Publications by authors named "María-Dolores Chirlaque"

250 Publications

Bisphenol-A exposure and risk of breast and prostate cancer in the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Environ Health 2021 08 16;20(1):88. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, C/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080, Granada, Spain.

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that it is present in numerous products of daily use. The aim of this study was to assess the potential association of serum BPA concentrations and the risk of incident breast and prostate cancer in a sub-cohort of the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Methods: We designed a case-cohort study within the EPIC-Spain cohort. Study population consisted on 4812 participants from 4 EPIC-Spain centers (547 breast cancer cases, 575 prostate cancer cases and 3690 sub-cohort participants). BPA exposure was assessed by means of chemical analyses of serum samples collected at recruitment. Borgan II weighted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios.

Results: Median follow-up time in our study was 16.9 years. BPA geometric mean serum values of cases and sub-cohort were 1.12 ng/ml vs 1.10 ng/ml respectively for breast cancer and 1.33 ng/ml vs 1.29 ng/ml respectively for prostate cancer. When categorizing BPA into tertiles, a 40% increase in risk of prostate cancer for tertile 1 (p = 0.022), 37% increase for tertile 2 (p = 0.034) and 31% increase for tertile 3 (p = 0.072) was observed with respect to values bellow the limit of detection. No significant association was observed between BPA levels and breast cancer risk.

Conclusions: We found a similar percentage of detection of BPA among cases and sub-cohort from our population, and no association with breast cancer risk was observed. However, we found a higher risk of prostate cancer for the increase in serum BPA levels. Further investigation is needed to understand the influence of BPA in prostate cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-021-00779-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369702PMC
August 2021

[Family history of first degree as a risk factor for colorectal cancer].

Gac Sanit 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España; Programa de Recerca en Epidemiologia del Càncer, Institut Català d'Oncologia (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, España.

Objective: To evaluate the association between first-degree family history and colorectal cancer (CRC).

Method: We analyzed data from 2857 controls and 1360 CRC cases, collected in the MCC-Spain project. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of association with the family history of CRC was estimated by non-conditional logistic regression.

Results: First-degree relatives doubled the risk of CRC (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.80-2.66), increasing in those with two or more (OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 2.29-7.78) and in those whose relatives were diagnosed before 50 years (OR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.52-6.91). Regarding the association of the family history with the location, no significant differences were observed between colon and rectum, but there were in the relation of these with the age of diagnosis, having more relatives those diagnosed before 50 years (OR: 4.79; 95% CI: 2.65-8.65).

Conclusions: First-degree relatives of CRC increase the chances of developing this tumor, they also increase when the relative is diagnosed at an early age. Therefore, it must be a target population on which to carry out prevention measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2021.04.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Cancer Registry and Histopathology Department, "Civic-M.P. Arezzo" Hospital, ASP Ragusa, Ragusa, Italy.

Background: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts.

Methods: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline.

Results: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, β-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Conclusions: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab115DOI Listing
July 2021

Inflammatory Potential of the Diet and Incidence of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis in the EPIC-Spain Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona, Spain.

Diet may influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease through the modulation of inflammation. We investigated whether the inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with the risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The study included 32,633 participants aged 29-69 years. The inflammatory potential of the diet was measured by using an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD) based on a baseline dietary history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 21 years (674,547 person-years) of follow-up, 32 and 57 participants developed CD and UC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, a one-standard deviation (SD) increment in the ISD (two-unit increase) was associated with a higher risk of CD (HR of 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05-2.80; = 0.031). By contrast, ISD was not associated with UC (HR for one-SD increment of 0.89; 95% CI: 0.66-1.19; = 0.436). Our results suggest that consuming a more pro-inflammatory diet may contribute to the risk of CD, supporting that a healthy diet might be beneficial in its prevention. Further, larger studies are needed to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308349PMC
June 2021

Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of breast cancer in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Director Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

The role of chronic inflammation on breast cancer (BC) risk remains unclear beyond as an underlying mechanism of obesity and physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of BC overall, according to menopausal status and tumour subtypes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 318,686 women were followed for 14 years, among whom 13,246 incident BC cases were identified. The inflammatory potential of the diet was characterized by an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the potential effect of the ISD on BC risk by means of hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISD was positively associated with BC risk. Each increase of one standard deviation (1-Sd) of the score increased by 4% the risk of BC (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Women in the highest quintile of the ISD (indicating a most pro-inflammatory diet) had a 12% increase in risk compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21) with a significant trend. The association was strongest among premenopausal women, with an 8% increased risk for 1-Sd increase in the score (HR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. There were no significant interactions between ISD and body mass index, physical activity, or alcohol consumption. Women consuming more pro-inflammatory diets as measured by ISD are at increased risk for BC, especially premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00772-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Concentrations of bisphenol-A in adults from the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 11;775:145755. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Murcia Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.

