Publications by authors named "Mao Chen"

519 Publications

Association between supportive attitude and adoptive practice of control strategy against COVID-19 amosng college students in China: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 26;21(1):796. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: We investigated college students' attitude and compliance towards a prevention strategy involving use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey in four universities in Guangdong Province (China) based on purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire was given to College students (CSs) to measure the supportive attitude towards an outbreak control strategy and adoption of NPIs in respondents.

Results: A total of 44,446 CSs participated between 31 January and 10 February 2020; 92.7% of respondents supported the outbreak control strategy. The proportion of respondents who avoided public places, wore a facemask, avoid gatherings, and washed hands more frequently than usual was 94.8, 92.8, 91.2 and 86.9%. respectively. A total of 76.5% respondents adopted all four measures. A supportive attitude was associated with NPI adoption. Students who were female, postgraduate, anxious, and not depressed tended to have a higher supportive attitude and higher chance of NPI adoption.

Conclusions: Higher supportiveness towards the disease control strategy for the Chinese public may lead to higher adoption rate of NPIs. Psychosocial factors were related to a supportive attitude and adoption of the NPI. We believe that our findings could aid policymakers to create NPIs to prevent and control emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10752-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072096PMC
April 2021

Synthesis of Imidazole-Based [30]Heptaphyrin and Stable Figure-Eight [60]Tetradecaphyrins via [5 + 2] Condensations in One Pot.

Org Lett 2021 05 22;23(9):3746-3750. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, PR China.

Derived from a Pd-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H coupling reaction, two giant imidazole-based [60]tetradecaphyrins adopting stable figure-eight geometry together with one [30]heptaphyrin are obtained by [5 + 2] MacDonald condensations in one pot. The directional imidazole is believed to play a vital role for the diverse cyclization and conformation stabilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01156DOI Listing
May 2021

Simplifying Johanson's roller compaction model to build a "Virtual Roller Compactor" as a predictive tool - Theory and practical application.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 9;601:120579. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, United States. Electronic address:

The purpose of the study is to build a "virtual roller compactor" as a predictive tool to assess the roll force (RF)-maximum pressure (P) and RF-ribbon density relationship for pharmaceutical roller compaction. We provided a theoretical basis to demonstrate that, there exists a critical nip angle for a pharmaceutical powder, beyond which the RF-P relationship is insensitive to wall friction angle or effective angle of internal friction. We showed that for most pharmaceutical roller compaction, the critical nip angle is lower than 17 degree, and can be exceeded via wall friction elevation, using rolls with non-smooth surface. Under this condition, the original Johanson model can be substantially simplified to a single equation requiring only one material property (compressibility). By performing manufacturing-scale roller compaction using materials with diverse compressibility, we showed that the simplified, friction angle-free model performed similar to the original Johanson model. It can predict the RF-P and RF-ribbon density relationship well after applying a correction factor. The predictive tool, in the form of a user-friendly graphical user interface, was created based on the simplified model. The tool was adopted for in-house, bench-scale formulation development and scale-up because of its ease-of-use, good predicting capability, and very low material demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120579DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients receiving contemporary intensive cardiac care: retrospective study from a large centre in China.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2021 Feb;18(2):94-103

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Few studies from developed countries have quantitatively characterized the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving contemporary intensive cardiac care. We sought to investigate these data in patients admitted to a Chinese intensive cardiac care unit (ICCU).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using data from 2,337 consecutive admissions to the ICCU at a large centre in China from June 2016 to May 2017. Data were captured after systematic inspection of individual medical records regarding current demographics, primary diagnosis, comorbidities, illnesses severity, and in-hospital outcomes.

Results: The mean age was 65.6 ± 14.2 years, and females accounted for 32.0% of patients. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and Oxford Acute Severity of Illness Score were 2.4 ± 1.8 and 22.5 ± 10.4, respectively. The top reason for admission was ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (32.0%), and nonischaemic heart diseases accounted for 31.2% of all primary diagnoses. Noncardiovascular diseases were prevalent in the ICCU population, including chronic illnesses and acute noncardiovascular critical illnesses (ANCIs); in particular, 21.7% of patients were marked by acute respiratory failure (14.6%), acute kidney injury (13.7%), sepsis (4.2%), or gastrointestinal bleeding (3.3%). The median length of stay in the ICCU and hospital were 1.1 days [interquartile range (IQR): 0.8-2.6 days] and 6.3 days (IQR: 3.8-10.9 days), respectively. The overall incidence of in-hospital death or discharge against medical advice under extremely critical conditions was 7.6% ( = 177). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the complexity of chronic illnesses and incident ANCIs were strong independent determinants for in-hospital outcomes.

