Publications by authors named "Maowia Mukhtar"

37 Publications

Dipeptidyl peptidase III as a DNA marker to investigate epidemiology and taxonomy of Old World Leishmania species.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 26;15(7):e0009530. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology and Experimental Pathology, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunisia.

Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPPIII) member of M49 peptidase family is a zinc-dependent metallopeptidase that cleaves dipeptides sequentially from the N-terminus of its substrates. In Leishmania, DPPIII, was reported with other peptidases to play a significant role in parasites' growth and survival. In a previous study, we used a coding sequence annotated as DPPIII to develop and evaluate a PCR assay that is specific to dermotropic Old World (OW) Leishmania species. Thus, our objective was to further assess use of this gene for Leishmania species identification and for phylogeny, and thus for diagnostic and molecular epidemiology studies of Old World Leishmania species.

Methodology: Orthologous DDPIII genes were searched in all Leishmania genomes and aligned to design PCR primers and identify relevant restriction enzymes. A PCR assays was developed and seventy-two Leishmania fragment sequences were analyzed using MEGA X genetics software to infer evolution and phylogenetic relationships of studied species and strains. A PCR-RFLP scheme was also designed and tested on 58 OW Leishmania strains belonging to 8 Leishmania species and evaluated on 75 human clinical skin samples.

Findings: Sequence analysis showed 478 variable sites (302 being parsimony informative). Test of natural selection (dN-dS) (-0.164, SE = 0.013) inferred a negative selection, characteristic of essential genes, corroborating the DPPIII importance for parasite survival. Inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity was used to develop universal amplification of a 662bp fragment. Sequence analyses and phylogenies confirmed occurrence of 6 clusters congruent to L. major, L. tropica, L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. turanica, L. tarentolae species, and one to the L. infantum and L. donovani species complex. A PCR-RFLP algorithm for Leishmania species identification was designed using double digestions with HaeIII and KpnI and with SacI and PvuII endonucleases. Overall, this PCR-RFLP yielded distinct profiles for each of the species L. major, L. tropica, L. aethiopica, L. arabica and L. turanica and the L. (Sauroleishmania) L. tarentolae. The species L. donovani, and L. infantum shared the same profile except for strains of Indian origin. When tested on clinical samples, the DPPIII PCR showed sensitivities of 82.22% when compared to direct examination and was able to identify 84.78% of the positive samples.

Conclusion: The study demonstrates that DPPIII gene is suitable to detect and identify Leishmania species and to complement other molecular methods for leishmaniases diagnosis and epidemiology. Thus, it can contribute to evidence-based disease control and surveillance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009530DOI Listing
July 2021

The accelerating COVID-19 epidemic in Sudan.

Nat Immunol 2021 07;22(7):797-798

School of Medicine, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00950-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Punica granatum peel extract as adjunct irrigation to nonsurgical treatment of chronic gingivitis.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 May 2;43:101383. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Bioscience Research Institute, Ibn Sina University, Khartoum, Sudan.

Pomegranate is one of the most universally studied medicinal plants for its ethnomedical history, with several studies presenting the positive outcome of its use or its extracts in managing inflammation. The objective of the present trial was to investigate the efficiency of the traditionally used 5% of pomegranate peel extract in treating gingival inflammation. Herein, 34 chronic gingivitis patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for four weeks in a controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the effect of the adjunctive use of a pulsating jet irrigator containing 5% pomegranate peel extract solution to nonsurgical periodontal therapy against a placebo in managing these patients' condition. No adverse reactions had been reported, and within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that pomegranate peel extract can serve as a promising alternative in managing chronic gingivitis. This trial is registered on the German clinical trials register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00010602).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2021.101383DOI Listing
May 2021

Multiclonal spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae across hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 03 26;24:241-245. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Bioscience Research Institute, Ibn Sina University, Khartoum, Sudan; Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Objectives: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is increasing worldwide with poorly characterised epidemiology in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of K. pneumoniae, to identify the diversity of sequence types (ST), and to detect carbapenem resistance genes in major regional hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan.

Methods: Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (n = 117) were cultured from four hospitals in Khartoum, from April 2015 to October 2016. The isolates were characterised by sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Molecular epidemiology was determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and analysed by maximum likelihood phylogeny (PhyML). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion. Isolates phenotypically resistant to carbapenem were screened for carbapenemase genes: bla, bla, bla, bla and bla by PCR.

Results: ITS sequencing confirmed the 117 isolates as K. pneumoniae. MLST revealed 52 different STs grouped in four distinct clusters by PhyML. All isolates were MDR, and carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (CP-KP) isolates accounted for 44/117 (37.6%) mostly harbouring bla (28/44) and bla (7/44), with several isolates harbouring multiple genes.

Conclusion: MDR and CP-KP K. pneumoniae is widespread in Khartoum hospitals, with a diverse population of 52 STs clustering in four major lineages. There is an urgent need for systematic epidemiological studies of drug-resistant infections across all healthcare institutions in Sudan to inform local infection prevention and control strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2020.12.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparing conventional, biochemical and genotypic methods for accurate identification of in Sudan.

