Publications by authors named "Manuela Vaneckova"

86 Publications

Non-Penetrance for Ocular Phenotype in Two Individuals Carrying Heterozygous Loss-of-Function Alleles.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Paediatrics and Inherited Metabolic Disorders, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Ke Karlovu 2, 128 08 Prague, Czech Republic.

loss-of-function (LoF) alleles are known to cause a rare autosomal dominant disorder-posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy type 3 (PPCD3). To date, 50 pathogenic LoF variants have been identified as disease-causing and familial studies have indicated that the PPCD3 phenotype is penetrant in approximately 95% of carriers. In this study, we interrogated in-house exomes ( = 3616) and genomes ( = 88) for the presence of putative heterozygous LoF variants in . Next, we performed detailed phenotyping in a father and his son who carried a novel LoF c.1279C>T; p.(Glu427*) variant in (NM_030751.6) absent from the gnomAD v.2.1.1 dataset. Ocular examination of the two subjects did not show any abnormalities characteristic of PPCD3. GnomAD ( = 141,456 subjects) was also interrogated for LoF variants, notably 8 distinct heterozygous changes presumed to lead to haploinsufficiency, not reported to be associated with PPCD3, have been identified. The NM_030751.6 transcript has a pLI score ≥ 0.99, indicating extreme intolerance to haploinsufficiency. In conclusion, LoF variants are present in a general population at an extremely low frequency. As PPCD3 can be asymptomatic, the true penetrance of LoF variants remains currently unknown but is likely to be lower than estimated by the familial led approaches adopted to date.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12050677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146820PMC
April 2021

Isolated Cognitive Decline in Neurologically Stable Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 7;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University in Prague, 128 21 Prague, Czech Republic.

(1) Background: Cognitive deterioration is an important marker of disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). It is vital to detect cognitive decline as soon as possible. Cognitive deterioration can take the form of isolated cognitive decline (ICD) with no other clinical signs of disease progression present. (2) Methods: We investigated 1091 MS patients from the longitudinal GQ (Grant Quantitative) study, assessing their radiological, neurological, and neuropsychological data. Additionally, the confirmatory analysis was conducted. Clinical disease activity was defined as the presence of new relapse or disability worsening. MRI activity was defined as the presence of new or enlarged T2 lesions on brain MRI. (3) Results: Overall, 6.4% of patients experienced cognitive decline and 4.0% experienced ICD without corresponding clinical activity. The vast majority of cognitively worsening patients showed concomitant progression in other neurological and radiologic measures. There were no differences in disease severity between completely stable patients and cognitively worsening patients but with normal cognition at baseline. (4) Conclusions: Only a small proportion of MS patients experience ICD over short-term follow-up. Patients with severe MS are more prone to cognitive decline; however, patients with normal cognitive performance and mild MS might benefit from the early detection of cognitive decline the most.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11030464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999620PMC
March 2021

Evolution of Brain Volume Loss Rates in Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 05 16;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

From the CORe (T.U., C.M., T.K.), Department of Medicine, the University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience (T.U., E.K.H., D.H.), Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital; Department of Radiology (J.K., M.V.), Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic; Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (N.B., M.G.D., R.Z.), Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York; IRCCS (N.B.), Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy; Center for Biomedical Imaging at Clinical Translational Science Institute (R.Z.), University at Buffalo, State University of New York; and Melbourne MS Centre (T.K.), Department of Neurology, the Royal Melbourne Hospital, VIC, Australia.

Objective: To describe the dynamics of brain volume loss (BVL) at different stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), to describe the association between BVL and clinical measures, and to investigate an effect of treatment escalation on the rate of BVL.

Methods: Together, 1903 patients predominantly with RRMS from the Avonex-Steroids-Azathioprine cohort (N = 166), the study of early IFN-β1a treatment cohort (N = 180), and the quantitative MRI cohort (N = 1,557) with ≥2 MRI scans and ≥1-year of follow-up were included. Brain MRI scans (N = 7,203) were performed using a single 1.5-T machine. Relationships between age or disease duration and global and tissue-specific BVL rates were analyzed using mixed models.

Results: Age was not associated with the rate of BVL (β = -0.003; Cohen f2 = 0.0005; adjusted = 0.39). Although disease duration was associated with the rate of BVL, its effect on the BVL rate was minimal (β = -0.012; Cohen f2 = 0.004; adjusted = 4 × 10). Analysis of association between tissue-specific brain volume changes and age (β = -0.019 to -0.011; adjusted = 0.028-1.00) or disease duration (β = -0.028 to -0.008; adjusted = 0.16-0.96) confirmed these results. Although increase in the relapse rate (β = 0.10; adjusted = 9 × 10), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; β = 0.17; adjusted = 8 × 10), and EDSS change (β = 0.15; adjusted = 2 × 10) were associated with accelerated rate of BVL, their effect on the rate of BVL was minimal (all Cohen f2 ≤ 0.007). In 94 patients who escalated therapy, the rate of BVL decreased following treatment escalation by 0.29% (β = -0.29; Cohen f2 = 0.133; = 5.5 × 10).

Conclusions: The rate of BVL is relatively stable throughout the course of RRMS. The accelerated BVL is weakly associated with concurrent higher disease activity, and timely escalation to high-efficacy immunotherapy helps decrease the rate of BVL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984675PMC
May 2021

Factors influencing daily treatment choices in multiple sclerosis: practice guidelines, biomarkers and burden of disease.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2020 7;13:1756286420975223. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

At two meetings of a Central European board of multiple sclerosis (MS) experts in 2018 and 2019 factors influencing daily treatment choices in MS, especially practice guidelines, biomarkers and burden of disease, were discussed. The heterogeneity of MS and the complexity of the available treatment options call for informed treatment choices. However, evidence from clinical trials is generally lacking, particularly regarding sequencing, switches and escalation of drugs. Also, there is a need to identify patients who require highly efficacious treatment from the onset of their disease to prevent deterioration. The recently published European Committee for the Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis/European Academy of Neurology clinical practice guidelines on pharmacological management of MS cover aspects such as treatment efficacy, response criteria, strategies to address suboptimal response and safety concerns and are based on expert consensus statements. However, the recommendations constitute an excellent framework that should be adapted to local regulations, MS center capacities and infrastructure. Further, available and emerging biomarkers for treatment guidance were discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging parameters are deemed most reliable at present, even though complex assessment including clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters besides imaging is necessary in clinical routine. Neurofilament-light chain levels appear to represent the current most promising non-imaging biomarker. Other immunological data, including issues of immunosenescence, will play an increasingly important role for future treatment algorithms. Cognitive impairment has been recognized as a major contribution to MS disease burden. Regular evaluation of cognitive function is recommended in MS patients, although no specific disease-modifying treatment has been defined to date. Finally, systematic documentation of real-life data is recognized as a great opportunity to tackle unresolved daily routine challenges, such as use of sequential therapies, but requires joint efforts across clinics, governments and pharmaceutical companies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420975223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724259PMC
December 2020

White matter alteration and cerebellar atrophy are hallmarks of brain MRI in alpha-mannosidosis.

