Publications by authors named "María Inés Conti"

10 Publications

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Mandibular biomechanical behavior of rats submitted to chronic intermittent or continuous hypoxia and periodontitis.

Sleep Breath 2021 Mar 6;25(1):519-527. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Cátedra de Fisiología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, M.T. de Alvear 2142, 3rd floor "A", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to continuous (CH) and intermittent (IH) hypoxia on biomechanical properties of the mandible and periodontal tissue of animals submitted to experimental periodontitis (EP) when applying loads in a hypoxic environment.

Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were exposed during 90 days to IH or CH (simulated high altitude of 4200 m above sea level). Fourteen days prior to the euthanasia, EP was induced to half of the animals of each group.

Results: Only in the rats with EP, IH decreased the maximum capacity of the mandible to withstand load and the limit of elastic load. Indicators of intrinsic properties of the bone material were significantly reduced by both types of hypoxia in rats with EP. Hypoxia enhanced the alveolar bone loss induced by EP in the buccal side of the mandible, without showing additional effects in lingual or interradicular bone. Hypoxia increased prostaglandin E content in gingival tissue of healthy animals and further elevated the E levels increased by EP.

Conclusions: When periodontitis is present, hypoxic stress induces a decrease in mineral properties that ultimately affects the ability of the mandible to resist load, mainly during intermittent exposure to hypoxia. These effects on bone may be related to the higher levels of prostaglandin E reached in the surrounding gingival tissue. The findings of this study may stimulate strategies to prevent unwanted effects of hypoxia on periodontal tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-020-02158-2DOI Listing
March 2021

The Process of Acclimation to Chronic Hypoxia Leads to Submandibular Gland and Periodontal Alterations: An Insight on the Role of Inflammatory Mediators.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 9;2018:6794508. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Cátedra de Fisiología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1122, Argentina.

The exposition to hypoxia is a stressful stimulus, and the organism develops acclimation mechanisms to ensure homeostasis, but if this fails, it leads to the development of pathological processes. Considering the large number of people under hypoxic conditions, it is of utmost importance to study the mechanisms implicated in hypoxic acclimation in oral tissues and the possible alteration of some important inflammatory markers that regulate salivary and periodontal function. It is the aim of the present study to analyze submandibular (SMG) and periodontal status of animals chronically exposed to continuous (CCH) or intermittent (CIH) hypoxia in order to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms that may lead to hypoxic acclimation. Adult Wistar rats were exposed to CCH or CIH simulating 4200 meters of altitude during 90 days. Salivary secretion was decreased in animals exposed to hypoxia, being lower in CIH, together with increased prostaglandin E (PGE) content, TBARS concentration, and the presence of apoptotic nuclei and irregular secretion granules in SMG. AQP-5 mRNA levels decreased in both hypoxic groups. Only the CCH group showed higher HIF-1 staining, while CIH alone exhibited interradicular bone loss and increased concentration of the bone resorption marker CTX-I. In summary, animals exposed to CIH show a worse salivary secretion rate, which related with higher levels of PGE, suggesting a negative role of this inflammatory mediator during hypoxia acclimation. We link the weak immunorreactivity of HIF-1 in CIH with improper hypoxia acclimation, which is necessary to sustaining SMG physiology under this environmental condition. The alveolar bone loss observed in CIH rats could be due mainly to a direct effect of PGE, as suggested by its higher content in gingival tissue, but also to the indirect effect of hyposalivation. This study may eventually contribute to finding therapeutics to treat the decreased salivary flow, improving in that way oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6794508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304881PMC
April 2019

Changes in PGE2 signaling after submandibulectomy alter post-tooth extraction socket healing.

Wound Repair Regen 2018 03 19;26(2):153-162. Epub 2018 May 19.

Department of Physiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Saliva is very important to oral health, and a salivary deficit has been shown to bring serious problems to oral health. There is scant information about the mechanisms through which salivary glands participate in post-tooth extraction socket healing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of submandibulectomy (SMx), consisting of the ablation of submandibular and sublingual glands (SMG and SLG, respectively), on PGE signaling and other bone regulatory molecules, such as OPG and RANKL, involved in tooth extraction socket healing. Male Wistar rats, 70 g body weight, were assigned to an experimental (subjected to SMx) or a control group (sham operated). One week later, the animals in both groups underwent bilateral extraction of the first mandibular molars. The effect of SMx on different stages of socket healing after tooth extraction (7, 14, and 30 days) was studied by evaluating some parameters of inflammation, including PGE and its receptors, and of bone metabolism, as well as by performing bone biomechanical studies. SMx increased TNFα and PGE content as well as cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) expression in tooth socket tissue at almost all the studied time points. SMx also had an effect on mRNA expression of PGE receptors at the different time points, but did not significantly alter osteoprotegerin (OPG) and RANKL mRNA expression at any of the studied time points. In addition, an increase in bone mass density was observed in SMx rats compared with matched controls, and the structural and mechanical bone properties of the mandibular socket bone were also affected by SMx. Our results suggest that the SMG/SLG complex regulates cellular activation and differentiation by modulating the production of molecules intervening in tooth extraction socket repair, including the PGE signaling system, which would therefore account for the higher density and resistance of the newly formed bone in SMx rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12625DOI Listing
March 2018

