Publications by authors named "Marc Coustans"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Longitudinally Extensive Myelitis Associated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 May 26;8(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

From the Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences (A.P., G.B.), University of Pavia, Italy; Regional Pharmacovigilance Center (K.B.), Department of Pharmacology, APHP; APHP (V.J., E.J.), Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Paris; CHI de Cornouaille (M.C.), Quimper; Service de Neurologie (C.C.), Hôpital Bicêtre, AP-HP, Le Kremlin-Bicetre; Hôpitaux Privés de Metz (J.P.), Metz; Gustave Roussy (P.B.), Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif; Service de Dermatologie (N.K., B.G.), Cochin Hospital AP-HP, Paris; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lyon Sud (P.D.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pierre-Bénite; Hospices Civils de Lyon (F.D.), Hôpital Neurologique, Bron; Inserm (M.B.), CNRS, UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM), Paris; OncoNeuroTox Group (F.B.), Hôpital Percy, Clamart; Service de Neuroradiologie (D.L.), AP-HP Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris; Département d'Innovation Thérapeutique et d'Essais Précoces (J.-M.M.), Gustave Roussy, Villejuif; Department of Diagnostic Radiology (S.A.), Gustave Roussy, Villejuif; and Service de Neurologie 2 (D.P.), Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, APHP, Paris, France.

Objective: To define the characteristics and the outcome of myelitis associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs).

Methods: We performed a retrospective research in the databases of the French Pharmacovigilance Agency and the OncoNeuroTox network for patients who developed myelitis following treatment with ICIs (2011-2020). A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify similar cases.

Results: We identified 7 patients who developed myelitis after treatment with ICIs (anti-PD1 [n = 6], anti-PD1 + anti-CTLA4 [n = 1]). Neurologic symptoms included paraparesis (100%), sphincter dysfunction (86%), tactile/thermic sensory disturbances (71%), and proprioceptive ataxia (43%). At the peak of symptom severity, all patients were nonambulatory. MRI typically showed longitudinally extensive lesions, with patchy contrast enhancement. CSF invariably showed inflammatory findings. Five patients (71%) had clinical and/or paraclinical evidence of concomitant cerebral, meningeal, caudal roots, and/or peripheral nerve involvement. Despite the prompt discontinuation of ICIs and administration of high-dose glucocorticoids (n = 7), most patients needed second-line immune therapies (n = 5) because of poor recovery or early relapses. At last follow-up, only 3 patients had regained an ambulatory status (43%). Literature review identified 13 previously reported cases, showing similar clinical and paraclinical features. All patients discontinued ICIs and received high-dose glucocorticoids, with the addition of other immune therapies in 8. Clinical improvement was reported for 10 patients.

Conclusion: Myelitis is a rare but severe complication of ICIs that shows limited response to glucocorticoids. Considering the poor functional outcome associated with longitudinally extensive myelitis, strong and protracted immune therapy combinations are probably needed upfront to improve patient outcome and prevent early relapses.
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May 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1079-1088

Service de Neurologie, Clinical Investigation Center Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 1434, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020.

Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes.

Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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September 2020

Clinical spectrum and prognostic value of CNS MOG autoimmunity in adults: The MOGADOR study.

Neurology 2018 05 25;90(21):e1858-e1869. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Objective: To describe clinical and radiologic features associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) in a large French nationwide adult cohort, to assess baseline prognostic features of MOG-Ab-associated diseases after a first acute demyelinating syndrome, and to evaluate the clinical value of MOG-Ab longitudinal analysis.

Methods: Clinical data were obtained from 197 MOG-Ab-positive patients ≥18 years of age. Complete imaging data were available in 108, and 54 serum samples were eligible for longitudinal evaluation. For survival analysis comparison, 169 aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive patients from the NOMADMUS database were included.