Conclusions: Remarkable patient diversity and breadth of critical illnesses were observed in a Chinese ICCU population. Particularly, noncardiovascular diseases were prevalent and associated with adverse outcomes. Reformation of organization and staffing practices may be considered to adapt to the changed landscape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2021.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940964PMC
February 2021

Association between dietary diversity and cognitive impairment among the oldest-old: Findings from a nationwide cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 04 2;40(4):1452-1462. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research), Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Dietary diversity is widely recommended in national and international guidelines; however, whether the beneficial effects on cognitive function still apply in the oldest-old (80+) has rarely been studied. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of dietary diversity with cognitive function among the oldest-old in a large prospective cohort in China.

Methods: We conducted a long-term prospective analysis on 11,970 participants aged 80+ (6581 octogenarians, 3730 nonagenarians, and 1659 centenarians). We constructed the baseline dietary diversity score (DDS) based on eight food items of a food frequency questionnaire. Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was used to classify the participants as having cognitive impairment or not and was also used as a continuous metric. Non-linear associations of DDS with cognitive impairment was evaluated by cox models with penalized splines. We used mixed-effect models for longitudinal data with repeated measurements of MMSE (for up to seven time during the follow-up between 1998 and 2014).

Results: We documented 4778 cognitive impairment during 46,738 person-years of follow-up. Each one unit increase in DDS was associated with a 4% lower risk of cognitive impairment (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.96; 95% confidential interval (CI): 0.94-0.98). Compared to participants with DDS of 0 score, those with a DDS of 1-2, 3-4, and higher than 5 scores had a lower cognitive impairment risk, the HRs were 0.86 (0.79-0.95), 0.82 (0.74-0.91), and 0.72 (0.64-0.82) respectively, and a significant trend emerged (p < 0.001). Compared with DDS of zero score, a DDS of 1-2,3-4, ≥5 was related to slower MMSE decline (β = 0.128, 0.162, 0.301, respectively, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Even after the age of 80, dietary diversity may offer a simple and straightforward mean of identifying and screening individuals at high risk for cognitive impairment. Recommendation of dietary diversity may be advocated to attenuate cognitive decline and decrease the risk of cognitive impairment in the oldest-old, especially in a low income or middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.041DOI Listing
April 2021

Tooth Loss, Denture Use and Cognitive Impairment in Chinese Older Adults: A Community Cohort Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Evidence regarding the associations of tooth loss and denture use with incident cognitive impairment are inconclusive in older adults, and few prospective studies have examined the potential interaction between tooth loss and denture use in these specific populations.

Methods: Data were assessed from 17,079 cognitively normal older adults aged ≥ 65 years, participating in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). The outcome of interest was cognitive impairment (assessed by the Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]). The number of natural teeth and status of denture use were collected by a structural questionnaire.

Results: A total of 6,456 cases of cognitive impairment were recorded during 88,627 person-years of follow-up. We found that compared with participants with 20+ teeth, those with 10-19, 1-9 and 0 teeth had increased risks of incident cognitive impairment (P-trend < 0.001). Participants without dentures also had a higher risk of incident cognitive impairment, compared with those who wore dentures. Effect modification by denture use was observed (P-interaction = 0.010). Specifically, among those without dentures, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for participants with 10-19, 1-9 and 0 teeth were 1.19 (1.08,1.30), 1.28 (1.17,1.39) and 1.28 (1.16,1.41), respectively, as compared to those with 20+ teeth. In contrary, among denture users, detrimental effect was only observed among those with 0 teeth (HR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.16,1.41).