Mol Genet Metab 2021 03 3;132(3):189-197. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Objective: Despite profound neurological symptomatology there are only few MRI studies focused on the brain abnormalities in alpha-mannosidosis (AM). Our aim was to characterize brain MRI findings in a large cohort of AM patients along with clinical manifestations.

Methods: Twenty-two brain MRIs acquired in 13 untreated AM patients (8 M/5F; median age 17 years) were independently assessed by three experienced readers and compared to 16 controls.

Results: Focal and/or diffuse hyperintense signals in the cerebral white matter were present in most (85%) patients. Cerebellar atrophy was common (62%), present from the age of 5 years. Progression was observed in two out of 6 patients with follow-up scans. Cortical atrophy (62%) and corpus callosum thinning (23%) were already present in a 13-month-old child. The presence of low T signal intensity in basal ganglia and thalami was excluded by the normalized signal intensity profiling. The enlargement of perivascular spaces in white matter (38%), widening of perioptic CSF spaces (62%), and enlargement of cisterna magna (85%) were also observed. Diploic space thickening (100%), mucosal thickening (69%) and sinus hypoplasia (54%) were the most frequent non-CNS abnormalities.

Conclusion: White matter changes and cerebellar atrophy are proposed to be the characteristic brain MRI features of AM. The previously reported decreased T signal intensity in basal ganglia and thalami was not detected in this quantitative study. Rather, this relative MR appearance seems to be related to the diffuse high T signal in the adjacent white matter and not the gray matter iron deposition that has been hypothesized.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.11.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Interpretation of Brain Volume Increase in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Neuroimaging 2021 03 13;31(2):401-407. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General, University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background And Purpose: A high variability of brain MRI volume change measurement renders challenging its interpretation in multiple sclerosis (MS). Occurrence and clinical relevance of observed apparent brain volume increase (BVI) in MS patients have not been investigated yet. The objective was to quantify the prevalence and factors associated with BVI.

Methods: We examined 366 MS patients (2,317 scans) and 44 controls (132 scans). Volumetric analysis of brain volume changes was performed by SIENA and ScanView. BVI was defined as brain volume change >0%. We compared characteristics of patients with and without BVI.

Results: BVI was found in 26.3% (from 1,951) longitudinal scans (SIENA). If BVI occurred, a probability that BVI will be repeated consecutively more than or equal to two times was 15.9%. The repeated BVI was associated with clinical disease activity in 50% of cases. BVI was associated with shorter time and lower T2 lesion volume increase between two MRI scans, and higher normalized brain volume (all P < .0001). A proportion of scans with BVI was higher when analyzed by ScanView (35.3%) and in controls (36.4% by SIENA).

Conclusions: BVI occurs in a great proportion of MR scans over short-term follow-up and is not associated with disease stabilization. Although BVI can be caused by several factors, the results indicate that measurement error may contribute to BVI in the majority of cases. Clinicians should be aware of the frequent occurrence of apparent BVI, interpret brain volume changes in MS patients with great caution, and use methods with precise quantification of brain volume changes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12816DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-term effectiveness of natalizumab on MRI outcomes and no evidence of disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated in a Czech Republic real-world setting: A longitudinal, retrospective study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Nov 28;46:102543. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated in real-world settings are important for understanding disease-modifying therapy effects, including no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) assessment. This longitudinal, retrospective, single-cohort analysis assessed MRI and clinical disease outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with natalizumab for up to 5 years in Prague, the Czech Republic.

Methods: The primary study endpoint was the proportion of patients free of new or enlarging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) lesions after at least 2 years of natalizumab treatment. Secondary endpoints included percentage brain volume change over time, the number of new T1-hypointense lesions that persisted for ≥6 months, FLAIR and T1-hypointense lesion volume change over time, and the proportion of patients with NEDA-3 (defined as no relapses, no confirmed disability worsening, and no new or enlarging FLAIR lesions).

Results: A total of 193 patients were included in the study. During year 1 of natalizumab treatment, 78.9% of patients had no new or enlarging FLAIR lesions and 79.5% had no new T1 lesions. These proportions increased in years 2-5, with ≥98.0% of patients free of new or enlarging FLAIR lesions and ≥98.8% free of new T1 lesions. During year 1 on natalizumab, 52.2% of patients achieved NEDA-3; this proportion increased to ≥69.2% in years 2-5.

Conclusion: This study provides additional evidence that long-term MS disease activity, as measured by both MRI activity and NEDA-3, is well-controlled in patients treated with natalizumab in real-world settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102543DOI Listing
November 2020

Efficiency of I-ioflupane SPECT as the marker of basal ganglia damage in acute methanol poisoning: 6-year prospective study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Mar 7;59(3):235-245. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Context: Investigate whether I-ioflupane SPECT (DaT SPECT) has the potential as a marker of basal ganglia damage in acute methanol poisoning.

Methods: Prospective, single-centre, cohort study of patients with confirmed methanol poisoning was conducted. DaT SPECT was performed twice with semi-quantification using DaTQUANT and MRI-based volumetry was calculated. Specific binding ratios (SBR) of striatum, caudate nucleus, and putamen were correlated with laboratory parameters of outcome, volumetric data, and retinal nerve fibres layer (RNFL) thickness measurements.

Results: Forty-two patients (mean age 46.3 ± 4.2 years; 8 females), including 15 with MRI-detected putamen lesions (group I) and 27 patients with intact putamen (group II), underwent DaT SPECT. Volumetry was calculated in 35 of the patients assessed. SBR values for the left putamen correlated with putamen volume ( = 0.665;  < 0.001). Decreased bilateral SBR values were determined for the striatum and the putamen, but not for the nucleus caudate, in group I ( < 0.05). Significant correlation was observed between the SBR of the posterior putamen and arterial blood pH ( = 0.574;  < 0.001) and other toxicological parameters of severity of poisoning/outcome including serum lactate, glucose, and creatinine concentrations ( < 0.05). The SBR of the posterior putamen positively correlated with the global RNFL thickness ( < 0.05). ROC analysis demonstrated a significant discriminatory ability of SBR of the posterior putamen with AUC = 0.753 (95%CI 0.604-0.902;  = 0.007). The multivariate regression model demonstrated that arterial blood pH, age, and gender were the most significant factors associated with SBR of the posterior putamen.