Background: Human bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects even at low doses, which may be of potential public health concern.

Objective: To summarize BPA concentrations in general human population and their variability according to sex, geographic area, and analytical method.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting BPA concentrations in adult human populations. Separate meta-analyses of median values were carried out for BPA in serum, creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA, and unadjusted urinary BPA concentrations using a random-effects model. Cochran's Q-statistic, I index, 95% prediction intervals (PIs), between-studies standard deviation (τ), and forest plots were applied to verify study heterogeneity. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses and weighted ANOVAs and meta-regressions were conducted. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were used to examine publication bias.

Results: Fifteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, totaling 28,353 participants. BPA was detected in over 90% of participants. The pooled creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentration was 1.76 μg/g (95% PI: 0.79-2.73), with individual estimates ranging between 1.20 and 2.41. The pooled estimate for unadjusted urinary BPA was 1.91 μg/l (95% PI: 0-3.97), ranging between 0.81 and 3.50, while the pooled estimate for serum BPA was 1.75 μg/l (95% PI: 0-10.58), ranging between 0.34 and 3.76. No differences were found by sex, geographic area or analytical technique. Larger sample sizes were associated with lower BPA concentrations. There was large heterogeneity across studies, whereas data for urinary BPA levels suggested a publication bias affecting research in low exposed populations.

Conclusion: This first meta-analysis of human BPA concentrations highlights a widespread population exposure to BPA. Although there was high heterogeneity across studies, the expected range of estimated human BPA concentrations suggests that potential health risks are unlikely. Further studies are warranted to better characterize the epidemiology of human BPA exposure, accounting for ethnic, geographic, individual and environmental variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145755DOI Listing
June 2021

Colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and stage distribution in European countries in the colorectal cancer screening era: an international population-based study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 07 25;22(7):1002-1013. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Research and Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation, Utrecht, Netherlands; Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Colorectal cancer screening programmes and uptake vary substantially across Europe. We aimed to compare changes over time in colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and stage distribution in relation to colorectal cancer screening implementation in European countries.

Methods: Data from nearly 3·1 million patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed from 2000 onwards (up to 2016 for most countries) were obtained from 21 European countries, and were used to analyse changes over time in age-standardised colorectal cancer incidence and stage distribution. The WHO mortality database was used to analyse changes over time in age-standardised colorectal cancer mortality over the same period for the 16 countries with nationwide data. Incidence rates were calculated for all sites of the colon and rectum combined, as well as the subsites proximal colon, distal colon, and rectum. Average annual percentage changes (AAPCs) in incidence and mortality were estimated and relevant patterns were descriptively analysed.

Findings: In countries with long-standing programmes of screening colonoscopy and faecal tests (ie, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Germany), colorectal cancer incidence decreased substantially over time, with AAPCs ranging from -2·5% (95% CI -2·8 to -2·2) to -1·6% (-2·0 to -1·2) in men and from -2·4% (-2·7 to -2·1) to -1·3% (-1·7 to -0·9) in women. In countries where screening programmes were implemented during the study period, age-standardised colorectal cancer incidence either remained stable or increased up to the year screening was implemented. AAPCs for these countries ranged from -0·2% (95% CI -1·4 to 1·0) to 1·5% (1·1 to 1·8) in men and from -0·5% (-1·7 to 0·6) to 1·2% (0·8 to 1·5) in women. Where high screening coverage and uptake were rapidly achieved (ie, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Slovenia), age-standardised incidence rates initially increased but then subsequently decreased. Conversely, colorectal cancer incidence increased in most countries where no large-scale screening programmes were available (eg, Bulgaria, Estonia, Norway, and Ukraine), with AAPCs ranging from 0·3% (95% CI 0·1 to 0·5) to 1·9% (1·2 to 2·6) in men and from 0·6% (0·4 to 0·8) to 1·1% (0·8 to 1·4) in women. The largest decreases in colorectal cancer mortality were seen in countries with long-standing screening programmes.