Results: Median age at onset was 36.46 (range 18.0-76.8) years, and patients were predominantly white (92.9%) with male:female ratio, 1.1. Clinical phenotype at onset included optic neuritis or myelitis in 90.86%, isolated brainstem or encephalopathy syndromes in 6.6%, and a combination of syndromes in 2.5%. Distinctive brain MRI findings in MOG-Ab-positive patients were thalamic and pontine lesions. Cortical and leptomeningeal lesions were found in 16.3% and 6.1%, respectively. The probability of reaching a first relapse after 2 and 5 years was 44.8% and 61.8%, respectively. MOG-Ab-positive patients were at lower risk at presentation of further clinical relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-0.79) compared to AQP4-Ab-positive individuals. MOG-Ab-positive individuals had a lower risk of reaching Disability Status Scale score of 3.0 (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.94) and visual acuity of 20/100 (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.72). Finally, MOG-Ab titers were higher at relapse than in remission ( = 0.009).

Conclusion: In adults, MOG-Ab-associated disease extends beyond clinical and radiologic abnormalities in the optic nerve and spinal cord. Despite the relapsing course, the overall visual and motor outcome is better compared with AQP4-Ab-positive patients.
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May 2018

Erdheim Chester disease: A rare obstructive case of acute renal failure.

Presse Med 2016 Nov 3;45(11):1066-1069. Epub 2016 Sep 3.

Hôpital Laennec, service de néphrologie, Quimper, France. Electronic address:

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November 2016

Oral versus intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone for treatment of relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis (COPOUSEP): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet 2015 Sep 28;386(9997):974-81. Epub 2015 Jun 28.

Clinical Neuroscience Centre, CIC-P 1414 INSERM, Rennes University Hospital, Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Background: High doses of intravenous methylprednisolone are recommended to treat relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis, but can be inconvenient and expensive. We aimed to assess whether oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone was non-inferior to intravenous administration.

Methods: We did this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial at 13 centres for multiple sclerosis in France. We enrolled patients aged 18-55 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who reported a relapse within the previous 15 days that caused an increase of at least one point in one or more scores on the Kurtzke Functional System Scale. With use of a computer-generated randomisation list and in blocks of four, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients to either oral or intravenous methylprednisolone, 1000 mg, once a day for 3 days. Patients, treating physicians and nurses, and data and outcome assessors were all masked to treatment allocation, which was achieved with the use of saline solution and placebo capsules. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who had improved by day 28 (decrease of at least one point in most affected score on Kurtzke Functional System Scale), without need for retreatment with corticosteroids, in the per-protocol population. The trial was powered to assess non-inferiority of oral compared with intravenous methylprednisolone with a predetermined non-inferiority margin of 15%. This trial is registered with, number NCT00984984.

Findings: Between Jan 29, 2008, and June 14, 2013, we screened 200 patients and enrolled 199. We randomly assigned 100 patients to oral methylprednisolone and 99 patients to intravenous methylprednisolone with a mean time from relapse onset to treatment of 7·0 days (SD 3·6) and 7·4 days (3·9), respectively. In the per-protocol population, 66 (81%) of 82 patients in the oral group and 72 (80%) of 90 patients in the intravenous group achieved the primary endpoint (absolute treatment difference 0·5%, 90% CI -9·5 to 10·4). Rates of adverse events were similar, but insomnia was more frequently reported in the oral group (77 [77%]) than in the intravenous group (63 [64%]).

Interpretation: Oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone for 3 days was not inferior to intravenous administration for improvement of disability scores 1 month after treatment and had a similar safety profile. This finding could have implications for access to treatment, patient comfort, and cost, but indication should always be properly considered by clinicians.

Funding: French Health Ministry, Ligue Française contre la SEP, Teva.
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September 2015

[Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma revealed by a cerebral infarct and a mesenteric ischemia].

Presse Med 2015 Feb 24;44(2):244-7. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Centre hospitalier de Cornouaille, service de neurologie, 29107 Quimper cedex, France.

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February 2015

Evidence for a two-stage disability progression in multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2010 Jul 27;133(Pt 7):1900-13. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Service d'épidémiologie et santé publique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Rennes, France.