Conclusion: DaT SPECT demonstrates significant potential for the diagnosis of methanol-induced basal ganglia damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2020.1802033DOI Listing
March 2021

Neuroprotective associations of apolipoproteins A-I and A-II with neurofilament levels in early multiple sclerosis.

J Clin Lipidol 2020 Sep - Oct;14(5):675-684.e2. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The role of cholesterol homeostasis in neuroaxonal injury in multiple sclerosis is not known.

Objective: The objective of the study is to investigate the associations of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum neurofilament light chain levels (CSF-NfL and sNfL, respectively), which are biomarkers of neuroaxonal injury, with cholesterol biomarkers at the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis.

Methods: sNfL, serum cholesterol profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), serum apolipoprotein (Apo) levels (ApoA-I, ApoA-II, ApoB, and ApoE), and albumin quotient were obtained for 133 patients (63% female, age: 29.9 ± 8.0 years) during the first demyelinating event. CSF-NfL was available for 103 (77%) patients.

Results: CSF-NfL and sNfL were negatively associated with serum ApoA-II (P = .005, P < .001) and positively associated with albumin quotient (P < .001, P < .0001). In addition, higher CSF-NfL was associated with lower serum ApoA-I (P = .009) levels and higher sNfL was associated with lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .010). In stepwise regression, age (P = .045), serum ApoA-II (P = .022), and albumin quotient (P < .001) were associated with CSF-NfL; albumin quotient (P = .002) and ApoA-II (P = .001) were associated with sNfL. Path analysis identified parallel pathways from ApoA-II (P = .009) and albumin quotient (P < .001) to the sNfL outcome that were mediated by CSF-NfL (P < .001). The associations of CSF-NfL with ApoA-I (P = .014) and ApoA-II (P = .015) and sNfL with ApoA-II (P < .001) remained significant after adjusting for number of contrast-enhancing lesions and T2 lesion volume.

Conclusion: Lower serum ApoA-II and ApoA-I levels are associated with greater neuroaxonal injury as measured by CSF-NfL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2020.07.001DOI Listing
July 2020

MRI-based brain volumetry and retinal optical coherence tomography as the biomarkers of outcome in acute methanol poisoning.

Neurotoxicology 2020 09 15;80:12-19. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Toxicological Information Centre, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Basal ganglia lesions are typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in survivors of acute methanol poisoning. However, no data are available on the association between the magnitude of damaged brain regions, serum concentrations of markers of acute methanol toxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the rate of retinal nerve ganglion cell loss.

Objectives: To investigate the association between MRI-based volumetry of the basal ganglia, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and prognostic laboratory markers of outcomes in acute methanol poisoning.

Methods: MRI-based volumetry of putamen, nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus was performed and compared with laboratory parameters of severity of poisoning and acute serum markers of oxidative damage of lipids (8-isoprostan, MDA, HHE, HNE), nucleic acids (8-OHdG, 8-OHG, 5-OHMU), proteins (o-Thyr, NO-Thyr, Cl-Thyr) and leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, LTB4), as well as with the results of RNFL measurements by optic coherence tomography (OCT) in 16 patients with acute methanol poisoning (Group I) and in 28 survivors of poisoning two years after discharge with the same markers measured within the follow-up examination (Group II). The control group consisted of 28 healthy subjects without methanol poisoning.

Results: The survivors of acute methanol poisoning had significantly lower volumes of basal ganglia than the controls. The patients with MRI signs of methanol-induced toxic brain damage had significantly lower volumes of basal ganglia than those without these signs. A positive correlation was found between the volume of putamen and arterial blood pH on admission (r = 0.45; p = 0.02 and r = 0.44; p = 0.02 for left and right putamen, correspondingly). A negative correlation was present between the volumes of putamen and acute serum lactate (r = -0.63; p < 0.001 and r = -0.59; p = 0.01), creatinine (r = -0.53; p = 0.01 and r = -0.47; p = 0.01) and glucose (r = -0.55; p < 0.001 and r = -0.50; p = 0.01) concentrations. The volume of basal ganglia positively correlated with acute concentrations of markers of lipoperoxidation (8-isoprostan: r = 0.61; p < 0.05 and r = 0.59; p < 0.05 for left and right putamen, correspondingly) and inflammation (leukotriene LTB4: r = 0.61; p < 0.05 and r = 0.61; p < 0.05 for left and right putamen, correspondingly). The higher the volume of the basal ganglia, the higher the thickness of the RNFL, with the strongest positive association between global RNFL and the volume of putamen bilaterally (all p < 0.01). In the follow-up markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, only o-Thyr concentration negatively correlated with the volume of putamen bilaterally (r = -0.39; p < 0.05 and r = -0.37; p < 0.05 for left and right putamen, correspondingly).

Conclusion: In survivors of acute methanol poisoning with signs of toxic brain damage, the magnitude of affected areas correlated with acute parameters of severity of poisoning, markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. There was a positive association between the basal ganglia volume and the thickness of RNFL, making OCT an important screening test and MRI-based volumetry the confirmative diagnostic method for the detection of CNS sequelae of methanol poisoning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2020.06.006DOI Listing
September 2020

Deep Gray Matter Iron Content in Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis.

Biomed Res Int 2020 19;2020:6492786. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Katerinska 32, Prague 128 08, Czech Republic.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are often presenting with overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how NMO and MS differ regarding cerebral iron deposits in deep gray matter (DGM) and the correlation between iron deposition and clinical severity as well as to regional atrophy of the DGM.

Methods: We analyzed 20 patients with NMO, 40 patients with a relapsing-remitting (RR) form of MS, and 20 healthy controls with 1.5T MRI. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) was performed to estimate iron concentration in the DGM.

Results: Patients with NMO have higher magnetic susceptibility values in the substantia nigra compared to healthy controls. RRMS patients have lower magnetic susceptibility values in the thalamus compared to healthy controls and NMO patients. Atrophy of the thalamus, pulvinar, and putamen is significant both in RRMS compared to NMO patients and healthy controls. A correlation was found between the disability score (EDSS) and magnetic susceptibility in the putamen in RRMS.