Interpretation: We observed divergent trends in colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, and stage distribution across European countries, which appear to be largely explained by different levels of colorectal cancer screening implementation.

Funding: German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe) and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00199-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel Biomarkers of Habitual Alcohol Intake and Associations with Risk of Pancreatic and Liver Cancers and Liver Disease Mortality.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk.

Methods: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies.

Results: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.51-4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.44-2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.63-2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.60-2.98) in ATBC.

Conclusions: 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab078DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of Pre-diagnostic Antibody Responses to Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Proteins with Colorectal Cancer in a European Cohort.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-14

Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Ireland.

Experimental evidence has implicated genotoxic () and enterotoxigenic (ETBF) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from epidemiological studies is sparse. We therefore assessed the association of serological markers of and ETBF exposure with odds of developing CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study.Serum samples of incident CRC cases and matched controls (n = 442 pairs) were analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) A and G antibody responses to seven proteins and two isoforms of the ETBF toxin via multiplex serology. Multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of sero-positivity to and ETBF with CRC.The IgA-positivity of any of the tested antigens was associated with higher odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.91). Dual-positivity for both IgA and IgG to and ETBF was associated with >1.7-fold higher odds of developing CRC, with a significant association only for IgG (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.94). This association was more pronounced when restricted to the proximal colon cancers (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.29) compared to those of the distal colon (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.51, 3.00) (= 0.095). Sero-positivity to and ETBF was associated with CRC development, suggesting that co-infection of these bacterial species may contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings warrant further exploration in larger prospective studies and within different population groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1903825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078709PMC
April 2021

Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in the EPIC-Spain Dementia Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Murcia Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB-Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain.

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to reduce the occurrence of several chronic diseases. To evaluate its potential protective role on dementia incidence we studied 16,160 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort study recruited between 1992-1996 and followed up for a mean (±SD) of 21.6 (±3.4) years. A total of 459 incident cases of dementia were ascertained through expert revision of medical records. Data on habitual diet was collected through a validated diet history method to assess adherence to the relative Mediterranean Diet (rMED) score. Hazard ratios (HR) of dementia by rMED levels (low, medium and high adherence levels: ≤6, 7-10 and ≥11 points, respectively) were estimated using multivariable Cox models, whereas time-dependent effects were evaluated using flexible parametric Royston-Parmar (RP) models. Results of the fully adjusted model showed that high versus low adherence to the categorical rMED score was associated with a 20% (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.60-1.06) lower risk of dementia overall and HR of dementia was 8% (HR = 0.92, 0.85-0.99, = 0.021) lower for each 2-point increment of the continuous rMED score. By sub-types, a favorable association was also found in women for non-AD (HR per 2-points = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.62-0.89), while not statistically significant in men for AD (HR per 2-points = 0.88, 0.76-1.01). The association was stronger in participants with lower education. In conclusion, in this large prospective cohort study MD was inversely associated with dementia incidence after accounting for major cardiovascular risk factors. The results differed by dementia sub-type, sex, and education but there was no significant evidence of effect modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927039PMC
February 2021

Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 05 22;30(5):874-885. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce.

Methods: We investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,069 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified and matched to 1,069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of colorectal cancer was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models.

Results: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, colorectal cancer incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent.

Conclusions: The positive association between prediagnostic RBC stearic acid and colorectal cancer reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls, which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and colorectal cancer is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: These findings add to the evidence on colorectal cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1426DOI Listing
May 2021

Plasma Vitamin C and Type 2 Diabetes: Genome-Wide Association Study and Mendelian Randomization Analysis in European Populations.

Diabetes Care 2021 01 17;44(1):98-106. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program and Translational Research Laboratory; Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants.

Results: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C ( < 5 × 10), with the strongest signal at , and 10 novel genetic loci including , , , , , , , , , and . Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10).