Access Microbiol 2020 10;2(3):acmi000096. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Bioscience Research Institute, Ibn-Sina University, Aljerif West, Khartoum, Sudan.

is recognized as one of the most important healthcare-associated pathogens worldwide due to its tendency to develop antibiotic resistance and cause fatal outcomes. Bacterial identification methods such as culture and biochemical tests are routinely used with limited accuracy in many low- and middle-income countries, including Sudan. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of identification of in Khartoum, Sudan. Two hundred and fifty isolates were collected and identified using conventional phenotypic methods, biochemically using API 20E and genotypically by amplification of 16S-23S rDNA and sequencing of , and . Only 139 (55.6 %) of the isolates were confirmed as genotypically by PCR and 44.4 % were identified as non- . The results demonstrate that the identification panels used by the hospitals were inaccurately identifying and led to overestimation of the prevalence of this organism. The current identification methods used in Khartoum hospitals are highly inaccurate, and therefore we recommend the use of a comprehensive biochemical panel or molecular methods, when possible, for accurate identification of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/acmi.0.000096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470312PMC
February 2020

Tuberculin reactivity in schoolchildren, Kassala State, Sudan.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2020 Apr-Jun;9(2):200-204

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Bioscience Research Institute, Ibn Sina University, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Tuberculin skin test (TST) is widely used for the assessment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine efficacy and screening of latent TB infection (LTBI). Poor or no data are available on the reactivity of tuberculin in Kassala State. The aim of the present study was to assess the response to the BCG vaccine and to estimate the prevalence of LTBI and the annual rate annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) among vaccinated school children using TST.

Methods: School-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three localities of Kassala State during 2016-2018. A cluster random sampling method was used for the enrolment. Five tuberculin units of 0.1 mL were injected intradermally in the left forearm of 2568 school children aged 5-15 years. The test was performed after the assessment of child health, nutrition status, and BCG scar status. Tuberculin reaction size was interpreted after 48-72 h. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (v 20). The classical method was used to estimate ARTI.

Results: Overall, there was no reaction in 81.5% of children. Only 0.66% of children had induration 10 mm-28 mm, indicating the prevalence of latent TB with an annual risk of 0.1%. Tuberculin reactivity was statistically significant affected by child age, gender, geographical location, and nutrition status (P < 0.05), whereas BCG scar status had no effect (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The study documented a high proportion of tuberculin nonreactivity irrespective of BCG vaccination status and provides data on the prevalence of latent infection among studied groups. Further studies are needed to address the reasons of low and nonreactivity of tuberculin, and evaluation of the BCG vaccine is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_16_20DOI Listing
July 2021

Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria in an adult patient in Sudan.

Malar J 2019 Sep 18;18(1):316. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Bioscience Research Institute, Ibn Sina University, P.O. Box 11463, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Plasmodium vivax infection is rising in sub-Saharan Africa, where Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for more than 90% of malaria cases. While P. vivax is identified as a major cause of severe and cerebral malaria in South east Asia, the Pacific and South America, most of the severe and cerebral cases in Africa were attributed to P. falciparum. Cases of severe malaria due to P. vivax are emerging in Africa. A few severe P. vivax cases were reported in Eastern Sudan and they were underestimated due to the lack of accurate diagnosis, low parasitaemia and seldom use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs).

Case Presentation: A 60-year-old Sudanese male presented to the Al Kuwaiti hospital in the Sudan capital Khartoum. On admission, the patient was complaining of fever (measured temperature was 38 °C), sweating, chills, vomiting and confusion in the past 2 days prior to his admission. He rapidly deteriorated into a coma state within 48 h of the admission, with significant neck stiffness. He was admitted to the intensive care unit and was suspected of meningitis. Lumbar puncture was not performed since the patient was suffering from spinal cord disc. Brain CT scan was unremarkable. Several biochemical, haematological tests, and blood film for malaria were performed. The results of the laboratory tests were within the normal range except of mild elevation of the total white blood cell count and a significant decrease in the platelets count. Malaria parasites were seen in the blood film with high parasitaemia (quantified as 3 +++). The patient was diagnosed as P. vivax cerebral malaria based on the positive blood film and the amplification of P. vivax specific 499 bp amplicon using Plasmodium multi-species multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The patient was treated with quinine 10 mg/kg body weight for 10 days followed by primaquine 15 mg/days PO for 2 weeks. The symptoms subsided within 48 h and the patients was cured and released from the hospital.

Conclusions: Plasmodium vivax is an emerging cause of cerebral malaria in adults in Sudan and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral malaria for proper management of patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2961-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751804PMC
September 2019

Neutrophil elastase promotes infection interferon-β.