Conclusions: This study confirms that a disturbed cerebral iron homeostasis in patients with NMO occurs in different structures than in patients with RRMS. Increased magnetic susceptibility in substantia nigra in NMO and decreased magnetic susceptibility within the thalamus in RRMS were the only significant differences in the study sample. We could confirm that iron concentration in the thalami is decreased in RRMS compared to that in the HC group. Positive association was found between putaminal iron and EDSS in RRMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6492786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7254083PMC
March 2021

Monitoring of radiologic disease activity by serum neurofilaments in MS.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2020 07 9;7(4). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

From the Department of Medicine (T.U., T.K.), CORe, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience (T.U., B.S., M.T., K.V., E.K.H., D.H.), Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Clinical Trial Unit (S.S., P.B.), Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel; Departments of Medicine, Biomedicine and Clinical Research (C.B., J.O., D.L., Y.N., L.K., J. Kuhle), Neurologic Clinic and Policlinic, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Switzerland; Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (N.B., M.D., R.Z.), Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo; IRCCS "S. Maria Nascente" (N.B.), Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Milan, Italy; Department of Radiology (J. Krasensky, M.V.), Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic; Center for Biomedical Imaging at Clinical Translational Science Institute (R.Z.), University at Buffalo, State University of New York, NY; and Department of Neurology (T.K.), The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To determine whether serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels are associated with recent MRI activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS).

Methods: This observational study included 163 patients (405 samples) with early RRMS from the Study of Early interferon-beta1a (IFN-β1a) Treatment (SET) cohort and 179 patients (664 samples) with more advanced RRMS from the Genome-Wide Association Study of Multiple Sclerosis (GeneMSA) cohort. Based on annual brain MRI, we assessed the ability of sNfL cutoffs to reflect the presence of combined unique active lesions, defined as new/enlarging lesion compared with MRI in the preceding year or contrast-enhancing lesion. The probability of active MRI lesions among patients with different sNfL levels was estimated with generalized estimating equations models.

Results: From the sNfL samples ≥90th percentile, 81.6% of the SET (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) and 48.9% of the GeneMSA cohort samples (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.7-3.9) was associated with radiological disease activity on MRI. The sNfL level between the 10th and 30th percentile was reflective of negligible MRI activity: 1.4% (SET) and 6.5% (GeneMSA) of patients developed ≥3 active lesions, 5.8% (SET) and 6.5% (GeneMSA) developed ≥2 active lesions, and 34.8% (SET) and 11.8% (GeneMSA) showed ≥1 active lesion on brain MRI. The sNfL level <10th percentile was associated with even lower MRI activity. Similar results were found in a subgroup of clinically stable patients.

Conclusions: Low sNfL levels (≤30th percentile) help identify patients with MS with very low probability of recent radiologic disease activity during the preceding year. This result suggests that in future, sNfL assessment may substitute the need for annual brain MRI monitoring in considerable number (23.1%-36.4%) of visits in clinically stable patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176248PMC
July 2020

Neurofilament levels are associated with blood-brain barrier integrity, lymphocyte extravasation, and risk factors following the first demyelinating event in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 02 7;27(2):220-231. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA/Department of Neurology, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: Increased blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, CNS inflammation and neuroaxonal damage are pathological hallmarks in early multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objective: To investigate the associations of neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels with measures of BBB integrity and central nervous system (CNS) inflammation in MS during the first demyelinating event.

Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were obtained from 142 MS (McDonald 2017) treatment-naive patients from the SET study (63% female; age: 29.7 ± 7.9 years) following the disease onset. NfL, albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels were measured in CSF and blood samples. Albumin quotient was computed as a marker of BBB integrity. Immune cell subset counts in CSF were measured using flow cytometry. MS risk factors, such as Human leukocyte antigen locus gene ()*1501, anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D, were also measured.

Results: Higher serum NfL (sNfL) levels were associated with higher albumin quotient ( < 0.001), CSF CD80+ ( = 0.012), and CD80+ CD19+ ( = 0.015) cell frequency. sNfL levels were also associated with contrast-enhancing and T2 lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; all  ⩽ 0.001). Albumin quotient was not associated with any of the MS risk factors assessed. sNfL levels were associated with anti-EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG levels ( = 0.0026).

Conclusion: sNfL levels during the first demyelinating event of MS are associated with greater impairment of BBB integrity, immune cell extravasation, and brain lesion activity on MRI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520912379DOI Listing
February 2021

Multisystem mitochondrial diseases due to mutations in mtDNA-encoded subunits of complex I.

BMC Pediatr 2020 01 29;20(1):41. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Ke Karlovu 2, 128 08 Praha 2, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Maternally inherited complex I deficiencies due to mutations in MT-ND genes represent a heterogeneous group of multisystem mitochondrial disorders (MD) with a unfavourable prognosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the impact of the mutations in MT-ND genes, including the novel m.13091 T > C variant, on the course of the disease, and to analyse the activities of respiratory chain complexes, the amount of protein subunits, and the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) in available muscle biopsies and cultivated fibroblasts.

Methods: The respiratory chain complex activities were measured by spectrophotometry, MEGS were analysed using radiolabelled substrates, and protein amount by SDS-PAGE or BN-PAGE in muscle or fibroblasts.

Results: In our cohort of 106 unrelated families carrying different mtDNA mutations, we found heteroplasmic mutations in the genes MT-ND1, MT-ND3, and MT-ND5, including the novel variant m.13091 T > C, in 13 patients with MD from 12 families. First symptoms developed between early childhood and adolescence and progressed to multisystem disease with a phenotype of Leigh or MELAS syndromes. MRI revealed bilateral symmetrical involvement of deep grey matter typical of Leigh syndrome in 6 children, cortical/white matter stroke-like lesions suggesting MELAS syndrome in 3 patients, and a combination of cortico-subcortical lesions and grey matter involvement in 4 patients. MEGS indicated mitochondrial disturbances in all available muscle samples, as well as a significantly decreased oxidation of [1-C] pyruvate in fibroblasts. Spectrophotometric analyses revealed a low activity of complex I and/or complex I + III in all muscle samples except one, but the activities in fibroblasts were mostly normal. No correlation was found between complex I activities and mtDNA mutation load, but higher levels of heteroplasmy were generally found in more severely affected patients.

Conclusions: Maternally inherited complex I deficiencies were found in 11% of families with mitochondrial diseases in our region. Six patients manifested with Leigh, three with MELAS. The remaining four patients presented with an overlap between these two syndromes. MEGS, especially the oxidation of [1-C] pyruvate in fibroblasts might serve as a sensitive indicator of functional impairment due to MT-ND mutations. Early onset of the disease and higher level of mtDNA heteroplasmy were associated with a worse prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-1912-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988306PMC
January 2020

Serum neurofilament light chain reflects inflammation-driven neurodegeneration and predicts delayed brain volume loss in early stage of multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 01 21;27(1):52-60. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, General University Hospital and First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is a marker of neuroaxonal injury. There is a lack of studies investigating the dynamics of relationships between sNfL levels and radiological disease activity over long-term follow-up in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Objectives: To investigate the relationship among repeated measures of sNfL, lesion burden accumulation, brain volume loss and clinical measures.