Conclusions: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783939PMC
January 2021

The association of telomere length with substance use disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Addiction 2021 08 8;116(8):1954-1972. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Departamento de Psicología Básica y Metodología, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Background And Aims: Several recent studies have investigated the relationship between telomere length and substance use disorders with inconsistent results. We aimed to assess this association and to identify moderators of the relationship.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Selection criteria were observational studies reporting telomere length in people with a substance use disorder compared with a control group. Studies focused solely on nicotine addiction, employing other study designs, and non-human studies were excluded. Study selection and data extraction were independently conducted by two researchers following a standardized protocol and included studies until December 2019. Standardized mean differences were used as the effect size index [d; 95% confidence interval (CI)] and random-effects models were used for the meta-analysis. Cochran's Q-statistic, I index, visual inspection of the forest plot and a 95% prediction interval were applied to verify study heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions were conducted to explore heterogeneity. Small study effects were examined using the 'funnel plot', the Egger test, Duval & Tweedie's trim-and-fill method and the precision-effect test-precision-effect estimate with standard error (PET-PEESE) method. The risk of bias and the quality of evidence were assessed.

Results: Ten studies (12 analysis units with 2671 cases and 4532 controls) met the selection criteria. An overall effect size of moderate magnitude was found (d  = -0.63; 95% CI = -1.00 and -0.26; P = 0.0008). A potential small study effect was detected, as well as large heterogeneity between studies (Q-statistic P < 0.001, I  = 97.3%). Selection of controls, reporting laboratory quality control procedures and total sample size significantly affected the effect size. The quality of the evidence was very low, based on risk of bias analysis and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system.

Conclusions: People with substance use disorders appear to have shorter telomere length than controls; however, this finding should be interpreted with caution due to the poor quality of the evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15312DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between Polyphenol Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk by Anatomic and Histologic Subtypes: MCC-Spain.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 26;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Group of Investigation in Interactions Gene-Environment and Health (GIIGAS); Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain.

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692577PMC
October 2020

Association between Polyphenol Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk by Anatomic and Histologic Subtypes: MCC-Spain.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 26;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Group of Investigation in Interactions Gene-Environment and Health (GIIGAS); Institute of Biomedicine (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain.

Several anticancer properties have been largely attributed to phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, but epidemiologic evidence is still scarce. Furthermore, some classes have not been studied in relation to gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the intake of phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other phenolics and the risk of developing GC and its anatomical and histological subtypes. We used data from a multi-case-control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from different regions of Spain. We included 2700 controls and 329 GC cases. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of phenolic intake. Our results showed an inverse association between stilbene and lignan intake and GC risk (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.69 and OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.77, respectively). We found no overall association between total phenolic acid and other polyphenol class intake and GC risk. However, hydroxybenzaldehydes (OR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.28-0.61), hydroxycoumarins (OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.34-0.71), and tyrosols (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.80) were inversely associated with GC risk. No differences were found in the analysis by anatomical or histological subtypes. In conclusion, a diet high in stilbenes, lignans, hydroxybenzaldehydes, hydroxycoumarins, and tyrosols was associated with a lower GC risk. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692577PMC
October 2020

Weight change in middle adulthood and risk of cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 04 9;148(7):1637-1651. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Turin, Italy.

Obesity is a risk factor for several major cancers. Associations of weight change in middle adulthood with cancer risk, however, are less clear. We examined the association of change in weight and body mass index (BMI) category during middle adulthood with 42 cancers, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Of 241 323 participants (31% men), 20% lost and 32% gained weight (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) during 6.9 years (average). During 8.0 years of follow-up after the second weight assessment, 20 960 incident cancers were ascertained. Independent of baseline BMI, weight gain (per one kg/year increment) was positively associated with cancer of the corpus uteri (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.23). Compared to stable weight (±0.4 kg/year), weight gain (>0.4 to 5.0 kg/year) was positively associated with cancers of the gallbladder and bile ducts (HR = 1.41; 1.01-1.96), postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.08; 1.00-1.16) and thyroid (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.90). Compared to maintaining normal weight, maintaining overweight or obese BMI (World Health Organisation categories) was positively associated with most obesity-related cancers. Compared to maintaining the baseline BMI category, weight gain to a higher BMI category was positively associated with cancers of the postmenopausal breast (HR = 1.19; 1.06-1.33), ovary (HR = 1.40; 1.04-1.91), corpus uteri (HR = 1.42; 1.06-1.91), kidney (HR = 1.80; 1.20-2.68) and pancreas in men (HR = 1.81; 1.11-2.95). Losing weight to a lower BMI category, however, was inversely associated with cancers of the corpus uteri (HR = 0.40; 0.23-0.69) and colon (HR = 0.69; 0.52-0.92). Our findings support avoiding weight gain and encouraging weight loss in middle adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33339DOI Listing
April 2021