FASEB J 2019 10 5;33(10):10794-10807. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Visceral leishmaniasis is a deadly illness caused by that provokes liver and spleen inflammation and tissue destruction. In cutaneous leishmaniasis, the protein of , named inhibitor of serine peptidases (ISP) 2, inactivates neutrophil elastase (NE) present at the macrophage surface, resulting in blockade of TLR4 activation, prevention of TNF-α and IFN-β production, and parasite survival. We report poor intracellular growth of in macrophages from knockout mice for NE (), TLR4, or TLR2. NE and TLR4 colocalized with the parasite in the parasitophorous vacuole. Parasite load in the liver and spleen of mice were reduced and accompanied by increased NO and decreased TGF-β production. Expression of ISP2 was not detected in , and a transgenic line constitutively expressing 2, displayed poor intracellular growth in macrophages and decreased burden in mice. Infected macrophages displayed significantly lower IFN-β mRNA than background mice macrophages, and the intracellular growth was fully restored by exogenous IFN-β. We propose that utilizes the host NE-TLR machinery to induce IFN-β necessary for parasite survival and growth during early infection. Low or absent expression of parasite ISP2 in is necessary to preserve the activation of the NE-TLR pathway.-Dias, B. T., Dias-Teixeira, K. L., Godinho, J. P., Faria, M. S., Calegari-Silva, T., Mukhtar, M. M., Lopes, U. G., Mottram, J. C., Lima, A. P. C. A. Neutrophil elastase promotes infection interferon-β.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201900524RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766642PMC
October 2019

Monkeypox - Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 16;78:78-84. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, United Kingdom; The National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The identification of monkeypox in 3 separate patients in the United Kingdom in September raised media and political attention on an emerging public health threat. Nigeria, whose last confirmed case of monkeypox was in 1978, is currently experiencing an unusually large and outbreak of human monkeypox cases, a 'One Human-Environmental-Animal Health' approach is being effectively used to define and tackle the outbreak. As of 13th October 2018, there have been one hundred and sixteen confirmed cases the majority of whom are under 40 years. Over the past 20 years ten Central and West African countries have reported monkeypox cases which have risen exponentially. We review the history and evolution of monkeypox outbreaks in Africa and USA, the changing clinical presentations, and discuss possible factors underlying the increasing numbers being detected including the cessation of smallpox vaccination programs. Major knowledge gaps remain on the epidemiology, host reservoir, and emergence, transmission, pathogenesis and prevention of monkeypoz.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7129336PMC
January 2019

Genome Dynamics during Environmental Adaptation Reveal Strain-Specific Differences in Gene Copy Number Variation, Karyotype Instability, and Telomeric Amplification.

mBio 2018 11 6;9(6). Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Unité de Parasitologiemoléculaire et Signalisation, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

Protozoan parasites of the genus adapt to environmental change through chromosome and gene copy number variations. Only little is known about external or intrinsic factors that govern genomic adaptation. Here, by conducting longitudinal genome analyses of 10 new clinical isolates, we uncovered important differences in gene copy number among genetically highly related strains and revealed gain and loss of gene copies as potential drivers of long-term environmental adaptation in the field. In contrast, chromosome rather than gene amplification was associated with short-term environmental adaptation to culture. Karyotypic solutions were highly reproducible but unique for a given strain, suggesting that chromosome amplification is under positive selection and dependent on species- and strain-specific intrinsic factors. We revealed a progressive increase in read depth towards the chromosome ends for various isolates, which may represent a nonclassical mechanism of telomere maintenance that can preserve integrity of chromosome ends during selection for fast growth. Together our data draw a complex picture of genomic adaptation in the field and in culture, which is driven by a combination of intrinsic genetic factors that generate strain-specific phenotypic variations, which are under environmental selection and allow for fitness gain. Protozoan parasites of the genus cause severe human and veterinary diseases worldwide, termed leishmaniases. A hallmark of biology is its capacity to adapt to a variety of unpredictable fluctuations inside its human host, notably pharmacological interventions, thus, causing drug resistance. Here we investigated mechanisms of environmental adaptation using a comparative genomics approach by sequencing 10 new clinical isolates of the , , and complexes that were sampled across eight distinct geographical regions. Our data provide new evidence that parasites adapt to environmental change in the field and in culture through a combination of chromosome and gene amplification that likely causes phenotypic variation and drives parasite fitness gains in response to environmental constraints. This novel form of gene expression regulation through genomic change compensates for the absence of classical transcriptional control in these early-branching eukaryotes and opens new venues for biomarker discovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01399-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222132PMC
November 2018

Impact of PYROXD1 deficiency on cellular respiration and correlations with genetic analyses of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in Saudi Arabia and Sudan.

Physiol Genomics 2018 11 31;50(11):929-939. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Division of Pediatric Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine , Gainesville, Florida.

Next-generation sequencing is commonly used to screen for pathogenic mutations in families with Mendelian disorders, but due to the pace of discoveries, gaps have widened for some diseases between genetic and pathophysiological knowledge. We recruited and analyzed 16 families with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) of Arab descent from Saudi Arabia and Sudan who did not have confirmed genetic diagnoses. The analysis included both traditional and next-generation sequencing approaches. Cellular and metabolic studies were performed on Pyroxd1 siRNA C2C12 myoblasts and controls. Pathogenic mutations were identified in eight of the 16 families. One Sudanese family of Arab descent residing in Saudi Arabia harbored a homozygous c.464A>G, p.Asn155Ser mutation in PYROXD1, a gene recently reported in association with myofibrillar myopathy and whose protein product reduces thiol residues. Pyroxd1 deficiency in murine C2C12 myoblasts yielded evidence for impairments of cellular proliferation, migration, and differentiation, while CG10721 (Pyroxd1 fly homolog) knockdown in Drosophila yielded a lethal phenotype. Further investigations indicated that Pyroxd1 does not localize to mitochondria, yet Pyroxd1 deficiency is associated with decreased cellular respiration. This study identified pathogenic mutations in half of the LGMD families from the cohort, including one in PYROXD1. Developmental impairments were demonstrated in vitro for Pyroxd1 deficiency and in vivo for CG10721 deficiency, with reduced metabolic activity in vitro for Pyroxd1 deficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00036.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6293114PMC
November 2018