Methods: We investigated 172 patients in the early stages of MS (McDonald 2017 criteria). Clinical exams were performed every 3 months and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected annually over 48 months. sNfL levels were measured in serum by Simoa assay at the time of treatment initiation and then annually over 36 months.

Results: In repeated-measures analysis, considering all time points, we found a strong relationship between percentage changes of sNfL and lesion burden accumulation assessed by T1 lesion volume ( < 0.001) and T2 lesion number ( < 0.001). There was no relationship between percentage changes of sNfL and brain volume loss over 36 months ( > 0.1). Early sNfL levels were associated with delayed brain volume loss after 48 months ( < 0.001). Patients with No Evidence of Disease Activity (NEDA-3) status showed lower sNfL levels compared with active MS patients.

Conclusions: sNfL is associated with ongoing neuroinflammation and predictive of future neurodegeneration in early MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519901272DOI Listing
January 2021

Health-related quality of life determinants in survivors of a mass methanol poisoning outbreak: six-year prospective cohort study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 09 8;58(9):870-880. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The effect of acute methanol poisoning on the follow-up quality of life of survivors in mass poisoning outbreaks is not known. The objective of this is to study the impact of visual and central nervous system (CNS) sequelae of methanol poisoning on long-term health-related quality of life (QoL) of survivors, its clinical determinants, and dynamics. A total of 54 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning (mean age 46.7 ± 13.4 years, 9 females) were examined consequently three times within six-year prospective cohort study and compared to 23 controls with the history of chronic alcohol abuse. The following tests were performed: SF-36 QoL questionnaire, visual evoked potentials (VEP) of optic nerve, ocular examination with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biochemical and toxicological tests. Acute methanol poisoning led to significant decrease in physical component summary (PCS) compared to PCS of age-adjusted controls (mean score with SD 46.8 ± 11.0 versus 52.3 ± 9.4 points;  = .003). In 17/40 (42.5%) patients with three rounds of examination, signs of severe disability (≤30 points in at least one score) were present six years after discharge, with negative dynamics of PCS score during the observation period. The patients with abnormal RNFL thickness had lower PCS (mean difference 10.5 points; 95%CI 3.5-17.5,  = .004) and mental component summary score (9.5 points; 95%CI 1.9-17.1,  = .015) compared to the patients with normal RNFL. Signs of physical and mental adaptation to long-term visual sequelae were registered with gradual reduction of difference in most of physical and mental components scores compared to the patients with normal RNFL during six years of observation. Signs of hemorrhagic brain lesions were associated with permanent decrease of PCS score (mean difference 7.4 points; 95%CI 0.6-14.0;  = .033), bodily pain (8.7 points; 95%CI 1.6-17.6;  = .018), and social functioning (8.2 points; 95%CI 3.0-17.4;  = .005) six years after discharge. No effect of type of antidote (fomepizole versus ethanol) and extracorporeal enhanced elimination modality (intermittent hemodialysis versus continuous renal replacement therapy) applied in hospital on long-term QoL was found (all  > .05). Acute methanol poisoning was associated with a significant decrease of health-related quality of life of survivors persisting for at least six years after discharge. The more pronounced decrease in QoL scores was observed in the patients with hemorrhagic brain lesions and visual sequelae of poisoning with abnormal RNFL thickness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1702994DOI Listing
September 2020

Additive Effect of Spinal Cord Volume, Diffuse and Focal Cord Pathology on Disability in Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Neurol 2019 6;10:820. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Radiology, Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czechia.

Spinal cord (SC) pathology is strongly associated with disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to evaluate the association between focal and diffuse SC abnormalities and spinal cord volume and to assess their contribution to physical disability in MS patients. This large sample-size cross-sectional study investigated 1,249 patients with heterogeneous MS phenotypes. Upper cervical-cord cross-sectional area (MUCCA) was calculated on an axial 3D-T2w-FatSat sequence acquired at 3T using a novel semiautomatic edge-finding tool. SC images were scored for the presence of sharply demarcated hyperintense areas (focal lesions) and homogenously increased signal intensity (diffuse changes). Patients were dichotomized according EDSS in groups with mild (EDSS up to 3.0) and moderate (EDSS ≥ 3.5) physical disability. Analysis of covariance was used to identify factors associated with dichotomized MUCCA. In binary logistic regression, the SC imaging parameters were entered in blocks to assess their individual contribution to risk of moderate disability. In order to assess the risk of combined SC damage in terms of atrophy lesional pathology on disability, secondary analysis was carried out where patients were divided into four categories (SC phenotypes) according to median dichotomized MUCCA and presence/absence of focal and/or diffuse changes. MUCCA was strongly associated with total intracranial volume, followed by presence of diffuse SC pathology, and disease duration. Compared to the reference group (normally appearing SC, MUCCA>median), patients with the most severe SC changes (SC affected with focal and/or diffuse lesions, MUCCA
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691803PMC
August 2019

The impact of co-morbidities on a 6-year survival after methanol mass poisoning outbreak: possible role of metabolic formaldehyde.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 04 12;58(4):241-253. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The influence of co-morbid conditions on the outcome of acute methanol poisoning in mass poisoning outbreaks is not known. The objective of this is to study the impact of burden of co-morbidities, complications, and methanol-induced brain lesions on hospital, follow-up, and total mortality. All patients hospitalized with methanol poisoning during a mass poisoning outbreak were followed in a prospective cohort study until death or final follow-up after 6 years. The age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index (ACCI) score was calculated for each patient. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to calculate the adjusted hazards ratio (HR) for death. The survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 108 patients (mean age with SD 50.9 ± 2.6 years), 24 (54.4 ± 5.9 years) died during hospitalization (mean survival with SD 8 ± 4 days) and 84 (49.9 ± 3.0 years;  = .159) were discharged, including 27 with methanol-induced brain lesions. Of the discharged patients, 15 (56.3 ± 6.8 years) died during the follow-up (mean survival 37 ± 11 months) and 69 (48.5 ± 3.3 years;  = .044) survived. The hospital mortality was 22%, the follow-up mortality was 18%; the total mortality was 36%. Cardiac/respiratory arrest, acute respiratory failure, multiorgan failure syndrome, and arterial hypotension increased the HR for hospital and total (but not follow-up) mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and arterial pH (all  < .05). All patients who died in the hospital had at least one complication. A higher ACCI score was associated with greater total mortality (HR 1.22; 1.00-1.48 95% CI;  = .046). Of those who died, 35 (90%) had a moderate-to-high ACCI. The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated that patients with a high ACCI had greater follow-up mortality compared to ones with low ( = .027) or moderate ( = .020) scores. For the patients who died during follow-up, cancers of different localizations were responsible for 7/15 (47%) of the deaths. The character and number of complications affected hospital but not follow-up mortality, while the burden of co-morbidities affected follow-up mortality. Methanol-induced brain lesions did not affect follow-up mortality. Relatively high cancer mortality rate may be associated with acute exposure to metabolic formaldehyde produced by methanol oxidation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1637525DOI Listing
April 2020

