Publications by authors named "Manuela Dalla Pozza"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Koi herpesvirus disease outbreak: Input for the implementation of a surveillance program in South Tyrol - Italy.

Prev Vet Med 2020 Aug 6;181:105089. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute for Animal Health Control - Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Delle Venezie, Viale Dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy. Electronic address:

A severe episode of high and abnormal mortality was observed in the population of Cyprinus carpio of Lake Caldaro (South Tyrol, Italy) in summer 2016. The diagnostic investigation carried out led to the identification of Koi Herpesvirus (KHV) as the etiologic agent. Following this disease outbreak and its socio-economic consequences, the local authorities, in agreement with the local Fishing Association, decided to implement a surveillance program for the achievement of KHV-free health status (Category I) in the Province, in accordance to the Implementing Decision (EU) 2015/1554. The selected area was a defined geographical compartment (the Monticolo lakes compartment, South Tyrol, Italy), which is located near Lake Caldaro, where the Koi Herpesvirus disease (KHVD) outbreak had occurred. This area is of particular interest because it supplies other water bodies with juvenile C. carpio individuals; with the achievement of a KHV-free health status, South Tyrol could possibly become independent in the breeding of this fish species. Suitable samples were collected and processed during a two-year period in order to detect the presence/absence of KHV. The same samples were tested for other viruses that can affect carp, namely spring viraemia of carp (SVCV) and carp edema virus (CEV). According to the results, the authors conclude that the Monticolo lakes area should be classified as KHV-free, as no sample has tested positively for the presence of this specific virus (KHV).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105089DOI Listing
August 2020

Occurrence of nodular gill disease in farmed brown trout (Salmo trutta L.).

J Fish Dis 2019 09 3;42(9):1315-1320. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Comparative Biomedicine and Food Science, University of Padova, Legnaro, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13027DOI Listing
September 2019

Low evolutionary rate of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in Italy is associated with reduced virulence in trout.

Virus Evol 2018 Jul 18;4(2):vey019. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a naked double-stranded RNA virus with a bi-segmented genome that is classified within the family , genus . IPNV was first detected in Italian trout farms in the late 1970s and ultimately became endemic. To characterize the evolution of IPNV circulating in Italy, particularly whether there is a link between evolutionary rate and virulence, we obtained and analyzed the VP1 (polymerase) and the pVP2 (major capsid protein precursor) sequences from 75 IPNV strains sampled between 1978 and 2017. These data revealed that the Italian IPNV exhibit relatively little genetic variation over the sampling period, falling into four genetic clusters within a single genogroup (group 2 for VP1 and genogroup V for pVP2) and contained one example of inter-segment reassortment. The mean evolutionary rates for VP1 and pVP2 were estimated to be 1.70 and 1.45 × 10 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively, and hence significantly lower than those seen in other . Similarly, the relatively low ratios of non-synonymous () to synonymous () nucleotide substitutions per site in both genes indicated that IPNV was subject to strong selective constraints, again in contrast to other RNA viruses infecting salmonids that co-circulate in the same area during the same time period. Notably, all the Italian IPNV harbored a proline at position 217 (P) and a threonine at position 221 (T) in pVP2, both of which are associated with a low virulence phenotype. We therefore suggest the lower virulence of IPNV may have resulted in reduced rates of virus replication and hence lower rates of evolutionary change. The data generated here will be of importance in understanding the factors that shape the evolution of in nature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/vey019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054257PMC
July 2018

First report of a fish kill episode caused by pyrethroids in Italian freshwater.

Forensic Sci Int 2017 Dec 6;281:176-182. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro (PD), 35020, Italy.

Introduction: Fish kills are events of strong emotional impact on the population because of the frequent suspicion that they can be the result of serious pollution accidents. As a matter of fact, they are often due to natural occurrences, such as low levels of dissolved oxygen in the water, but in many cases the causes remain unknown. Fish are particularly sensitive to pesticides and pyrethroids are reported to be the most ecotoxicologically active in the aquatic environment. Nevertheless, the reported cases of massive wild fish mortalities due to these toxicants are very few. This paper describes a fish kill episode occurred in the Padua Province (Veneto Region - North Eastern Italy) which involved several fish species and for which it was possible to identify the cause in the presence of pyrethroids in the water.