Testosterone, obesity, and waist circumference as determinants of metabolic syndrome in Saudi women.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2018 1;11:175-181. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: High serum total testosterone is associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). This study aimed to identify possible alterations in total testosterone and their relationship with plasma glucose, blood pressure, and serum lipid profile.

Methods: One hundred forty-two female subjects were selected to participate in this study, and they were recruited by consultant physicians from the Clinic and Medical Out-Patient, King Abdulaziz Hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The anthropometric characteristics were obtained from questionnaires by using standard methods. Blood samples were obtained for the determination of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein by using enzymatic methods. Total testosterone was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantitative measurement of testosterone in human serum.

Results: Significantly higher concentrations of total testosterone, low-density lipoprotein, and glucose, but lower concentrations of high-density lipoprotein, were observed in subjects with MS compared with women without MS (<0.05).

Conclusion: This study suggests that high levels of total testosterone and disturbance in lipid profile were associated with MS in Saudi women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S156021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935187PMC
May 2018

Sensitive and less invasive confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 14;12(2):e0006264. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics-FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as well as diagnosis of relapses and test of cure, usually requires examination by microscopy of samples collected by invasive means, such as splenic, bone marrow or lymph node aspirates. This causes discomfort to patients, with risks of bleeding and iatrogenic infections, and requires technical expertise. Molecular tests have great potential for diagnosis of VL using peripheral blood, but require well-equipped facilities and trained personnel. More user-friendly, and field-amenable options are therefore needed. One method that could meet these requirements is loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using the Loopamp Leishmania Detection Kit, which comes as dried down reagents that can be stored at room temperature, and allows simple visualization of results.

Methodology/principal Findings: The Loopamp Leishmania Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical Co., Japan), was evaluated in the diagnosis of VL in Sudan. A total of 198 VL suspects were tested by microscopy of lymph node aspirates (the reference test), direct agglutination test-DAT (in house production) and rK28 antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (OnSite Leishmania rK39-Plus, CTK Biotech, USA). LAMP was performed on peripheral blood (whole blood and buffy coat) previously processed by: i) a direct boil and spin method, and ii) the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAgen). Ninety seven of the VL suspects were confirmed as cases by microscopy of lymph node aspirates. The sensitivity and specificity for each of the tests were: rK28 RDT 98.81% and 100%; DAT 88.10% and 78.22%; LAMP-boil and spin 97.65% and 99.01%; LAMP-QIAgen 100% and 99.01%.

Conclusions/significance: Due to its simplicity and high sensitivity, rK28 RDT can be used first in the diagnostic algorithm for primary VL diagnosis, the excellent performance of LAMP using peripheral blood indicates that it can be also included in the algorithm for diagnosis of VL as a simple test when parasitological confirmatory diagnosis is required in settings that are lower than the reference laboratory, avoiding the need for invasive lymph node aspiration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828521PMC
February 2018

The effect of obesity and components of metabolic syndrome on leptin levels in Saudi women.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2018 May 29;12(3):357-364. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Medical Campus, Khartoum, Sudan. Electronic address:

Background: Leptin levels are reported to be increased with excessive body fat and is a potential determinant of obesity and its complications. Our Objective is to evaluate the relationship between leptin levels and BMI, waist circumference and metabolic syndrome components in normal and obese females classified according to their BMI.

Subjects And Methods: A total of 136 female subjects aged between 20 and 60 years were recruited for the current study. Anthropometric measures included body mass index and waist circumference. The blood samples were used for estimation of plasma fasting blood glucose and serum was used for estimation of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low and high density lipoproteins, and total leptin.

Results: Correlation between glucose and lipids profile with waist circumference among the whole study group (obese and non-obese) is reflecting that a strong positive correlation between BMI and blood glucose, serum TGs, cholesterol and LDL, a negative correlation was reported between BMI and serum HDL. Mean of leptin concentrations in two groups were found to be 5.77 ng/ml (±1.00) in non-obese and 28.89 ng/ml (±4.91) in the obese with metabolic syndrome. Leptin had a positive correlations with triglycerides (r = 0.84, p < 0.001), total cholesterol (r = 0.77, p < 0.001), LDL (r = 0.83, p < 0.001), waist circumference (r = 0.86, p < 0.001) and BMI (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) in the test group. a negative correlation was reported between BMI and serum HDL (r = -0.48, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Leptin levels were high in Saudi women with high BMI and waist circumference. There was a significant correlation between leptin levels and Obesity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2017.12.030DOI Listing
May 2018

Plasma Levels of Interleukin-17, Interleukin-23, and Transforming Growth Factor-β in Sudanese Patients with Vitiligo: A Case-Control Study.