Blood polyphenol concentrations and differentiated thyroid carcinoma in women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition).

Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis.

Results: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC.

Conclusions: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779226PMC
October 2020

Incidence of Dementia and Associated Factors in the EPIC-Spain Dementia Cohort.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;78(2):543-555

Murcia Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.

Background: Dementia has become a public health priority as the number of cases continues to grow worldwide.

Objective: To assess dementia incidence and determinants in the EPIC-Spain Dementia Cohort.

Methods: 25,015 participants (57% women) were recruited from three Spanish regions between 1992-1996 and followed-up for over 20 years. Incident cases were ascertained through individual revision of medical records of potential cases. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates (IR) of dementia and sub-types (Alzheimer's disease (AD), and non-AD) were calculated by sex. Neelson-Aalen cumulative incidence estimates at 10, 15, and 20 years were obtained for each sex and age group. Multivariate Royston-Parmar models were used to assess independent determinants.

Results: Global IR were higher in women for dementia and AD, and similar by sex for non-AD. IR ranged from 0.09 cases of dementia (95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.13) and 0.05 (0.03-0.09) of AD per 1000 person-years (py) in participants below 60 years, to 23.2 (15.9-33.8) cases of dementia and 14.6 (9.1-33.5) of AD (per 1000 py) in those ≥85 years. Adjusted IR were consistently higher in women than men for overall dementia and AD. Up to 12.5% of women and 9.1% of men 60-65 years-old developed dementia within 20 years. Low education, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia were the main independent predictors of dementia risk, whereas alcohol showed an inverse association.

Conclusion: Dementia incidence increased with age and was higher among women, but showed no geographical pattern. Dementia risk was higher among subjects with lower education, not drinking alcohol, and presenting cardiovascular risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200774DOI Listing
May 2021

Greenhouse gases emissions from the diet and risk of death and chronic diseases in the EPIC-Spain cohort.

Eur J Public Health 2021 02;31(1):130-135

Agroecology and Food Systems Chair, University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia, Vic, Spain.

Background: Evidence from the scientific literature shows a significant variation in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the diet, according to the type of food consumed. We aim to analyze the relationship between the daily dietary GHG emissions according to red meat, fruit and vegetables consumption and their relationship with risk of total mortality, and incident risk of chronic diseases.

Methods: We examined data on the EPIC-Spain prospective study, with a sample of 40 621 participants. Dietary GHG emission values were calculated for 57 food items of the EPIC study using mean emission data from a systematic review of 369 published studies.

Results: Dietary GHG emissions (kgCO2eq/day), per 2000 kcal, were 4.7 times higher in those with high red-meat consumption (>140 g/day) than those with low consumption (<70 g/day). The average dietary GHG emissions were similar in males and females, but it was significantly higher in youngest people and in those individuals with lower educational level, as well as for northern EPIC centers of Spain. We found a significant association with the risk of mortality comparing the third vs. the first tertile of dietary GHG emissions [hazard ratio (HR) 1.095; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.007-1.19; trend test 0.037]. Risk of coronary heart disease (HR 1.26; 95% CI 1.08-1.48; trend test 0.003) and risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.11-1.38; trend test 0.002) showed significant association as well.

Conclusions: Decreasing red-meat consumption would lead to reduce GHG emissions from diet and would reduce risk of mortality, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa167DOI Listing
February 2021

Fried-Food Consumption Does Not Increase the Risk of Stroke in the Spanish Cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

J Nutr 2020 12;150(12):3241-3248

CIBERESP (CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health), Madrid, Spain.

Background: The nutritional determinants of stroke and, more specifically, the association of frying with the risk of incident stroke have rarely been studied.

Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate prospectively the association between the consumption of fried food and the risk of incident stroke in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study using the Spanish cohort.

Methods: Participants included 40,328 healthy adults (62% women) aged 29-69 y at study entry who were enrolled between 1992 and 1996. Participants were followed up until 31 December, 2017, at which time incident stroke (the main outcome) was measured. The main exposure measure was the percentage of energy obtained from fried-food consumption. Sex-specific quintiles were calculated.

Results: During a follow-up period of 23.5 y, 975 cases of stroke occurred (750 ischemic, 185 hemorrhagic, and 40 undetermined). Compared with those in the first (lowest) quintile of fried-food consumption, the multivariate HRs (95% CIs) of incident stroke in the consecutive quintiles were 1.05 (0.86, 1.30), 1.11 (0.90, 1.36), 1.05 (0.84, 1.31), and 0.91 (0.72, 1.15; P-trend = 0.45). There were no differences identified when subtypes of stroke were considered.

Conclusions: In this Spanish cohort, whose participants mainly used olive oil or sunflower oil when frying, the consumption of fried food was not associated with an increased risk of incident stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa272DOI Listing
December 2020

Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2020 09 3;18(1):229. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Background: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex.

Methods: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study.

Results: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (P = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (P ≥ 0.2).

Conclusions: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01703-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469292PMC
September 2020

Residential proximity to industrial pollution sources and colorectal cancer risk: A multicase-control study (MCC-Spain).

Environ Int 2020 11 19;144:106055. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology and Chronic Diseases, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Avda. Monforte de Lemos 5, 28029 Madrid, Spain; Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology & Public Health (CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública - CIBERESP), Av. de Monforte de Lemos 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent tumor in males and the second in females worldwide. In Spain, it is an important and growing health problem, and epidemiologic research focused on potential risk factors, such as environmental exposures, is necessary.

Objectives: To analyze the association between colorectal cancer risk and residential proximity to industries, according to pollution discharge route, industrial groups, categories of carcinogens and other toxic substances, and specific pollutants released, in the context of a population-based multicase-control study of incident cancer carried out in Spain (MCC-Spain).

Methods: MCC-Spain included 557 colorectal cancer cases and 2948 controls in 11 provinces, frequency matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Distances were computed from subjects' residences to each of the 134 industries located in the study area. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (from 1 km to 3 km) to industrial facilities, adjusting for matching variables and other confounders.

Results: Excess risk (OR; 95%CI) of colorectal cancer was detected near industries overall for all distances analyzed, from 1 km (2.03; 1.44-2.87) to 3 km (1.26; 1.00-1.59). In general, industries releasing pollutants to air showed higher excess risks than facilities releasing pollution to water. By industrial sector, excess risk (OR; 95%CI) was found near (≤3 km) production of metals (2.66; 1.77-4.00), surface treatment of metals (1.48; 1.08-2.02), glass and mineral fibers (2.06; 1.39-3.07), organic chemical industry (4.80; 3.20-7.20), inorganic chemical industry (6.74; 4.38-10.36), food/beverage sector (3.34; 2.38-4.68), and surface treatment using organic solvents (6.16; 4.06-9.36). By pollutants, the main excess risks (OR; 95%CI) were found near (≤3 km) industries releasing nonylphenol (9.19; 5.91-14.28), antimony (5.30; 3.45-8.15), naphthalene (3.11; 2.16-4.49), organotin compounds (2.64; 1.76-3.98), manganese (2.53; 1.63-3.93), dichloromethane (2.52; 1.74-3.66), and vanadium (2.49; 1.59-3.91).

Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that residing in the proximity of industries may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106055DOI Listing
November 2020

Bisphenol A exposure and risk of ischemic heart disease in the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition study.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 20;261:127697. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Granada, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria Ibs.GRANADA, Granada, Spain; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Background: Cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemic heart disease (IHD), is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Bisphenol A (BPA) is considered an endocrine disruptor and obesogen, present in numerous products of daily use. The aim of this study was to assess the potential association of serum BPA concentrations and the risk of incident IHD in a sub-cohort of the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Methods: We designed a case-cohort study within the EPIC-Spain cohort. The population consisted of 4636 participants from 4 EPIC-Spain centers (946 IHD cases and 3690 sub-cohort participants). BPA exposure was assessed by means of chemical analyses of serum samples collected at recruitment. Follow-up was performed by linking with national and regional databases and reviewing patients' clinical records. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used for the statistical analyses.