Case Presentation: When a whitish liquid coming from the rainwater drain of an industrial area was seen to be spilling into a drainage channel, a fish massive mortality was noticed and investigated. The collected water samples showed the presence of relevant concentrations of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin. Analyses on the fish tissues revealed the presence of cypermethrin and permethrin at a concentration range of 476-2834μg/kg and 346-2826μg/kg on a lipid basis, respectively.

Discussion: According to the results of the performed analyses, we can reasonably state that the described episode had been caused by the exposure of biota to high concentrations of pyrethroids. The present case report significantly contributes to the limited literature available on pesticides-related fish kills. Moreover, it highlights the importance of sharing protocols for fish kill management at a national level, as this would help to better define the roles of the different institutions involved and to improve the investigation and the reporting of these events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.10.040DOI Listing
December 2017

Molecular Evolution and Phylogeography of Co-circulating IHNV and VHSV in Italy.

Front Microbiol 2016 23;7:1306. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie Padova, Italy.

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) are the most important viral pathogens impacting rainbow trout farming. These viruses are persistent in Italy, where they are responsible for severe disease outbreaks (epizootics) that affect the profitability of the trout industry. Despite the importance of IHNV and VHSV, little is known about their evolution at a local scale, although this is likely to be important for virus eradication and control. To address this issue we performed a detailed molecular evolutionary and epidemiological analysis of IHNV and VHSV in trout farms from northern Italy. Full-length glycoprotein gene sequences of a selection of VHSV (n = 108) and IHNV (n = 89) strains were obtained. This revealed that Italian VHSV strains belong to sublineages Ia1 and Ia2 of genotype Ia and are distributed into 7 genetic clusters. In contrast, all Italian IHNV isolates fell within genogroup E, for which only a single genetic cluster was identified. More striking was that IHNV has evolved more rapidly than VHSV (mean rates of 11 and 7.3 × 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively), indicating that these viruses exhibit fundamentally different evolutionary dynamics. The time to the most recent common ancestor of both IHNV and VHSV was consistent with the first reports of these pathogens in Italy. By combining sequence data with epidemiological information it was possible to identify different patterns of virus spread among trout farms, in which adjacent facilities can be infected by either genetically similar or different viruses, and farms located in different water catchments can be infected by identical strains. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of combining molecular and epidemiological information to identify the determinants of IHN and VHS spread, and to provide data that is central to future surveillance strategies and possibly control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994472PMC
September 2016

Epidemiology of animal poisoning: An overview on the features and spatio-temporal distribution of the phenomenon in the north-eastern Italian regions.

Forensic Sci Int 2016 Sep 11;266:440-448. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro (PD) 35020, Italy.

In the present paper we analyze and discuss about the records referring to animal poisonings and poisoned baits cases covering the period between 2007 and 2013 and submitted for diagnostic investigations to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), which is the public veterinary health institute competent for the north eastern Italian regions. All data were gathered by a passive surveillance system based on voluntary reporting, which became mandatory in 2009 after a decree of the Italian Ministry of Health had come into force. This prohibited the use and detention of poisoned baits and ordered to selected institutions and professionals to carry out standardized surveys to assess suspect and/or confirmed reported cases; all the necessary anatomopathological and toxicological investigations to confirm the reported cases were then performed for free by public veterinary health institutes whenever a veterinarian diagnosis or clinical suspicion were provided. Totally, 1831 suspected animals poisoning and 698 cases of supposed poisoned baits recovery episodes were registered. 642/1831 (35.1%) animal poisoning cases were confirmed and the presence of toxic agents was verified in 292/698 baits (41.8%). The most severely affected territories were the ones with the highest level of urbanization and those most densely populated in the study area. Dogs and cats seemed to be greatly affected by poisoning cases and a characteristic seasonal trend was noticed, with an increase of episodes in late Winter/early Spring and in Autumn. Carbamate insecticides resulted to be the main cause for animal poisoning, while anticoagulants rodenticides played a primary role among toxicants found in poisoned baits. The presented results emphasize that malicious animal poisoning is a widespread problem in north-eastern Italy. The still relevant number of reported poisoning events caused by some banned pesticides poses the problem of identifying where these substances come from and brings to light the popular knowledge about the high toxicity of these compounds. Moreover, the noticeable increase of the number of episodes registered in 2009 pointed out how the above mentioned decree may have contributed to reveal a number of hidden cases which had not been investigated before, probably due to economic reasons related to the costs of toxicological analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.07.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Possible influence of natural events on heavy metals exposure from shellfish consumption: a case study in the north-East of Italy.