Lifespan normative data on rates of brain volume changes.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 09 22;81:30-37. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

We provide here normative values of yearly percentage brain volume change (PBVC/y) as obtained with Structural Imaging Evaluation, using Normalization, of Atrophy, a widely used open-source software, developing a PBVC/y calculator for assessing the deviation from the expected PBVC/y in patients with neurological disorders. We assessed multicenter (34 centers, 11 acquisition protocols) magnetic resonance imaging data of 720 healthy participants covering the whole adult lifespan (16-90 years). Data of 421 participants with a follow-up > 6 months were used to obtain the normative values for PBVC/y and data of 392 participants with a follow-up <1 month were selected to assess the intrasubject variability of the brain volume measurement. A mixed model evaluated PBVC/y dependence on age, sex, and magnetic resonance imaging parameters (scan vendor and magnetic field strength). PBVC/y was associated with age (p < 0.001), with 60- to 70-year-old participants showing twice more volume decrease than participants aged 30-40 years. PBVC/y was also associated with magnetic field strength, with higher decreases when measured by 1.5T than 3T scanners (p < 0.001). The variability of PBVC/y normative percentiles was narrower as the interscan interval was longer (e.g., 80th normative percentile was 50% smaller for participants with 2-year than with 1-year follow-up). The use of these normative data, eased by the freely available calculator, might help in better discriminating pathological from physiological conditions in the clinical setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.05.010DOI Listing
September 2019

Brain volumetric correlates of dysarthria in multiple sclerosis.

Brain Lang 2019 07 15;194:58-64. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Although dysarthria is a common pattern in multiple sclerosis (MS), the contribution of specific brain areas to key factors of dysarthria remains unknown. Speech data were acquired from 123 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6.5 and 60 matched healthy controls. Results of computerized acoustic analyses of subtests on spastic and ataxic aspects of dysarthria were correlated with MRI-based brain volume measurements. Slow articulation rate during reading was associated with bilateral white and grey matter loss whereas reduced maximum speed during oral diadochokinesis was related to greater cerebellar involvement. Articulation rate showed similar correlation to whole brain atrophy (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) as the standard clinical scales such as EDSS (r = -0.45, p < 0.001). Our results support the critical role of the pyramidal tract and cerebellum in the modification of motor speech timing in MS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2019.04.009DOI Listing
July 2019

Methanol Poisoning as an Acute Toxicological Basal Ganglia Lesion Model: Evidence from Brain Volumetry and Cognition.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 07 28;43(7):1486-1497. Epub 2019 May 28.

Department of Neurology and Centre of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Acute methanol poisoning leads to optic neuropathy and necrotic lesions of basal ganglia (BG) and subcortical white matter. Survivors of methanol poisoning exhibit long-term executive and memory deficits. Associations between brain volumetry parameters and cognitive sequelae of methanol poisoning are not known. The aim of our study was to identify long-term associations between the cognitive performance of survivors of methanol poisoning and the volume of the brain structures that are selectively vulnerable to methanol.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional follow-up study on a sample of patients (n = 33, age 50 ± 14 years, 82% males) who survived acute methanol poisoning during methanol mass poisoning outbreak from September 2012 till January 2013 in the Czech Republic. A battery of neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging were included in the clinical examination protocol. Specific brain structures (putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus caudatus, and frontal white matter) were selected as regions of interest, and their volumes were estimated using the MorphoBox prototype software.

Results: In robust multiple regression models, sustained visual attention performance (as assessed by Trail Making Test and Prague Stroop Test) was positively associated with BG structures and frontal white matter volumes (Wald = 9.03 to 85.50, p < 0.01), sensitivity to interference (as assessed by Frontal Battery Assessment) was negatively associated with frontal white matter volume (Wald = 35.44 to 42.25, p < 0.001), and motor performance (as assessed by Finger Tapping Test) was positively associated with globus pallidus and frontal white matter volumes (Wald = 9.66 to 13.29, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that smaller volumes of elements of BG-thalamocortical circuitry, namely the BG and frontal white matter, relate to attention and motor performance in methanol poisoning from a long-term perspective. Disruption of those functional circuits may underlie specific cognitive deficits observed in methanol poisoning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14077DOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical and genetic determinants of chronic visual pathway changes after methanol - induced optic neuropathy: four-year follow-up study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 06 17;57(6):387-397. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

a Toxicological Information Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine , Charles University and General University Hospital , Prague , Czech Republic.

Context: Methanol poisoning induces acute optic neuropathy with possible long-term visual damage.

Objective: To study the dynamics and key determinants of visual pathway functional changes during 4 years after acute methanol poisoning.

Methods: A total of 42 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning (mean age 45.7 ± 4.4 years) were examined 4.9 ± 0.6, 25.0 ± 0.6, and 49.9 ± 0.5 months after discharge. The following tests were performed: visual evoked potential (VEP), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complete ocular examination, biochemical tests, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotyping.

Results: Abnormal VEP P1 latency was registered in 18/42 right eyes (OD) and 21/42 left eyes (OS), abnormal N1P1 amplitude in 10/42 OD and OS. Mean P1 latency shortening during the follow-up was 15.0 ± 2.0 ms for 36/42 (86%) OD and 14.9 ± 2.4 ms for 35/42 (83%) OS, with maximum shortening up to 35.0 ms. No significant change of mean N1P1 amplitude was registered during follow-up. A further decrease in N1P1 amplitude ≥1.0 mcV in at least one eye was observed in 17 of 36 patients (47%) with measurable amplitude (mean decrease -1.11 ± 0.83 (OD)/-2.37 ± 0.66 (OS) mcV versus -0.06 ± 0.56 (OD)/-0.83 ± 0.64 (OS) mcV in the study population; both p < .001). ApoE4 allele carriers had lower global and temporal RNFL thickness and longer initial P1 latency compared to the non-carriers (all p < .05). The odds ratio for abnormal visual function was 8.92 (3.00-36.50; 95%CI) for ApoE4 allele carriers (p < .001). The presence of ApoE4 allele was further associated with brain necrotic lesions (r = 0.384; p = .013) and brain hemorrhages (r = 0.395; p = .011).