Indian J Dermatol 2015 Nov-Dec;60(6):635

Department Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.

Background: Vitiligo is the most common pigmentary skin disorder. It is a multifactorial polygenic disease with epidermal melanocyte destruction. The cytokines profile found in vitiliginous patients was not fully elucidated.

Aims: We sought to assess the autoimmune nature of vitiligo by comparing plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-23, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in adult Sudanese vitiligo patients with matched control individuals.

Subjects And Methods: Case-control study was conducted in Khartoum Dermatologic Teaching Hospital, in the period between July and December 2013. The cases were 42 adult Sudanese vitiligo patients matched with 43 control individuals. The cytokines were measured in the plasma by the quantitative "sandwich" ELISA.

Results: Patients showed a significant lower median (25-75(th) inter-quartile) of TGF-β than control (0.042 [0.041-0.044] vs. 0.047 [0.042-0.049]; P ≤ 0.001). Both IL-17 and IL-23 showed no significant difference between cases and controls. IL-17 showed a significant inverse relationship when correlated with TGF-β (r = -0.24; P = 0.026) while showing direct relationship when correlated with age (r = 0.28; P = 0.009).

Conclusion: The positive findings detected in this study coincide with the important immunoregulatory role of the TGF-β, and support the autoimmune nature of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.169136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681218PMC
December 2015

Development and comparative evaluation of two antigen detection tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis.

BMC Infect Dis 2015 Sep 22;15:384. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Infectious Disease Research Institute, 1616 Eastlake Ave E, Seattle, WA, 98102, USA.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) can be fatal without timely diagnosis and treatment. Treatment efficacies vary due to drug resistance, drug toxicity and co-morbidities. It is important to monitor treatment responsiveness to confirm cure and curtail relapse. Currently, microscopy of spleen, bone marrow or lymph node biopsies is the only definitive method to evaluate cure. A less invasive test for treatment success is a high priority for VL management.

Methods: In this study, we describe the development of a capture ELISA based on detecting Leishmania donovani antigens in urine samples and comparison with the Leishmania Antigen ELISA, also developed for the same purpose. Both were developed as prototype kits and tested on patient urine samples from Sudan, Ethiopia, Bangladesh and Brazil, along with appropriate control samples from endemic and non-endemic regions. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed based on accurate detection of patients compared to control samples. One-Way ANOVA was used to assess the discrimination capacity of the tests and Cohen's kappa was used to assess their correlation.

Results: The Leishmania Antigen Detect ELISA demonstrated >90% sensitivity on VL patient samples from Sudan, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and 88% on samples from Brazil. The Leishmania Antigen ELISA was comparable in performance except for lower sensitivity on Sudanese samples. Both were highly specific. To confirm utility in monitoring treatment, urine samples were collected from VL patients at days 0, 30 and 180 post-treatment. For the Leishmania Antigen Detect ELISA, positivity was high at day 0 at 95%, falling to 21% at day 30. At day 180, all samples were negative, corresponding well with clinical cure. A similar trend was also seen for the Leishmania Antigen ELISA albeit; with lower positivity of 91% at Day 0 and more patients, remaining positive at Days 30 and 180.

Discussion: The Leishmania Antigen Detect and the Leishmania Antigen ELISAs are standardized, user- friendly, quantitative and direct tests to detect Leishmania during acute VL as well as to monitor parasite clearance during treatment. They are a clear improvement over existing options.

Conclusion: The ELISAs provide a non-invasive method to detect parasite antigens during acute infection and monitor its clearance upon cure, filling an unmet need in VL management. Further refinement of the tests with more samples from endemic regions will define their utility in monitoring treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1125-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580298PMC
September 2015

Diagnostic accuracy of rK28-based immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis: a prospective clinical cohort study in Sudan.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2015 Sep 5;109(9):594-600. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Infectious Disease Research Institute (IDRI), Seattle, WA, USA

Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on rK39 antigen showed suboptimal sensitivity in East Africa. A prospective clinical cohort study in Sudan was designed to validate a novel rK28-based RDT for Leishmania donovani VL.

Methods: Patients (n=285) suspected of VL by residency, fever for ≥2 weeks, splenomegaly with no prior reported VL, and negative for malaria were consecutively enrolled at three Sudanese sites in 2012-2013 and informed consent obtained. Two human readers, who were blinded to the clinical status and other RDT results, evaluated patient whole blood (WB) and serum on the rK28 RDT. Based on Leishmania parasite detection in lymph node or bone marrow aspirates (Giemsa-stained smears or culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle medium), patients were categorized as VL cases (n=200) or VL controls (n=85).

Results: The rK28 RDT had high specificity using either WB (100% [85/85]) or serum (97.6% [83/85]) and exhibited greater sensitivity (WB, 92.5% [185/200]; serum, 94.5% [189/200]) than a direct agglutination test performed with the same sera (92.9% [79/85] and 83.5% [167/200] for specificity and sensitivity, respectively). Two blinded readers scored a given WB or serum sample the same on the rK28 RDT 99.6% and 100% of the time, respectively. A reader scored each individual donor's paired WB and serum rK28 RDT results the same 97.2% of the time.