Front Public Health 2015 4;3:21. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Food Safety, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie , Legnaro , Italy.

The objective of this study was the estimation of the exposure over time to heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, and lead) due to shellfish consumption in the Veneto Region, Italy. Shellfish consumption was investigated by a food frequency consumption survey. Altogether, 1949 households, stratified into the five most populated areas of the Veneto Region, were involved in the study. Exposure estimation to heavy metals was carried out taking into account the level of metal measured in samples of Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and grooved carpet shell (Ruditapes decussatus), collected in the frame of the monitoring activities of mollusk production areas of Veneto Region, between January 2007 and December 2012. A general high contribution of the considered shellfish to the Tolerable Weekly Intake was noticed in the case of cadmium, especially in 2011, when a considerable increase in cadmium intake was estimated. This was probably due to a heavy rainfall event that triggered catastrophic flooding with high impact on shellfish capture areas in November 2010. The results strongly emphasize the importance of dealing with food safety in a holistic way, taking into account the potential impact of extraordinary natural events on food chain contamination, in order to identify food hazards at an early stage, before developing into a real risk for consumers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2015.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4316607PMC
February 2015

Model for ranking freshwater fish farms according to their risk of infection and illustration for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia.

Prev Vet Med 2014 Aug 18;115(3-4):263-79. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

AusVet Animal Health Services, 140 Falls Road, Wentworth Falls, 2782 NSW, Australia.

We developed a model to calculate a quantitative risk score for individual aquaculture sites. The score indicates the risk of the site being infected with a specific fish pathogen (viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV); infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus, Koi herpes virus), and is intended to be used for risk ranking sites to support surveillance for demonstration of zone or member state freedom from these pathogens. The inputs to the model include a range of quantitative and qualitative estimates of risk factors organised into five risk themes (1) Live fish and egg movements; (2) Exposure via water; (3) On-site processing; (4) Short-distance mechanical transmission; (5) Distance-independent mechanical transmission. The calculated risk score for an individual aquaculture site is a value between zero and one and is intended to indicate the risk of a site relative to the risk of other sites (thereby allowing ranking). The model was applied to evaluate 76 rainbow trout farms in 3 countries (42 from England, 32 from Italy and 2 from Switzerland) with the aim to establish their risk of being infected with VHSV. Risk scores for farms in England and Italy showed great variation, clearly enabling ranking. Scores ranged from 0.002 to 0.254 (mean score 0.080) in England and 0.011 to 0.778 (mean of 0.130) for Italy, reflecting the diversity of infection status of farms in these countries. Requirements for broader application of the model are discussed. Cost efficient farm data collection is important to realise the benefits from a risk-based approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.04.005DOI Listing
August 2014

Rabies and canine distemper virus epidemics in the red fox population of northern Italy (2006-2010).

PLoS One 2013 22;8(4):e61588. Epub 2013 Apr 22.

Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006-2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0061588PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3632604PMC
November 2013

A distinct CDV genotype causing a major epidemic in Alpine wildlife.

Vet Microbiol 2011 May 15;150(1-2):63-9. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università, 10, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection represents an important conservation threat to many carnivore species and has contributed to the population decline of several wild terrestrial and aquatic mammalian species. Since 2006, the Alpine region of North-Eastern (NE) Italy has been experiencing a severe and widespread outbreak of CDV affecting the wild carnivore population. In this study we performed an extensive phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis of CDV identified during the recent wildlife epidemic in the Alpine region. Our analysis yielded data on the evolutionary dynamics of the Alpine wildlife CDV epidemic and revealed the emergence and spread of a single genetic cluster of CDV. The wide distribution of the novel cluster combined with the identification of a specific amino acid mutation, which is believed to increase the ability of the virus to replicate in a wider host range, raises concerns over the possible implications of the spread of this virus on the conservation of endangered wildlife species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.01.009DOI Listing
May 2011

An electronic learning course on avian influenza in Italy (2008).

Avian Dis 2010 Mar;54(1 Suppl):784-6

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro (Padova), Italy.