Conclusions: In Chinese older adults, maintaining 20+ teeth is important for cognitive health; denture use would attenuate the detrimental effects of tooth loss, especially for partial tooth loss, on cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab056DOI Listing
March 2021

Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Previous Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 10;7:612155. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Many patients who have aortic stenosis and are transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) candidates have underwent prior cardiac surgery (PCS). The aim of this study was to provide a robust summary comparison between patients with PCS who underwent TAVR vs. surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published articles on PubMed/Medline, Ovid, EMBASE, and Scopus from 2002 to 2019. A total of 13 studies were finally included, yielding a total of 23,148 participants. There was no statistical difference with 30-day [OR: 1.02 (0.86-1.21)] or 1-year mortality [OR: 1.18 (0.86-1.61)] between the two groups. Subgroup analysis revealed that high-risk patients who underwent TAVR with the transapical approach were associated with increased risk of mortality [OR: 1.45 (1.00-2.11)]. However, those who underwent TAVR with endovascular approach had a comparable outcome with SAVR. Primary outcomes after endovascular TAVR were similar to those with SAVR and superior to transapical TAVR treatment group in patients with PCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.612155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902485PMC
February 2021

MARCH5 restores endothelial cell function against ischaemic/hypoxia injury via Akt/eNOS pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 04 21;25(7):3182-3193. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

MARCH5 is a critical regulator of mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis and mitophagy. However, its role in cardiovascular system remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of MARCH5 in endothelial cell (ECs) injury and the involvement of the Akt/eNOS signalling pathway in this process. Rat models of myocardial infarction (MI) and human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) exposed to hypoxia (1% O ) were used in this study. MARCH5 expression was significantly reduced in ECs of MI hearts and ECs exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia inhibited the proliferation, migration and tube formation of ECs, and these effects were aggravated by knockdown of MARCH5 but antagonized by overexpressed MARCH5. Overexpression of MARCH5 increased nitric oxide (NO) content, p-eNOS and p-Akt, while MARCH5 knockdown exerted the opposite effects. The protective effects mediated by MARCH5 overexpression on ECs could be inhibited by eNOS inhibitor L-NAME and Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, these results indicated that MARCH5 acts as a protective factor in ischaemia/hypoxia-induced ECs injury partially through Akt/eNOS pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034466PMC
April 2021

A Scale-Up, Phenomenological Model Incorporating the Effect of Both Feed Frame Lubrication and Tumble Blending-Driven Lubrication on Tablet Mechanical Strength.

J Pharm Sci 2021 07 18;110(7):2669-2676. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genentech, Inc, One DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

In tablet manufacturing, mixing operations in tumble blending (TB) and in the feed frame (FF) of the rotary press can both increase lubricity, negatively influencing the tablet mechanical strength. While the TB-driven lubrication was systematically studied, no reliable bench-scale methods exist for the effect of FF lubrication. Because TB and FF mixing are usually two successive operations in tablet manufacturing, we developed a phenomenological model to incorporate the impact of TB-driven lubrication and the FF lubrication on the tablet tensile strength (TS). We noted that exponential decay functions can describe the evolution of the tablet TS as the function of the extent of TB, as well as the residence time in FF. Hence, the overall lubrication sensitivity can be modeled by incorporating two distinct exponential decay functions. The model can be calibrated through bench-scale experiments. Using an investigational powder blend, we showed that this approach accurately predicted the tablet TS in a scale-up tablet compression study, thereby verifying its utility. This model can serve as a scale-up diagnostic and risk-assessment tool, with the ability to adjust the overall effect of lubrication by changing the TB scale and the FF residence time commensurate with the large-scale operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2021.02.020DOI Listing
July 2021

Solvent-Free Synthesis of the Polymer Electrolyte via Photo-Controlled Radical Polymerization: Toward Ultrafast In-Built Fabrication of Solid-State Batteries under Visible Light.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 11;13(7):8426-8434. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education; Yunnan Provincial Center for Research & Development of Natural Products; School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, P. R. China.

Thin solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) with good processability, improved room-temperature ionic conductivity, and better interfacial compatibility are urgently needed to develop solid-state batteries without safety and leakage issues. In-built electrolyte polymerization has emerged as a novel and effective platform to obtain such electrolytes. However, existing in-built methods usually involve heat, UV, γ irradiation, and so forth to initiate the polymerization and often require the addition of solvents to avoid the concentrated active propagating species, which inevitably afford solvent residues that persist in the electrolyte matrix, leading to complex SPE preparation processes, safety hazards, and side reactions with the electrodes. Herein, a simple solvent-free preparation of the poly(mPEGAA)-based electrolyte film was achieved via the photo-controlled radical polymerization under visible light irradiation via an in-built manner, which resulted in 99% monomer conversion within 5 min to obtain the polymer electrolytes with a controlled molecular weight distribution. Thanks to the mild and green conditions, a thin, solvent-free, and cross-linked SPE electrolyte film was obtained efficiently yet in a well-regulated manner, which gave rise to good interfacial compatibility and an improved room-temperature ionic conductivity of 1.5 × 10 S cm at 25 °C. As-prepared solid-state LiFePO|Li batteries based on the in-built thin SPE exhibited a high discharge areal capacity of 1.7 mA h cm (164.6 mA h g) at an ambient temperature. Furthermore, the system displayed lithium dendrite suppression behavior and good long-term charge-discharge cycling in the Li symmetric battery for over 270 h, representing enhanced stability and capacities compared with ex-built systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c21461DOI Listing
February 2021