Conclusions: An inexpensive rK28 RDT that performs robustly with WB or serum will be valuable for diagnosing cases of VL in East Africa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trv060DOI Listing
September 2015

Genotyping of Pulmonary Isolates from Sudan Using Spoligotyping.

Am J Microbiol Res 2015 ;3(4):125-128

Tropical Medicine Research Institute, National Center for Research, Khartoum, Sudan.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem worldwide due to its high risk of person-to-person transmission, morbidity and mortality [1]. Sudan has a high burden of tuberculosis. Spoligotyping (spacer oligonucleotide typing) a rapid method for genotyping of using the principle of reverse hybridization. The ecology of the prevalent mycobacteria strain can vary depending on country and region. The aim of this study was to determine the genotyping of isolated from Sudan using spoligotyping SPOLDB4. A total of 75 sputum samples were collected from pulmonary Tuberculosis patients attending references Laboratories and diagnostic centers in Khartoum and Eastern Sudan in (2011-2013). The mycobacteria were genotyped using Spoligotyping technique and data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SPOLDB4 database. Among the 75 isolate analyzed, 57(76%) were identified by SPOLDB4 and 18 (24%) could not be matched to any lineages. The most prevalent genotype cluster was MANU2 38 (50.7%) followed by CASI Delhi 8 (10.7%). In the study SIT54 was the most common pattern 37 (49.3%) followed by SIT25 6(8%).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/ajmr-3-4-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171366PMC
January 2015

Genotyping and virological characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected individuals in Sudan.

Int J Infect Dis 2014 Dec 24;29:125-32. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Hepatitis Virus Diversity Research Programme, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa. Electronic address:

Objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common routes of blood-borne transmission. In HBV mono-infected Sudanese individuals, genotypes D, E, and A circulate. The objective of this study was to molecularly characterize HBV from HBV/HIV co-infected individuals.

Methods: The polymerase overlapping the S region and the basic core promoter (BCP/PC) of HBV from 32 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and 18 HBsAg-negative serum samples were amplified and sequenced.

Results: HBV from 37 samples was successfully genotyped and the genotype distribution was 46.0% D, 21.6% E, 18.9% A, and 13.5% D/E recombinant. Compared to mono-infected individuals, the frequencies of the D/E recombinant and genotype A were higher in HBV/HIV co-infected patients, as was the intra-group divergence of genotype E. BCP/PC mutations affecting hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) expression at the transcriptional and translational levels were detected. Two HBsAg-positive individuals had pre-S deletion mutants. The following mutations in the S region could account for the HBsAg negativity: sM133T, sE164G, sV168G, and sS174N. No primary drug resistance mutations were found.

Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.07.002DOI Listing
December 2014

Overt and occult hepatitis B virus infection in adult Sudanese HIV patients.

Int J Infect Dis 2014 Dec 24;29:65-70. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Hepatitis Virus Diversity Research Programme, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, 7 York Road, Parktown, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa. Electronic address:

Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Sub-Saharan Africa is complicated by co-infection with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), which share similar transmission routes. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative HBV infection and of HCV infection among HIV-infected patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among treatment-naïve HIV-positive adults in Khartoum State. HBV, HCV, and HIV infections were detected using immunoassays for HBsAg, hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBc), hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV), and HIV antibodies (anti-HIV), while real-time PCR was used to measure HBV DNA.

Results: The mean age of the 358 patients was 35.2±9.3 years and the male to female ratio was 1.3:1.0. The mean alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was 10.9±18.0 U/l. Evidence of 23, current or past HBV infection was detected in 62.8% of the patients. HBV DNA was detected in 96 patients (26.8%), 42 HBsAg-positive (11.7%) and 54 (15.1%) HBsAg-negative, indicating occult hepatitis B infection. Anti-HCV was detected in 1.7%.

Conclusions: Evidence of HBV infection was detected in 26.8% of HIV patients with HBsAg-negative infection, with viraemia detected in 15.1% of the patients. All HIV-infected patients should be screened carefully for HBV infection with HBsAg and anti-HBc IgG antibodies prior to starting antiretroviral therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.07.004DOI Listing
December 2014

Comparison of point-of-care tests for the rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in East African patients.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2014 Dec 13;91(6):1109-15. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Institute of Endemic Disease, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan; Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Centre, Arba-Minch Hospital, Ethiopia; Leishmaniasis Research and Treatment Centre, University of Gondar, Ethiopia; Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, Washington

The development of rK39-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has greatly aided the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Brazil, by offering high sensitivity and specificity. However, these tests have been less sensitive and less specific in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve upon the performance of rK39 in Africa, we engineered the fusion molecule rK28, which retained some of the rK39 repeats and combined them with repeat sequences from two additional Leishmania genes. This polyprotein was used in the development of several prototype RDTs by different commercial manufacturers with the goal of assessing relative performance in inexpensive formats. Here, we report field studies showing that the rK28 antigen could be readily adapted to a variety of RDT formats to achieve high sensitivity, generally > 90%, and adequate specificity to aid in the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa, Asia, and South America.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.13-0759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257631PMC
December 2014