Effects of chronic lead exposure on bone mineral properties in femurs of growing rats.

Toxicology 2017 02 30;377:64-72. Epub 2016 Nov 30.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Odontología, Cátedra de Fisiología, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Lead exposure has been associated with several defective skeletal growth processes and bone mineral alterations. The aim of the present study is to make a more detailed description of the toxic effects of lead intoxication on bone intrinsic material properties as mineral composition, morphology and microstructural characteristics. For this purpose, Wistar rats were exposed (n=12) to 1000ppm lead acetate in drinking water for 90days while control group (n=8) were treated with sodium acetate. Femurs were examined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Computed Tomography (μCT). Results showed that femur from the lead-exposed rats had higher carbonate content in bone mineral and (Ca+Mg+ Na)/P ratio values, although no variations were observed in crystal maturity and crystallite size. From morphological analyses, lead exposure rats showed a decreased in trabecular bone surface and distribution while trabecular thickness and cortical area increased. These overall effects indicate a similar mechanism of bone maturation normally associated to age-related processes. These responses are correlated with the adverse actions induced by lead on the processes regulating bone turnover mechanism. This information may explain the osteoporosis diseases associated to lead intoxication as well as the risk of fracture observed in populations exposed to this toxicant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2016.11.017DOI Listing
February 2017

Deleterious effect of chronic continuous hypoxia on oral health.

Arch Oral Biol 2016 Dec 5;72:1-7. Epub 2016 Aug 5.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the effect of chronic continuous hypoxia (CCH) in alveolar bone and its correlation with the inflammatory markers which play a key role in the development of periodontitis.

Material And Methods: Wistar rats were exposed to CCH (600mbar, 3 months). Macroscopic and histological analyses of alveolar bone were performed, together with measurement of oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in gums and submandibular glands (SMG).

Results: HCC induced cortical alveolar bone loss, decreased interradicular bone volume and increased the periodontal ligament height compared to control rats (p<0.05). CCH enhanced iNOS activity in gums (from 2735,04±662,96 nmol/min/mg proteins to 4289,58±915,63 p<0.05) and in SMG (from 56,71±12,05 nmol/min/mg proteins to 90,15±21,78 p<0.05). PGE did not change in gums or in SMG by means of CCH, while TNFα decreased in gums (p<0.05). Regarding oxidative stress, thiobarbituric acid reactive species concentration in CCH animals was higher both in gums as in SMG, and catalase activity was decreased in SMG.

Conclusion: Higher iNOS activity both in gums and SMG under CCH could be associated with the alveolar bone loss observed. The increase in oxidative stress occurring in SMG and gums, together with a lower antioxidant capacity might indicate a deleterious effect of HX in oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2016.08.006DOI Listing
December 2016

Chronic lead poisoning magnifies bone detrimental effects in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2016 Jan 28;68(1):47-53. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Lead (Pb) is a persistent environmental contaminant that is mainly stored in bones being an important source of endogenous lead exposure during periods of increased bone resorption as occurs in menopause. As no evidence exists of which bone biomechanical properties are impaired in those elderly women who had been exposed to Pb during their lifetime, the aim of the present study is to discern whether chronic lead poisoning magnifies the deterioration of bone biology that occurs in later stages of life. We investigated the effect of Pb in the femora of ovariectomized (OVX) female Wistar rats who had been intoxicated with 1000 ppm of Pb acetate in drinking water for 8 months. Structural properties were determined using a three-point bending mechanical test, and geometrical and material properties were evaluated after obtaining the load/deformation curve. Areal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated using a bone densitometer. Femoral histomorphometry was carried out on slices dyed with H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). Pb and OVX decreased all structural properties with a higher effect when both treatments were applied together. Medullar and cortical area of femurs under OVX increased, allowing the bone to accommodate its architecture, which was not observed under Pb intoxication. Pb and OVX significantly decreased BMD, showing lead treated ovariectomized rats (PbOVX) animals the lowest BMD levels. Trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV%) was decreased in OVX and PbOVX animals in 54% compared to the control animals (p<0.001). Pb femurs also showed 28% less trabeculae than the control (p<0.05). We demonstrated that Pb intoxication magnifies the impairment in bone biomechanics of OVX rats with a consequent enhancement of the risk of fracture. These results enable the discussion of the detrimental effects of lead intoxication in bone biology in elderly women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2015.09.007DOI Listing
January 2016

Lead intoxication under environmental hypoxia impairs oral health.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2014 ;77(21):1304-10

a Department of Physiology, School of Dentistry , University of Buenos Aires , Buenos Aires , Argentina.