Thresholds of population persistence for the Yangtze finless porpoise: implications for conservation managements.

Integr Zool 2021 Jul 14;16(4):538-547. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis), a critically endangered species, is the only cetacean species in the Yangtze River following the functional extinction of baiji (Lipotes vexillifer). To inform conservation actions, two important questions need to be addressed: what is the threshold value of survival rate, and what is the threshold value of population size? We calculate the instantaneous rate of population increase ( ) for the Yangtze finless porpoise for various combinations of the calf and the non-calf survival rates. We also test the probability of extinction for different minimum carrying capacities for 100 and 500 years using a stable population model. The threshold value of the non-calf survival rate is never lower than 0.869, but current estimates from field data have been far below this threshold. Our model based on extinction probability and carrying capacity suggests that the threshold for the population size to persist 100 years required 113 animals, and 472 animals are required to persist 500 years. Therefore, we recommend establishing an ex situ reserve network to guarantee the minimum 100-year carrying capacity. To ensure the long-term population viability, we suggest establishing two in situ reserve zones in two lakes and their surrounding reserves to meet a minimum 500-year carrying capacity. In addition, measures to avoid further habitat fragmentation should be priority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12523DOI Listing
July 2021

Community-based population monitoring for large baleen whales: the case study of Bryde's whale in Beibu Gulf of China.

Integr Zool 2021 Jul 14;16(4):626-635. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Citizen science is a popular method for the long-term monitoring of the distribution of wild animals. The application of these methods in different species and environments still poses challenges, especially for aquatic animals. In this study, we investigated the distribution of the Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) in the Beibu Gulf of China by using scientific boat-based surveys and citizen science approaches using 2 different methods of data collection. First, we built our mobile app (Whale Guard) and installed it on fishermen's phones. Second, we used a popular instant messaging app (WeChat) to create an online fisherman community. We found that the mobile phone app collected far fewer reports (5 reports) than the online community group (42 reports, P < 0.01). By using a variety of incentives, we maintained the fisherman's community's activity without significant user loss (P < 0.01). We also found that the locations collected by social media applications in this study were consistent with observations from scientific boat-based transect surveys. The sightings distribution of Bryde's whales differed from those in previous surveys in that they were present across larger areas. Social media apps reported that 69% of reports was confirmed by more than one person, whereas Whale Guard reports were much lower (0, P <0.001). Community-based citizen science can greatly contribute to the long-term monitoring of Bryde's whales, and it has successfully overcome the challenges of data accessibility, accuracy, and fragmentation. Our study shows how to appropriately use citizen science in different community groups and community-based approaches make them useful for large baleen whale surveys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12525DOI Listing
July 2021

Introduction to the Department of Cardiology in West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

Eur Heart J 2021 06;42(22):2148-2151

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Road, 610041 Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab032DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of regular aerobic exercises and neuromuscular junction variants with incidence of frailty: an analysis of the Chinese Longitudinal Health and Longevity Survey.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 04 1;12(2):350-357. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Candidate genes of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) pathway increased risk of frailty, but the extent and whether can be offset by exercises was unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aerobic exercises and incident frailty regardless of NMJ pathway-related genetic risk.

Methods: A cohort study on participants from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey was conducted from 2008 to 2011. A total of 7006 participants (mean age of 80.6 ± 10.3 years) without frailty at baseline were interviewed to record aerobic exercise status, and 4053 individuals among them submitted saliva samples. NMJ pathway-related genes were genotyped and weighted genetic risk scores were constructed.