Conclusions: Improvement of optic nerve conductivity occurred in more than 80% of patients, but evoked potential amplitude tended to decrease during the 4 years of observation. ApoE4 allele carriers demonstrated lower RNFL thickness, longer P1 latency, and more frequent methanol-induced brain damage compared to non-carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1532083DOI Listing
June 2019

Anterior hippocampus volume loss in narcolepsy with cataplexy.

J Sleep Res 2019 08 13;28(4):e12785. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Anatomy, Charles University, First Faculty of Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a lifelong disease resulting from the loss of hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus; structural changes are not, however, limited only to the hypothalamus. We previously revealed an overall hippocampal volume loss in narcolepsy with cataplexy. The aim of this study is to describe the volume reduction of the anterior and posterior parts of the hippocampus in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy in comparison with a control group. The anterior hippocampus is more involved in episodic memory and imagination, and the posterior hippocampus in spatial memory. Manual magnetic resonance imaging hippocampal volumetry was performed in 48 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and in 37 controls using the manual delineation technique in the ScanView program. All participants were examined on the same 1.5 T MR scanner; measurement was carried out as T1W 3D image with a slice thickness of 1.0/0 mm. There was a significant absolute loss of the total volume of the anterior hippocampus (sum of left and right) in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy as compared with the controls (10.5%, p = .03 ANCOVA after correcting for total brain volume and multiple testing). We found a negative correlation between the total anterior hippocampus volume and the duration of the disease (R = -0.4036, p = .016-corrected for multiple testing).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12785DOI Listing
August 2019

Neuroinflammation markers and methyl alcohol induced toxic brain damage.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 4;298:60-69. Epub 2018 May 4.

Toxicological Information Centre, General University Hospital, Na Bojisti 1, 12000, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Biomimetic Electrochemistry, J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i, Dolejskova 2155/3, 18200, Prague, Czech Republic.

Methyl alcohol intoxication is a global problem with high mortality and long-term visual sequelae and severe brain damage in survivors. The role of neuroinflammation in the mechanisms of methyl alcohol-induced toxic brain damage has not been well studied. We measured the acute concentrations and dynamics of lipoxins LxA4 and LxB4 and the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 in the serum of patients treated with methyl alcohol poisoning and the follow-up concentrations in survivors two years after discharge from the hospital. A series of acute measurements was performed in 28 hospitalized patients (mean age 54.2 ± 5.2 years, mean observation time 88 ± 20 h) and the follow-up measurements were performed in 36 subjects who survived poisoning (including 12/28 survivors from the acute group). Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) were performed to detect long-term visual and brain sequelae of intoxication. The acute concentrations of inflammatory mediators were higher than the follow-up concentrations: LxA4, 62.0 ± 6.0 vs. 30.0 ± 5.0 pg/mL; LxB4, 64.0 ± 7.0 vs. 34.0 ± 4.0 pg/mL; IL-4, 29.0 ± 4.0 vs. 15.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-5, 30.0 ± 4.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-9, 30.0 ± 4.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-10, 38.0 ± 5.0 vs. 16.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-13, 35.0 ± 4.0 vs. 14.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL (all p < 0.001). The patients with higher follow-up IL-5 concentration had prolonged latency P1 (r = 0.413; p = 0.033) and lower amplitude N1P1 (r = -0.498; p = 0.010) of VEP. The higher follow-up IL-10 concentration was associated with MRI signs of brain necrotic damage (r = 0.533; p = 0.001) and brain hemorrhage (r = 0.396; p = 0.020). Our findings suggest that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the mechanisms of toxic brain damage in acute methyl alcohol intoxication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.05.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Progressive Chronic Retinal Axonal Loss Following Acute Methanol-induced Optic Neuropathy: Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 07 28;191:100-115. Epub 2018 Apr 28.

Toxicological Information Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Purpose: To study the dynamics and clinical determinants of chronic retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) loss after methanol-induced optic neuropathy.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: All patients underwent complete ophthalmic evaluation including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography 3 times during 4 years of observation: 4.9 (±0.6), 25.0 (±0.6), and 49.9 (±0.5) months after discharge.

Participants: Eighty-four eyes of 42 survivors of methanol poisoning, mean age (standard deviation) of 45.7 (±4.4) years; and 82 eyes of 41 controls, mean age 44.0 (±4.2) years.

Main Outcome Measures: Global and temporal RNFL loss.

Results: Abnormal RNFL thickness was registered in 13 of 42 (31%) survivors of methanol poisoning and chronic axonal loss in 10 of 42 (24%) patients. Significant decrease of global/temporal RNFL thickness during the observation period was found in the study population compared to the controls (P < .001). The risk estimate of chronic global RNFL loss for arterial blood pH < 7.3 at admission was 11.65 (95% confidence interval 1.91-71.12) after adjusting for age and sex. The patients with chronic axonal degeneration demonstrated progressive visual loss in 7 of 10 cases. The patients with abnormal RNFL thickness had magnetic resonance signs of brain damage in 10 of 13 vs 8 of 29 cases with normal RNFL thickness (P = .003). Signs of brain hemorrhages were present in 7 of 13 patients with abnormal RNFL thickness vs 5 of 29 cases with normal RNFL thickness (P = .015).

Conclusions: Methanol-induced optic neuropathy may lead to chronic retinal axonal loss during the following years. Arterial blood pH on admission is the strongest predictor of chronic RNFL thickness decrease. Chronic retinal neurodegeneration is associated with the progressive loss of visual functions and necrotic brain lesions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2018.04.015DOI Listing
July 2018

Combining clinical and magnetic resonance imaging markers enhances prediction of 12-year employment status in multiple sclerosis patients.

J Neurol Sci 2018 05 6;388:87-93. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Katerinska 30, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently diagnosed in the most productive years of adulthood and is often associated with worsening employment status. However, reliable predictors of employment status change are lacking.

Objective: To identify early clinical and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of employment status worsening in MS patients at 12-year follow-up.

Methods: A total of 145 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS from the original Avonex-Steroids-Azathioprine (ASA) study were included in this prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study. Cox models were conducted to identify MRI and clinical predictors (at baseline and during the first 12 months) of worsening employment status (patients either (1) working full-time or part-time with no limitations due to MS and retaining this status during the course of the study, or (2) patients working full-time or part-time with no limitations due to MS and switching to being unemployed or working part-time due to MS).