Malaria risk mapping for control in the republic of Sudan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012 Dec 1;87(6):1012-1021. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Evidence shows that malaria risk maps are rarely tailored to address national control program ambitions. Here, we generate a malaria risk map adapted for malaria control in Sudan. Community Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) data from 2000 to 2010 were assembled and were standardized to 2-10 years of age (PfPR(2-10)). Space-time Bayesian geostatistical methods were used to generate a map of malaria risk for 2010. Surfaces of aridity, urbanization, irrigation schemes, and refugee camps were combined with the PfPR(2-10) map to tailor the epidemiological stratification for appropriate intervention design. In 2010, a majority of the geographical area of the Sudan had risk of < 1% PfPR(2-10). Areas of meso- and hyperendemic risk were located in the south. About 80% of Sudan's population in 2011 was in the areas in the desert, urban centers, or where risk was < 1% PfPR(2-10). Aggregated data suggest reducing risks in some high transmission areas since the 1960s.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516068PMC
December 2012

A global comparative evaluation of commercial immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

Clin Infect Dis 2012 Nov 31;55(10):1312-9. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy.

Methods: Commercial VL RDTs containing bound rK39 or rKE16 antigen were evaluated using archived human sera from confirmed VL cases (n = 750) and endemic non-VL controls (n = 754) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC), Brazil, and East Africa to assess sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals. A subset of RDTs were also evaluated after 60 days' heat incubation (37°C, 45°C). Interlot and interobserver variability was assessed.

Results: All test brands performed well against ISC panels (sensitivity range, 92.8%-100%; specificity range, 96%-100%); however, sensitivity was lower against Brazil and East African panels (61.5%-91% and 36.8%-87.2%, respectively). Specificity was consistently > 95% in Brazil and ranged between 90.8% and 98% in East Africa. Performance of some products was adversely affected by high temperatures. Agreement between lots and readers was good to excellent (κ > 0.73-0.99).

Conclusions: Diagnostic accuracy of VL RDTs varies between the major endemic regions. Many tests performed well and showed good heat stability in the ISC; however, reduced sensitivity against Brazilian and East African panels suggests that in these regions, used alone, several RDTs are inadequate for excluding a VL diagnosis. More research is needed to assess ease of use and to compare performance using whole blood instead of serum and in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478143PMC
November 2012

Variable disease severity in Saudi Arabian and Sudanese families with c.3924 + 2 T > C mutation of LAMA2.

BMC Res Notes 2011 Dec 13;4:534. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

Division of Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C, Besta, Milan, Italy.

Background: Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A is caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene that encodes the laminin α2 chain, a component of the skeletal muscle extracellular matrix protein laminin-211. The clinical spectrum of the disease is more heterogeneous than previously thought, particularly in terms of motor achievement and disease progression. We investigated clinical findings and performed molecular genetic analysis in 3 families from Saudi Arabia and 1 from Sudan in whom congenital muscular dystrophy 1A was suspected based on homozygosity mapping and laminin α2 chain deficiency.

Methods: We investigated 9 affected individuals from 1 Sudanese and 3 Saudi families in whom MDC1A was suggested by clinical, neuroimaging and/or pathological findings and by homozygosity mapping at the LAMA2 locus. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in 3 patients from the 3 Saudi families. SSCP analysis, DNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis were carried out in the 4 index cases.

Results: A previously described mutation in the LAMA2 gene, a homozygous T > C substitution at position +2 of the consensus donor splice site of exon 26, was found in the 4 index patients. Clinical evaluation of 9 patients from the 4 families revealed variable disease severity particularly as regards motor achievement and disease progression. Microsatellite analysis showed an identical mutation-associated haplotype in the 4 index cases indicating a founder effect of the mutation in all 4 families.

Conclusions: Our data provide further evidence that the clinical spectrum of MDC1A due to a single mutation is heterogeneous, particularly in terms of motor achievement and disease progression, making it difficult to give a reliable prognosis even in patients with identical LAMA2-associated haplotype. The c.3924 + 2 T > C mutation to date has been found only in patients originating from the Middle East or Sudan; therefore laminin 2 chain deficiency in patients from those regions should initially prompt a search for this mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3278494PMC
December 2011

First report on Ambisome-associated allergic reaction in two Sudanese leishmaniasis patients.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2011 Oct;85(4):644-5

Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) are serious clinical forms of leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani parasites in Sudan. Although pentavalent antimonys are used as the first line of treatment of all clinical forms of leishmaniasis, persistent PKDL and ML patients are treated with liposomal amphotericin B (Ambisome) as a second-line drug. In this work, we report the development of allergic reactions by a PKDL and a ML Sudanese patient to Ambisome. The findings warrant future close supervision of patients to be treated with the drug.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3183770PMC
October 2011

Design, development and evaluation of rK28-based point-of-care tests for improving rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2010 Sep 14;4(9). Epub 2010 Sep 14.