Results: During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (19 634 person-years), there were 1345 cases (19.2%) of incident frailty. Persistent aerobic exercises were associated with a 26% lesser frailty risk [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.64-0.85]. This association was stronger in a subgroup of 1552 longevous participants (age between 90 and 111 years, adjusted HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.60-0.87). High genetic risk was associated with a 35% increased risk of frailty (adjusted HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.16-1.58). Of the participants with high genetic risk and no persistent aerobic exercises, there was a 59% increased risk of frailty (adjusted HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.20-2.09). HRs for the risk of frailty increased from the low genetic risk with persistent aerobic exercise to high genetic risk without persistent aerobic exercise (P trend <0.001).

Conclusions: Both aerobic exercises and NMJ pathway-related genetic risk were significantly associated with frailty. Persistent aerobic exercises can partly offset NMJ pathway-related genetic risk to frailty in elderly people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061381PMC
April 2021

Fe-Ion-Catalyzed Synthesis of CdSe/Cu Core/Shell Nanowires.

Inorg Chem 2021 Feb 25;60(4):2614-2622. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Henan Province Industrial Technology Research Institute of Resources and Materials, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, PR China.

CdSe/Cu core/shell nanowires (NWs) are successfully synthesized by a wet chemical method for the first time. By utilizing the solution-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism, CdSe NWs are fabricated by Bi seeds, which act as catalysts. In the subsequent radial overcoating of the Cu shell on the CdSe NWs, Fe ions have been proven to be an indispensable and efficient catalyzer. The thickness of the Cu shell could be well controlled in the range of 3 to 6 nm by varying the growth temperature (from 300 to 360 °C). Our synthetic strategy pioneers a new possibility for the controlled synthesis of semiconductor-metal heterostructure NWs (especially for II-VI semiconductors), such as CdS/Cu, ZnS/Au, and ZnO/Ag, which had broad application prospects in photoconductors, thin-film transistors, and light-emitting diodes. Theoretically, electrons flow from a higher Fermi-level material to the bottom Fermi-level at the metal-semiconductor heterojunction interface, which aligns the Fermi level and establishes the Schottky barrier. It leads to excess negative charges in metals and excess positive charges in semiconductors. Therefore, those effective electron traps reduce the probability of photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination efficiently, which has been widely applied in solar cells, sensors, photocatalysis, and energy storage. The breakthrough and innovation of this synthesis method have opened up a new synthetic route with a mild reaction environment, low energy consumption, and convenience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03488DOI Listing
February 2021

Smoking cessation in late life is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality amongst oldest old people: a community-based prospective cohort study.

Age Ageing 2021 06;50(4):1298-1305

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Objective: we aimed to investigate the association of smoking cessation with risk of all-cause mortality amongst oldest old people (aged ≥ 80 years).

Design: this was a prospective cohort study.

Setting: the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, implemented in 23 provinces of China.

Participants: a total of 28,643 community-dwelling oldest old people (mean age, 92.9 ± 7.5 years) were included.

Methods: in this community-based cohort study, Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of smoking cessation with risk of all-cause mortality.

Results: during 136,585 person-years of follow-up from baseline to 1 September 2014, compared with never smokers, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality were 1.06 (1.02-1.10) for current smokers, 1.23 (1.09-1.39) for transient quitters (≤1 consecutive years since smoking cessation), 1.22 (1.12-1.32) for recent quitters (2-6 consecutive years since smoking cessation) and 1.11 (1.02-1.22) for long-term quitters (>6 consecutive years since smoking cessation). Cox models with penalised splines revealed an increased risk of all-cause mortality after smoking cessation; the highest mortality risk was observed within 2-4 years after smoking cessation and the risk gradually decreased with duration of smoking cessation. We further conducted subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses to reduce the impact of reverse causation.

Conclusions: smoking is harmful to health in all populations. Our study findings indicated smoking cessation in late life to be associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality amongst oldest old people who have smoked for a long time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa280DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction: A lipid droplet targeted fluorescent probe for high-efficiency image-guided photodynamic therapy of renal cell carcinoma.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb;57(8):1054

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Road, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China.

Correction for 'A lipid droplet targeted fluorescent probe for high-efficiency image-guided photodynamic therapy of renal cell carcinoma' by Ping Tan et al., Chem. Commun., 2021, DOI: 10.1039/d0cc07336a.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc90021hDOI Listing
February 2021

A brief introduction of meta-analyses in clinical practice and research.