The success of emergency intervention to control contagious animal diseases is dependent on the preparedness of veterinary services. In the framework of avian influenza preparedness, the Italian Ministry of Health, in cooperation with the National Reference Centers for Epidemiology and Avian Influenza, implemented an electronic learning course using new web-based information and communication technologies. The course was designed to train veterinary officers involved in disease outbreak management, laboratory diagnosis, and policy making. The "blended learning model" was applied, involving participants in tutor-supported self-learning, collaborative learning activities, and virtual classes. The course duration was 16 hr spread over a 4-wk period. Six editions were implemented for 705 participants. All participants completed the evaluation assignments, and the drop out rate was very low (only 4%). This project increased the number of professionals receiving high-quality training on AI in Italy, while reducing expenditure and maximizing return on effort.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/8758-033109-ResNote.1DOI Listing
March 2010

Vaccination reduced the incidence of outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza in northern Italy.

Vaccine 2009 Jun 5;27(27):3655-61. Epub 2009 Apr 5.

Centro Regionale di Epidemiologia Veterinaria, Istituto Zooprofilattico delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy.

When outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) occur in poultry populations, the main goal to achieve is the control and eradication of the infection. However, quantitative information on risk factors for AI spread and efficacy of AI control measures such as vaccination in the field is limited. From 2000 to 2005, H5 and H7 low pathogenicity (LP) AI viruses caused four epidemics in poultry in northeastern Italy. Italian veterinary authorities implemented emergency vaccination in the 2000-2001 and 2002-2003 LPAI epidemics and prophylactic vaccination from July 2004. The aim of this study is to quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of AI vaccination in the field, taking into account the different strategies (emergency and prophylactic) implemented. Moreover, risk factors for LPAI spread in domestic poultry were studied. By survival analysis, we observed a two-fold increase in survival probability for vaccinated poultry farms compared to unvaccinated ones. In meat turkeys, vaccination protocols changed in the different epidemics, and a relationship between protection and the number of vaccinations was observed; two or three vaccine administrations protected flocks from LPAI, whilst four administrations did not significantly reduce the risk of infection. In meat turkeys the risk of AI infection increased also with the increase in both farm size and proximity to an infected farm. In general, we observed a lower number of outbreaks and a faster eradication of the infection when LPAI viruses introduced in a preventively vaccinated poultry population. This study provides insights on LPAI vaccination efficacy and on risk factors involved in LPAI infection at farm level. To our knowledge, this is the first study which quantitatively evaluates AI vaccination efficacy and compares different vaccination strategies and protocols using field data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.033DOI Listing
June 2009

Risk factors for highly pathogenic H7N1 avian influenza virus infection in poultry during the 1999-2000 epidemic in Italy.

Vet J 2009 Aug 5;181(2):171-7. Epub 2008 Aug 5.

Istituto Zooprofilattico delle Venezie, viale dell'Università 10, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

In 1999-2000, Italian poultry production was disrupted by an H7N1 virus subtype epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The objectives of the present study were to identify risk factors for infection on poultry farms located in regions that had the highest number of outbreaks (Veneto and Lombardia) and the impact of pre-emptive culling as a complementary measure for eradicating infection. A Cox regression model that included spatial factors, such as the G index, was used. The results confirmed the relationship between risk of infection and poultry species, production type and size of farms. The effectiveness of pre-emptive culling was confirmed. An increased risk of infection was observed for poultry farms located near an infected farm and those at altitudes less than 150m above sea level. The measures for the control and eradication of AI virus infection need to consider species differences in susceptibility, the types of production and the density of poultry farms in the affected areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.02.013DOI Listing
August 2009

Intervention strategies for low-pathogenic avian influenza control in Italy.

Avian Dis 2007 Mar;51(1 Suppl):470-3

Centro Regionale per l'Epidemiologia Veterinaria, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Univeristà 10, 35020 Legnaro PD, Italy.

