the right liver seems feasible with acceptable complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_52_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896427PMC
November 2019

EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy.

Authors:
Marc Giovannini

Endosc Ultrasound 2019 Nov 28;8(Suppl 1):S35-S39. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Endoscopic Unit, Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Marseille Cedex, France.

EUS-guided biliary drainage (BD) is an option to treat obstructive jaundice when ERCP drainage fails. These procedures represent alternatives to surgery and percutaneous transhepatic BD and have been made possible through the continuous development and improvement of EUS scopes and accessories. The development of linear sectorial array EUS scopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to the diagnostic and therapeutic dimensions of echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform puncture over a direct ultrasonographic view. Despite the high success rate and low morbidity of BD obtained by ERCP, difficulty can arise with an ingrown stent tumor, tumor gut compression, periampullary diverticula, and anatomic variation. The EUS-guided technique requires puncture and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from the gastric wall, access is obtained through hepatic segment III. Diathermic dilation of the puncturing tract is performed using a 6F cystotome and a plastic or metallic stent. The technical success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 15%-20% of cases. The most common complications include pneumoperitoneum, bilioperitoneum, infection, and stent dysfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we used a special partially covered stent (70% covered and 30% uncovered). Over the last 15 years, the technique has typically been performed in reference centers, by groups experienced with ERCP. This seems to be a general guideline for safer execution of the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_47_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896433PMC
November 2019
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