We have reported that chronic lead intoxication under hypoxic environment induces alveolar bone loss that can lead to periodontal damage with the subsequent loss of teeth. The aim of the present study was to assess the modification of oral inflammatory parameters involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis in the same experimental model. In gingival tissue, hypoxia increased inducible nitric oxid synthase (iNOS) activity (p < .01) and meanwhile lead decreased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content (p < .05). In submandibular gland (SMG), iNOS activity was enhanced by lead and PGE2 content was increased by both lead and hypoxia (p < .01) and even more by combined treatments (p < .001). In the SMG, hypoxia stimulated angiogenesis (p < .01) with blood extravasation. Adrenal glands were 22% bigger in those animals exposed to lead under hypoxic conditions. Results suggest a wide participation of inflammatory markers that mediate alveolar bone loss induced by these environmental conditions. The lack of information regarding oral health in lead-contaminated populations that coexist with hypoxia induced us to evaluate the alteration of inflammatory parameters in rat oral tissues to elucidate the link between periodontal damage and these environmental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2014.938209DOI Listing
November 2014

Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

Arch Oral Biol 2013 Oct 9;58(10):1407-14. Epub 2013 Jul 9.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (p<0.01) in Pb and HX animals. TBA-RS content was significantly higher in gums of rats with or without EP only by means of Pb. The SMG PGE2 content increased by Pb or HX was higher in PbHX rats (p<0.01). Pb and HX increased EP induced alveolar bone loss, while Pb showed spontaneous bone loss also. In conclusion, these results show that lead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2013.06.010DOI Listing
October 2013

Effects of lead exposure on growth and bone biology in growing rats exposed to simulated high altitude.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2012 Jun 29;88(6):1033-7. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Buenos Aires, MT Alvear 2142, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

The existence of children living at high altitude suffering from lead (Pb) poisoning prompted us to investigate the long term effects of this pollutant on growth and bone biology in growing rats maintained at simulated high altitude (SHA). Pb and hypoxia (HX) significantly reduced body weight (-9.4 % and -24 %; p < 0.01) and length (-3 % and -8 %; p < 0.01); decreased femoral ultimate load (-16 % and -40 %; p < 0.01) and femoral energy absorption capacity (-18 % and -74 %; p < 0.01). Oral pathologic alterations were observed in experimental groups. Our findings revealed growth retardation and damages on femoral and mandibular bones that predispose to fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0602-2DOI Listing
June 2012

Aluminum bone toxicity in immature rats exposed to simulated high altitude.

J Bone Miner Metab 2011 Sep 17;29(5):526-34. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Aluminum (Al) is an element to which humans are widely exposed. Chronic administration induces a negative effect on bone tissue, affecting collagen synthesis and matrix mineralization. Its toxic effects are cumulative. Hypobaric hypoxia induces stress erythropoiesis, leading to hypertrophy of the erythropoietic marrow affecting the bone. This study was designed to evaluate the risk of Al bone toxicity among immature rats maintained at simulated high altitude (SHA) by mechanical assessment of stiffness and strength, calculation of some indicators of bone material and geometrical properties, as well as blood determinations. Forty growing rats were divided into control and experimental groups whether injected with vehicle or Al, as Al(OH)(3), three times a week for 3 months. Half of each group was exposed to hypobaric conditions (HX) by placing the animals in a SHA chamber. Both treatments negatively affected structural properties of bones, decreasing the maximum capacity to withstand load, the limit elastic load and the capacity of absorbing energy in elastic conditions. Al administration significantly depressed mandible structural stiffness, although diaphyseal stiffness was not modified. Indicators of bone material intrinsic properties, elastic modulus and stress, were significantly reduced by Al or HX. Treatments increased the diaphyseal sectional bending moment of inertia, suggesting that femur, but not mandible, compensates for the decline in the material properties with an adaptation of its architecture to maintain structural properties. The different biomechanical behaviors between the two kinds of bone are probably due to their different embryological origin and specific functions, as mandible is a bone that adjusts its strength to biting forces, whereas femur is designed to support load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-010-0254-4DOI Listing
September 2011
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