Results: In univariate analysis, brain parenchymal fraction, T1 and T2 lesion volume were the best MRI predictors of worsening employment status over the 12-year follow-up period. MS duration at baseline (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18; p = 0.040) was the only significant clinical predictor. Having one extra milliliter of T1 lesion volume was associated with a 53% greater risk of worsening employment status (HR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.16-2.02; p = 0.018). A brain parenchymal fraction decrease of 1% increased the risk of worsening employment status by 22% (HR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.95; p = 0.034).

Conclusion: Brain atrophy and lesion load were significant predictors of worsening employment status in MS patients. Using a combination of clinical and MRI markers may improve the early prediction of an employment status change over long-term follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2018.02.045DOI Listing
May 2018

Role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 10 2;56(10):893-903. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

a Toxicological Information Centre , General University Hospital in Prague , Prague , Czech Republic.

Context: The role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning has not been studied.

Objective: We measured the concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers in acutely intoxicated patients with known serum concentrations of methanol and leukotrienes.

Methods: Blood serum samples were collected from 28 patients hospitalized with acute intoxication and from 36 survivors 2 years after discharge. In these samples, concentrations of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using the method of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: The maximum acute serum concentrations of all three lipid oxidative damage markers were higher than the follow-up serum concentrations: HNE 71.7 ± 8.0 ng/mL versus 35.4 ± 2.3 ng/mL; p < .001; HHE 40.1 ± 6.7 ng/mL versus 17.7 ± 4.1 ng/mL; p < .001; MDA 80.0 ± 7.2 ng/mL versus 40.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL; p < .001. The survivors without methanol poisoning sequelae demonstrated higher acute serum concentrations of the markers than the patients with sequelae. A correlation between measured markers and serum leukotrienes was present: HNE correlated with LTC4 (r = 0.663), LTD4 (r = 0.608), LTE4 (r = 0.771), LTB4 (r = 0.717), HHE correlated with LTC4 (r = 0.713), LTD4 (r = 0.676), LTE4 (r = 0.819), LTB4 (r = 0.746), MDA correlated with LTC4 (r = 0.785), LTD4 (r = 0.735), LTE4 (r = 0.814), LTB4 (r = 0.674); all p < .001. Lipid peroxidation markers correlated with anion gap (r= -0.428, -0.388, -0.334; p = .026, .045, .080 for HNE, HHE, MDA, respectively). The follow-up serum concentrations of lipid oxidation markers measured in survivors with and without visual/neurological sequelae 2 years after discharge did not differ.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation plays a significant role in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning. The acute concentrations of three measured biomarkers were elevated in comparison with the follow-up concentrations. Neuronal membrane lipid peroxidation seems to activate leukotriene-mediated inflammation as a part of the neuroprotective mechanisms. No cases of persistent elevation were registered among the survivors 2 years after discharge.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1455980DOI Listing
October 2018

Establishing pathological cut-offs for lateral ventricular volume expansion rates.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 7;18:494-501. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA; Translational Imaging Center at Clinical and Translational Science Institute, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background: A percent brain volume change (PBVC) cut-off of -0.4% per year has been proposed to distinguish between pathological and physiological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Unfortunately, standardized PBVC measurement is not always feasible on scans acquired outside research studies or academic centers. Percent lateral ventricular volume change (PLVVC) is a strong surrogate measure of PBVC, and may be more feasible for atrophy assessment on real-world scans. However, the PLVVC rate corresponding to the established PBVC cut-off of -0.4% is unknown.

Objective: To establish a pathological PLVVC expansion rate cut-off analogous to -0.4% PBVC.

Methods: We used three complementary approaches. First, the original follow-up-length-weighted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis method establishing whole brain atrophy rates was adapted to a longitudinal ventricular atrophy dataset of 177 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and 48 healthy controls. Second, in the same dataset, SIENA PBVCs were used with non-linear regression to directly predict the PLVVC value corresponding to -0.4% PBVC. Third, in an unstandardized, real world dataset of 590 RRMS patients from 33 centers, the cut-off maximizing correspondence to PBVC was found. Finally, correspondences to clinical outcomes were evaluated in both datasets.

Results: ROC analysis suggested a cut-off of 3.09% (AUC = 0.83, p < 0.001). Non-linear regression R was 0.71 (p < 0.001) and a - 0.4% PBVC corresponded to a PLVVC of 3.51%. A peak in accuracy in the real-world dataset was found at a 3.51% PLVVC cut-off. Accuracy of a 3.5% cut-off in predicting clinical progression was 0.62 (compared to 0.68 for PBVC).

Conclusions: Ventricular expansion of between 3.09% and 3.51% on T2-FLAIR corresponds to the pathological whole brain atrophy rate of 0.4% for RRMS. A conservative cut-off of 3.5% performs comparably to PBVC for clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2018.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5842310PMC
February 2019

The Role of High-Frequency MRI Monitoring in the Detection of Brain Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Neuroimaging 2018 05 27;28(3):328-337. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Radiodiagnostic, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background And Purpose: A relatively high intraindividual variability of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain volume loss (BVL) measurements over time renders challenging its application to individual multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Objective of this study was to investigate if high-frequency brain MRI monitoring affects identification of pathological BVL in an individual patient.

Methods: One hundred fifty-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients had seven MRI scans over 12 months follow-up. All 1,585 MRI scans were performed on the same 1.5T scanner using an identical scanning protocol. Volumetric analysis was performed by ScanView and SIENA software. Linear regression analysis was used for estimation of annualized BVL, with a cutoff greater than .4% defined as pathological. We compared proportions of patients with pathological BVL obtained by analysis of different number of MRI time-points.

Results: An analysis of seven MRI scans (months 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) showed pathological BVL in 105 (65%) of patients. When three MRI scans were included (months 0, 6, and 12), we found 10 (6.4%) false negative and 9 (5.7%) false positive results compared with the analysis of seven MRI scans, used as a reference for assessment of pathological BVL. Analysis of two MRI time-points (months 0 and 12) showed 10 (6.4%) false negative and 13 (8.3%) false positive results compared with analysis of seven MRI time-points. Change in the accuracy of pathological BVL between results obtained by analysis of seven and two time-points was 14.7%.

Conclusions: High-frequency MRI monitoring may have a considerable effect on improving the precision of precisely identifying pathological BVL in individual patients. However, limitations in translation to clinical practice remain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12505DOI Listing
May 2018
-->