Infectious Disease Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is diagnosed by microscopic confirmation of the parasite in bone marrow, spleen or lymph node aspirates. These procedures are unsuitable for rapid diagnosis of VL in field settings. The development of rK39-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) revolutionized diagnosis of VL by offering high sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease in the Indian subcontinent; however, these tests have been less reliable in the African subcontinent (sensitivity range of 75-85%, specificity of 70-92%). We have addressed limitations of the rK39 with a new synthetic polyprotein, rK28, followed by development and evaluation of two new rK28-based RDT prototype platforms.

Methodology/principal Findings: Evaluation of 62 VL-confirmed sera from Sudan provided sensitivities of 96.8% and 93.6% (95% CI = K28: 88.83-99.61%; K39: 84.30-98.21%) and specificities of 96.2% and 92.4% (95% CI = K28: 90.53-98.95%; K39: 85.54-96.65%) for rK28 and rK39, respectively. Of greater interest was the observation that individual VL sera with low rK39 reactivity often had much higher rK28 reactivity. This characteristic of the fusion protein was exploited in the development of rK28 rapid tests, which may prove to be crucial in detecting VL among patients with low rK39 antibody levels. Evaluation of two prototype lateral flow-based rK28 rapid tests on 53 VL patients in Sudan and 73 VL patients in Bangladesh provided promisingly high sensitivities (95.9% [95% CI = 88.46-99.1 in Sudan and 98.1% [95% CI = 89.93-99.95%] in Bangladesh) compared to the rK39 RDT (sensitivities of 86.3% [95% CI = 76.25-93.23%] in Sudan and 88.7% [95% CI = 76.97-95.73%] in Bangladesh).

Conclusions/significance: Our study compares the diagnostic accuracy of rK39 and rK28 in detecting active VL cases and our findings indicate that rK28 polyprotein has great potential as a serodiagnostic tool. A new rK28-based RDT will prove to be a valuable asset in simplifying VL disease confirmation at the point-of-care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2939046PMC
September 2010

Trypanosoma cf. varani in an imported ball python (Python reginus) from Ghana.

J Parasitol 2009 Aug;95(4):1029-33

Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan.

Peripheral blood from a ball python (Python reginus) imported from Ghana was cultured in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) medium for Borrelia spp. isolation, resulting in the prominent appearance of free, and clusters of, trypanosomes in a variety of morphological forms. The molecular phylogenetic characterization of these cultured trypanosomes, using the small subunit rDNA, indicated that this python was infected with a species closely related to Trypanosoma varani Wenyon, 1908, originally described in the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) from Sudan. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences of glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of both isolates showed few differences. Giemsa-stained blood smears, prepared from the infected python 8 mo after the initial observation of trypanosomes in hemoculture, contained trypomastigotes with a broad body and a short, free flagellum; these most closely resembled the original description of T. varani, or T. voltariae Macfie, 1919 recorded in a black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) from Ghana. It is highly possible that lizards and snakes could naturally share an identical trypanosome species. Alternatively, lizards and snakes in the same region might have closely related, but distinct, Trypanosoma species as a result of sympatric speciation. From multiple viewpoints, including molecular phylogenetic analyses, reappraisal of trypanosome species from a wide range of reptiles in Africa is needed to clarify the relationship of recorded species, or to unmask unrecorded species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/GE-1816.1DOI Listing
August 2009

Mucosal leishmaniasis in a Sudanese patient.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2009 Jun;80(6):935-8

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Orthodontics, Genetics Section, University of Khartoum, Faculty of Dentistry, Khartoum, Sudan.

Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is an oral disease caused by the parasite Leishmania donovani. The disease has been proven to be pandemic in many areas of the world. It affects young men living in leishmaniasis-endemic areas. ML might be accompanied or proceeded by visceral leishmaniasis (VL), although in most of the cases seen in Sudan, ML occurs as a primary lesion. ML can mimic oral cancer or fungal infections, with ulceration as the most common finding in ML lesions. In this report, the patient came from an area known to be endemic for VL. Although the lesions were not ulcerative, the patient history was indicative for ML. Early detection and proper diagnosis were of great help in the cure and prognosis of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2009

A new complex homozygous large rearrangement of the PINK1 gene in a Sudanese family with early onset Parkinson's disease.

Neurogenetics 2009 Jul 12;10(3):265-70. Epub 2009 Feb 12.

Département de Génétique et Cytogénétique, U.F. de Neurogénétique, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

PARK2 and PINK1 gene mutations are involved in recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). In order to determine the causative mutations in three affected sibs from a consanguineous Sudanese family with EOPD, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed and revealed that the patients were homozygous for a deletion of PINK1 exons 4 to 8. Breakpoint analysis revealed a complex rearrangement combining a large deletion and the insertion of a sequence duplicated from the DDOST gene intron 2, located near the PINK1 gene. As breakpoint sequences displayed only three base pairs of homology, this rearrangement may result from Fork Stalling and Template Switching mechanism. This third large rearrangement of PINK1 enlarges the mutation spectrum and, together with recent published data in Tunisian patients with EOPD, points out that PINK1 gene analysis, including search for large rearrangement, should be considered in early onset recessive PD patients, particularly those from Arab origin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-009-0174-4DOI Listing
July 2009
-->