J Gene Med 2021 05 25;23(5):e3312. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

With the explosive growth of medical information, it is almost impossible for healthcare providers to review and evaluate all relevant evidence to make the best clinical decisions. Meta-analyses, which summarize all existing evidence and quantitatively synthesize individual studies, have become the best available evidence for informing clinical practice. This article introduces the common methods, steps, principles, strengths and limitations of meta-analyses and aims to help healthcare providers and researchers obtain a basic understanding of meta-analyses in clinical practice and research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243934PMC
May 2021

Efficient and high-fidelity base editor with expanded PAM compatibility for cytidine dinucleotide.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Aug 6;64(8):1355-1367. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China.

Cytidine base editor (CBE), which is composed of a cytidine deaminase fused to Cas9 nickase, has been widely used to induce C-to-T conversions in a wide range of organisms. However, the targeting scope of current CBEs is largely restricted to protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequences containing G, T, or A bases. In this study, we developed a new base editor termed "nNme2-CBE" with excellent PAM compatibility for cytidine dinucleotide, significantly expanding the genome-targeting scope of CBEs. Using nNme2-CBE, targeted editing efficiencies of 29.0%-55.0% and 17.3%-52.5% were generated in human cells and rabbit embryos, respectively. In contrast to conventional nSp-CBE, the nNme2-CBE is a natural high-fidelity base editing platform with minimal DNA off-targeting detected in vivo. Significantly increased efficiency in GC context and precision were determined by combining nNme2Cas9 with rationally engineered cytidine deaminases. In addition, the Founder rabbits with accurate single-base substitutions at Fgf5 gene loci were successfully generated by using the nNme2-CBE system. These novel nNme2-CBEs with expanded PAM compatibility and high fidelity will expand the base editing toolset for efficient gene modification and therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1775-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Sex differences in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement in Asia.

Open Heart 2021 01;8(1)

Department of Cardiology, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly performed. Physically small Asians have smaller aortic root and peripheral vessel anatomy. The influence of gender of Asian patients undergoing TAVR is unknown and may affect outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess sex differences in Asian patients undergoing TAVR.

Methods: Patients undergoing TAVR from eight countries were enrolled. In this retrospective analysis, we examined differences in characteristics, 30-day clinical outcomes and 1-year survival between female and male Asian patients.

Results: Eight hundred and seventy-three patients (54.4% women) were included. Women were older, smaller and had less coronary artery and lung disease but tended to have higher logistic EuroSCOREs. Smaller prostheses were used more often in women. Major vascular complications occurred more frequently in women (5.5% vs 1.8%, p<0.01); however, 30-day stroke and mortality (women vs men: 1.5% vs 1.6%, p=0.95% and 4.3% vs 3.4%, p=0.48) were similar. Functional status improvement was significant and comparable between the sexes. Conduction disturbance and permanent pacemaker requirements (11.2% vs 9.0%, p=0.52) were also similar as was 1-year survival (women vs men: 85.6% vs 88.2%, p=0.25). The only predictors of 30-day mortality were major vascular injury in women and age in men.

Conclusions: Asian women had significantly smaller stature and anatomy with some differences in clinical profiles. Despite more frequent major vascular complications, women had similar 30-day stroke or mortality rates. Functional status improvement was significant and comparable between the sexes. Conduction disturbance and permanent pacemaker requirements were similar as was 1-year survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798412PMC
January 2021

A lipid droplet targeted fluorescent probe for high-efficiency image-guided photodynamic therapy of renal cell carcinoma.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan 7;57(8):1046-1049. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Road, Chengdu 610064, P. R. China.

A one-step synthesized LD specific fluorescent probe TTIE with high specificity, good photostability and great capacity in generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) under low powered white light irradiation is designed and synthesized for LD specific image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT) in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) primary cells and tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07336aDOI Listing
January 2021

Serum calcium levels correlates with coronary artery disease outcomes.

Open Med (Wars) 2020 9;15(1):1128-1136. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guoxue Street, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: Effect of serum calcium levels on prognosis of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well evaluated. We aimed to assess the associations of baseline serum calcium levels with both short-term and long-term outcomes in CAD patients.

Methods: This study included 3,109 consecutive patients with angiographically confirmed CAD. Patients were categorized into quartiles according to admission serum calcium. Multivariable regression analysis was used to determine the association of serum calcium with mortality.