Results: Median follow-up time was 16 years and 70% of the participants showed detectable BPA values (>0.2 ng/ml). Geometric mean (GM) values of cases and sub-cohort were 1.22 ng/ml vs 1.19 ng/ml respectively (p = 0.90). Cox regression models showed no significant association of BPA serum levels and IHD, acute myocardial infarction or angina pectoris risk.

Conclusions: We evidenced a similar percentage of detection of BPA among cases and sub-cohort participants from our population, and no clear association with IHD risk was observed. However, further investigation is needed to understand the influence of BPA on IHD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127697DOI Listing
December 2020

[Study protocol on Socioeconomic and Geographic Inequalities in Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Survival in Spain: Multilevel Population-Base Study: DESOCANES study].

Gac Sanit 2021 Mar-Apr;35(2):199-203. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria (ibs.GRANADA), Granada, España; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España; Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Granada, España; Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Granada, Granada, España.

Incidence and mortality provide information on the burden of cancer morbidity and the potential years of life lost due to cancer. The Spanish Deprivation Index (SDI) has been developed as a standardized measure to study socioeconomic deprivation in Spain at the census tract level. In addition, SDI information can be combined with ecological variables at the population level and data from the High-Resolution European Studies in Cancer. The aim of this study is to characterize socioeconomic inequalities in incidence, excess mortality, premature mortality and net survival for three of the most incident cancers (lung, colon-rectum and breast) in Spain using the SDI. This national population-based study will assess the impact of socioeconomic inequalities using a multilevel modelling approach. Spatial analysis, multilevel modeling, net survival and economic impact assessment will be used. The results will be useful for supporting decision-making, planning, and management of public health interventions aimed at reducing the impact of socioeconomic inequalities in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2020.02.015DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries.

BMJ 2020 07 8;370:m2194. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Design: Prospective case-cohort study.

Setting: Populations from eight European countries.

Participants: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident type 2 diabetes.

Results: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis.

Conclusions: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341350PMC
July 2020

Dietary and Circulating Fatty Acids and Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 09 2;29(9):1739-1749. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Fatty acids impact obesity, estrogens, and inflammation, which are risk factors for ovarian cancer. Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of fatty acids with ovarian cancer.

Methods: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 1,486 incident ovarian cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for ovarian cancer risk factors were used to estimate HRs of ovarian cancer across quintiles of intake of fatty acids. False discovery rate was computed to control for multiple testing. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs of ovarian cancer across tertiles of plasma fatty acids among 633 cases and two matched controls in a nested case-control analysis.

Results: A positive association was found between ovarian cancer and intake of industrial elaidic acid [HR comparing fifth with first quintile = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.62; = 0.02, q-value = 0.06]. Dietary intakes of -6 linoleic acid (HR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.21; = 0.03) and -3 α-linolenic acid (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.05-1.34; = 0.007) from deep-frying fats were also positively associated with ovarian cancer. Suggestive associations were reported for circulating elaidic (OR comparing third with first tertile = 1.39; 95% CI = 0.99-1.94; = 0.06) and α-linolenic acids (OR = 1.30; 95% CI = 0.98-1.72; = 0.06).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher intakes and circulating levels of industrial elaidic acid, and higher intakes of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid from deep-frying fat, may be associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer.

Impact: If causal, eliminating industrial -fatty acids could offer a straightforward public health action for reducing ovarian cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1477DOI Listing
September 2020

Methodological approaches to compile and validate a food composition database for methyl-group carriers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 2;330:127231. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section (NME), International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08, France. Electronic address:

A standardised methodology was used to compile and validate a methyl-group carrier database (MGDB) including folate, choline, betaine and methionine, for use in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Compilation was performed by following structured guidelines to match the EPIC dietary intake data to food items from four food composition databases, according to their assigned priority of use. To assess relative validity, calculated dietary folate intakes were compared between the MGDB and the EPIC nutrient database (ENDB), used as the reference database. Folate intakes based on the MGDB and those generated using the ENDB showed good agreement (weighted κ = 0.63) and were strongly correlated (r = 0.81). This MGDB can be used for investigating potential associations between methyl-group carrier intakes and risk or prognosis of cancer and other diseases in the EPIC study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127231DOI Listing
November 2020

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Parkinson's Disease: Data From a Large Prospective European Cohort.