It is well documented that disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis is correlated with axonal injury and that the extent of axonal injury is correlated with the degree of inflammation. However, the interdependence between focal inflammation, diffuse inflammation and neurodegeneration, and their relative contribution to clinical deficits, remains ambiguous. A hypothesis might be that early focal inflammation could be the pivotal event from which all else follows, suggesting the consideration of multiple sclerosis as a two-stage disease. This prompted us to define two phases in the disease course of multiple sclerosis by using two scores on the Kurtzke Disability Status Scale as benchmarks of disability accumulation: an early phase, 'Phase 1', from multiple sclerosis clinical onset to irreversible Disability Status Scale 3 and a late phase, 'Phase 2', from irreversible Disability Status Scale 3 to irreversible Disability Status Scale 6. Outcome was assessed through five parameters: Phase 1 duration, age at Disability Status Scale 3, time to Disability Status Scale 6 from multiple sclerosis onset, Phase 2 duration and age at Disability Status Scale 6. The first three were calculated among all patients, while the last two were computed only among patients who had reached Disability Status Scale 3. The possible influence of early clinical markers on these outcomes was studied using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. The analysis was performed in the Rennes multiple sclerosis database (2054 patients, accounting for 26,273 patient-years) as a whole, and according to phenotype at onset (1609 relapsing/445 progressive onset). Our results indicated that the disability progression during Phase 2 was independent of that during Phase 1. Indeed, the median Phase 2 duration was nearly identical (from 6 to 9 years) irrespective of Phase 1 duration (<3, 3 to <6, 6 to <10, 10 to <15, >or=15 years) in the whole population, and in both phenotypes. In relapsing onset multiple sclerosis, gender, age at onset, residual deficit after the first relapse and relapses during the first 2 years of multiple sclerosis were found to be independent predictive factors of disability progression, but only during Phase 1. Our findings demonstrate that multiple sclerosis disability progression follows a two-stage process, with a first stage probably dependent on focal inflammation and a second stage probably independent of current focal inflammation. This concept has obvious implications for the future therapeutic strategy in multiple sclerosis.
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July 2010

Mitoxantrone as induction treatment in aggressive relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: treatment response factors in a 5 year follow-up observational study of 100 consecutive patients.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008 Jan 10;79(1):52-6. Epub 2007 Sep 10.

Service de Neurologie, Hôpital Pontchaillou, rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35 033 Rennes Cedex, France.

Background: Mitoxantrone was approved by the French health authority (AFSAPPS) in October 2003 to treat patients with aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: To report the long term effectiveness and safety of mitoxantrone as induction therapy in patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS, and to assess treatment response factors.

Material And Methods: 100 consecutive patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS received mitoxantrone 20 mg monthly combined with methylprednisolone 1 g for 6 months. Relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and drug safety were assessed every 6 months for up to at least 5 years. Within 6 months after induction, 73 patients received maintenance therapy (mitoxantrone every 3 months (n = 21); interferon beta (n = 25); azathioprine (n = 15); methotrexate (n = 7); glatiramer acetate (n = 5)).

Results: During the 12 months following initiation of mitoxantrone, the annual relapse rate (ARR) was reduced by 91%, 78% of patients remained relapse free, MRI activity was reduced by 89%, the mean EDSS decreased by 1.2 points (p<10(-6)) and 64% of patients improved by 1 point or more on the EDSS. In the longer term, the ARR reduction was sustained (0.29-0.42 for up to 5 years), the median time to the first relapse was 2.8 years and disability remained improved after 5 years. Younger age and lower EDSS score at the start of mitoxantrone treatment were predictive of better treatment response. Three patients presented with an asymptomatic decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction to less than 50% (one reversible). One patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (remission 5 years after diagnosis).

Conclusion: Mitoxantrone monthly for 6 months as induction therapy followed by maintenance treatment showed sustained clinical benefit for up to 5 years with an acceptable adverse events profile in patients with aggressive relapsing-remitting MS.
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January 2008