Results: Compared to patients in the lowest quartile of serum calcium, patients in upper quartiles were presented with lower all-cause mortality (Hazard ratios [HRs] were -0.636 [95% CI: -0.424 to -0.954], -0.545 [95% CI: -0.351 to -0.846] and -0.641 [95% CI: -0.450 to -0.913] for three upper quartiles versus lowest quartile respectively), cardiovascular mortality (HRs 0.594 [0.368-0.961], 0.261 [0.124-0.551] and 0.407 [0.229-0.725]), and in-hospital mortality (Odd ratios [ORs] 0.391 [0.188-0.812], 0.231 [0.072-0.501] and 0.223 [0.093-0.534]). Consistent associations between serum calcium and long-term mortality were also obtained in subgroup analysis of ACS patients, stable CAD patients and discharged patients.

Conclusions: Serum calcium is inversely associated with CAD and can independently predict both in-hospital and long-term mortality among CAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2020-0154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718611PMC
November 2020

Renal function as a predictor of outcomes in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A cohort study of a hospitalized population.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jan 3;512:92-99. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Cardiology Department, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: The relationship between renal function and outcomes among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) remains undefined. We sought to investigate the prevalence of renal dysfunction and its prognostic value in HCM patients.

Methods: A total of 581 patients with HCM were consecutively recruited. The chronic kidney disease epidemiology equation was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Patients were divided into 2 eGFR categories: ≥60 or <60 ml/min/1.73 m. The predictive value of renal function was assessed using Cox regression.

Results: The proportions of eGFR 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m and <60 ml/min/1.73 m were 41.8% and 15.3%, respectively. Estimated GFR independently predicted the risk of all-cause mortality [HR 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.99, P < 0.001]. Compared to those with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m, patients with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m were independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 3.42 95% CI 1.86-6.28), cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.98, 95% CI 1.36-6.50) and combined adverse outcomes (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02-2.49). HRs for all-cause mortality with renal dysfunction were attenuated in patients with older ages (P for interaction = 0.034).

Conclusions: Renal dysfunction is a common comorbidity in HCM. Renal function is an independent predictor of outcomes in patients with HCM. These findings highlight the clinical importance of renal dysfunction in HCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.11.022DOI Listing
January 2021

Association Between Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Incident Activities of Daily Living Disability: A Longitudinal Community-Based Cohort Study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Sep 26;22(9):1946-1952.e3. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: A few studies of Western populations have found inconsistent results regarding the associations between vitamin D status and physical function. We explored the association between circulating vitamin D status [plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D] and incident activities of daily living (ADL) disability among Chinese older adults.

Design: Community-based longitudinal cohort study.

Setting And Participants: A total of 2453 men and women (median age 84.0 years) in 7 Chinese longevity areas were included.

Measures: Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident ADL, with adjustments for potential sociodemographic, and lifestyle confounders and biomarkers. Because there was a statistically significant interaction between plasma 25(OH)D and sex in relation to incident ADL, men and women were analyzed separately.

Results: The median concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D were 46.6 nmol/L and 36.4 nmol/L for men and women, respectively. Compared with the lowest quartile in the fully adjusted model, the HR for incident ADL disability for the highest quartile was 0.55 (95% CI 0.36-0.85) for women; for men, a null association was indicated (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.37-1.00). However, when using the recommended circulating 25(OH)D thresholds by the US Institute of Medicine, those with vitamin D sufficiency (≥50 nmol/L) had better ADL disability prognoses than those with vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) in both sexes (men HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.28-0.72; women HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.90).

Conclusions And Implications: The relationship between plasma 25(OH)D concentration and incident ADL disability was sex-specific among Chinese older adults. However, participants with recommended vitamin D sufficiency may have better disability prognoses in both sexes, suggesting that the recommended 25(OH)D concentration for bone health may extend to functional outcomes such as ADL disability in Chinese older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.10.041DOI Listing
September 2021

A functionalized metal organic framework-laden nanoporous polymer electrolyte for exceptionally stable lithium electrodeposition.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Dec;56(99):15533-15536

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education and Yunnan Province, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming, China650091.