Mov Disord 2020 07 1;35(7):1258-1263. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology is not well understood. Reported inverse associations with smoking and coffee consumption prompted the investigation of alcohol consumption as a risk factor, for which evidence is inconclusive.

Objective: To assess the associations between alcohol consumption and PD risk.

Methods: Within NeuroEPIC4PD, a prospective European population-based cohort, 694 incident PD cases were ascertained from 209,998 PD-free participants. Average alcohol consumption at different time points was self-reported at recruitment. Cox regression hazard ratios were estimated for alcohol consumption and PD occurrence.

Results: No associations between baseline or lifetime total alcohol consumption and PD risk were observed. Men with moderate lifetime consumption (5-29.9 g/day) were at ~50% higher risk compared with light consumption (0.1-4.9 g/day), but no linear exposure-response trend was observed. Analyses by beverage type also revealed no associations with PD.

Conclusion: Our data reinforce previous findings from prospective studies showing no association between alcohol consumption and PD risk. © 2020 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496254PMC
July 2020

Changes in individual and contextual socio-economic level influence on reproductive behavior in Spanish women in the MCC-Spain study.

BMC Womens Health 2020 04 15;20(1):72. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: The association between socioeconomic level and reproductive factors has been widely studied. For example, it is well known that women with lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to have more children, the age at first-born being earlier. However, less is known about to what extent the great socioeconomic changes occurred in a country (Spain) could modify women reproductive factors. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of individual and contextual socioeconomic levels on reproductive factors in Spanish women, and to explore whether this influence has changed over the last decades.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional design using data from 2038 women recruited as population-based controls in an MCC-Spain case-control study.

Results: Higher parent's economic level, education level, occupational level and lower urban vulnerability were associated with higher age at first delivery and lower number of pregnancies. These associations were stronger for women born after 1950: women with unfinished primary education had their first delivery 6 years before women with high education if they were born after 1950 (23.4 vs. 29.8 years) but only 3 years before if they were born before 1950 (25.7 vs. 28.0 years). For women born after 1950, the number of pregnancies dropped from 2.1 (unfinished primary school) to 1.7 (high education), whereas it remained almost unchanged in women born before 1950.

Conclusions: Reproductive behavior was associated with both individual and area-level socio-economic indicators. Such association was stronger for women born after 1950 regarding age at first delivery and number of pregnancies and for women born before 1950 regarding consumption of hormonal contraceptives or postmenopausal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-00936-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160989PMC
April 2020

Serologic markers of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted infections and subsequent ovarian cancer risk: Results from the EPIC cohort.

Int J Cancer 2020 10 24;147(8):2042-2052. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) arises in the fallopian tube and other epithelia of the upper genital tract; these epithelia may incur damage and neoplastic transformation after sexually transmitted infections (STI) and pelvic inflammatory disease. We investigated the hypothesis that past STI infection, particularly Chlamydia trachomatis, is associated with higher EOC risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 791 cases and 1669 matched controls. Serum antibodies against C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) 16, 18 and 45 were assessed using multiplex fluorescent bead-based serology. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing women with positive vs. negative serology. A total of 40% of the study population was seropositive to at least one STI. Positive serology to C. trachomatis Pgp3 antibodies was not associated with EOC risk overall, but with higher risk of the mucinous histotype (RR = 2.30 [95% CI = 1.22-4.32]). Positive serology for chlamydia heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60-1) was associated with higher risk of EOC overall (1.36 [1.13-1.64]) and with the serous subtype (1.44 [1.12-1.85]). None of the other evaluated STIs were associated with EOC risk overall; however, HSV-2 was associated with higher risk of endometrioid EOC (2.35 [1.24-4.43]). The findings of our study suggest a potential role of C. trachomatis in the carcinogenesis of serous and mucinous EOC, while HSV-2 might promote the development of endometrioid disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32999DOI Listing
October 2020
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