A nanoporous all-solid-state MOF-laden polymer electrolyte that is simply mediated by an electronic effect shows remarkably high lithium electrodeposition stability of hundreds of charge-discharge cycles and over 1500 operating hours, while maintaining a very small voltage polarization. This result is a significant improvement relative to conventional PEO and, when used in an all-solid-state battery (ASSB), this electrolyte enabled enhanced cycle life. This new all-solid-state electrolyte shows a promising rational design for the emerging microporous polymeric materials as novel SPEs in ASSBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06265kDOI Listing
December 2020

[Corrigendum] Panax notoginseng saponins prevent senescence and inhibit apoptosis by regulating the PI3K‑AKT‑mTOR pathway in osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

Int J Mol Med 2021 01 11;47(1):408-409. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Orthopedics, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, P.R. China.

Following the publication of the above article, the authors have realized that the first author, who analyzed the data, inadvertently made a mistake by over‑estimating the background of the blots in calculating the intensity of the histograms for the western blots shown in Fig. 6A and E. This error led to subsequent differences in the actual quantification and statistics from the originally submitted results. Accordingly, to further verify the conclusions reported in the study, the authors repeated these experiments independently, and the results were found to be consistent with the same changes in trends as originally observed. The revised version of Fig. 6, containing the new western blot data for Fig. 6A and E and new histograms showing the quantification of these data, is shown on the next page. The authors are grateful to the Editor of International Journal of Molecular Medicine for allowing them the opportunity to publish this Corrigendum, and apologize to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in International Journal of Molecular Medicine 45: 1225-1236, 2020; DOI: 10.3892/ijmm.2020.4491].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723677PMC
January 2021

PCR Planet: a review of structural transcatheter intervention practice across the continents.

EuroIntervention 2020 Nov;16(10):797-801

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJV16I10A149DOI Listing
November 2020

Metabolic Modulation and Potential Biomarkers of the Prognosis Identification for Severe Aortic Stenosis after TAVR by a Metabolomics Study.

Cardiol Res Pract 2020 28;2020:3946913. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Street, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objectives: To investigate the metabolic profile in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and explore the potential biomarkers to predict prognosis after TAVR based on metabolomics.

Methods And Results: Fifty-nine consecutive AS patients were prospectively recruited. Blood samples from the ascending aorta, coronary sinus, and peripheral vein at before and after TAVR were collected, respectively. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were performed to analyze the metabolic profile before and after TAVR. Influential metabolites were identified by integrating the univariate test, multivariate analysis, and weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) algorithm. PLS-DA analysis revealed a significant extremely early (within 30 minutes after TAVR) alterations of metabolites in the ascending aorta, coronary sinus, and peripheral vein. The early (within 7 days after TAVR) changed metabolites in the peripheral vein were involved in purine metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, one carbon pool by folate and alanine, and the aspartate and glutamate metabolism pathway. We used volcano plots to find that the cardiac-specific changed metabolites were enriched to the sphingolipid metabolism pathway after TAVR. Besides, WGCNA algorithm was performed to reveal that arginine and proline metabolites could reflect left ventricle regression to some extent.

Conclusion: This is the first study to reveal systemic and cardiac metabolites changed significantly in patients with AS after TAVR. Some altered metabolites involved in the arginine and proline metabolism pathway in the peripheral vein could predict left ventricle regression, which merited further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3946913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649585PMC
October 2020

Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Flow Pattern of Pharmaceutical Powder Blends Discharged From Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs).

J Pharm Sci 2021 03 10;110(3):1172-1181. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of funnel flow pattern for common pharmaceutical powder blends, upon discharging from modern intermediate bulk containers (IBCs) in drug product manufacturing. The estimation was built upon Jenike's original radial stress field theory. It was modified to account for the stress-dependence of wall friction angle commonly observed in pharmaceutical powders. A total of 260 flow pattern estimations, based on 20 real-life IBCs and 13 investigational powder blends, were made. The estimated results showed that the mass flow pattern is present in less than 5% of all cases. Funnel flow pattern is clearly prevalent among pharmaceutical powder blends. The prevalence of funnel flow stems from several factors: 1) relatively shallow hopper section shared by all IBCs, 2) the common transition-type geometry, leading to even shallower hopper inclination at the edge of the hopper section, and 3) relatively high wall friction angles resulting from low wall normal stresses. This conclusion was verified through at-scale experiments, by discharging multiple pharmaceutical powder blends from a representative IBC. In general, our study suggests that, unless the powder wall friction can be substantially reduced, pharmaceutical powders are likely to discharge under funnel flow from modern IBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2020.10.007DOI Listing
March 2021
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