Italian poultry production was affected by several outbreaks of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) between 2000 and 2005. Intervention measures (IM), such as stamping out of infected and suspected farms, controlled marketing, restocking bans, movement restriction, and emergency vaccination, were put into force in the most affected areas of Lombardia and Veneto regions. These two regions also showed differences in terms of measures applied and timeliness of application. In this study we describe the epidemics and discuss the effectiveness of the IM put into effect. The regional surveillance systems provided the data on the epidemics and the IM description. The IM effectiveness was compared between the different epidemics and the Lombardia and Veneto regions, considering the number of farms involved, the duration of the epidemics, and the extension of the area affected. With regard to the IM applied, reductions in the number of outbreaks (from 388 in 2002-03 to 15 in 2005), the duration of the outbreaks (from more than 1 yr to approximately 1 mo), and the spatial extension of the outbreaks (from 89 to 8 municipalities involved) were observed. The emergency vaccination, depopulation, and pre-emptive slaughtering reduced significantly the spread of the epidemic. Comparing the dynamics of the epidemics, more effective results were observed in the Veneto region, where the IM were applied to a greater extent. Emergency vaccination and depopulation were effective in the eradication of the disease during an epidemic, but vaccination and farm density reduction showed the most effective results in controlling the spread of LPAI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/7553-033106R.1DOI Listing
March 2007

Evaluation of the efficacy of intervention measures and vaccination for the control of LPAI epidemics in Verona province (Veneto, Italy).

Avian Dis 2007 Mar;51(1 Suppl):463-6

Centro Regionale per l'Epidemiologia Veterinaria, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Univeristà 10, 35020 Legnaro PD, Italy.

Meat-type turkey farms in Verona province (Veneto, Italy) have been affected by three low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) epidemics between 2000 and 2004. Control measures implemented ranged from stamping out to controlled marketing in conjunction with restocking bans and movement restriction on live poultry, vehicles, and personnel. These measures were complemented with two emergency vaccination programs (2000-01, 2002-03) started after the beginning of the epidemics, while 2004 outbreaks occurred in vaccinated farms. The three epidemics differed in the number of outbreaks, duration, and economic impact. The aim of the investigation was to estimate the risk of infection and the effect of vaccination on the LPAI epidemics affecting turkey farms in Verona province. Farm probability to avoid infection (Ps) was calculated by Kaplan-Meier for each epidemic. The vaccination effect was evaluated for the 2000-01 and 2002-03 epidemics considering different risk before or after the emergency vaccination. The epidemics and vaccination entered as predictors in a Cox regression model and hazard ratios (HR) were calculated. Ps values at the end of the epidemics were as follows: 2000-01 = 0.66, 2002-03 = 0.51, and 2004 = 0.91. Vaccination reduced dramatically the risk of infection. The measures implemented had different effects on the three epidemics. The lower probability of being infected during the 2004 epidemic was most likely related to the protection level of the vaccinated farms acquired before the beginning of the epidemic, which was also responsible for the reduced spread of infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/7557-033106R.1DOI Listing
March 2007

The 1999-2000 avian influenza (H7N1) epidemic in Italy: veterinary and human health implications.

Acta Trop 2002 Jul;83(1):7-11

National Reference Laboratory for Newcastle Disease and Avian Influenza, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Via Romea 14/A, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

From the end of March to the beginning of December 1999, 199 outbreaks of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) were diagnosed in the Veneto and Lombardia regions, which are located in the northern part of Italy. The virus responsible for the epidemic was characterized as a type A influenza virus of the H7N1 subtype of low pathogenicity. On the 17th of December, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was diagnosed in a meat turkey flock in which 100% mortality was observed in 72 h. The infection spread to the industrial poultry population of northern Italy including chickens, guinea-fowl, quail, pheasants, ducks and ostriches for a total of 413 outbreaks. Over 13 million birds were affected by the epidemic, which caused dramatic economic losses to the Italian poultry industry with severe social and economic implications. The possibility of H7 virus transmission to humans in close contact with the outbreaks was evaluated through a serological survey. Seven hundred and fifty nine sera were collected and tested for the detection of anti-H7 antibodies by means of the micro-neutralization (MN) and single radial haemolysis (SRH) tests. All samples resulted negative. A limited number of clinical samples were also collected for attempted virus isolation with negative results. Current European legislation considers LPAI and HPAI as two completely distinct diseases, not contemplating any compulsory eradication policy for LPAI and requiring eradication for HPAI. Evidence collected during the Italian 1999-2000 epidemic indicates that LPAI due to viruses of the H7 subtype may mutate to HPAI, and, therefore, LPAI caused by viruses of the H5 or H7 subtypes must be controlled to avoid the emergence of HPAI. A reconsideration of the current definition of avian influenza adopted by the EU, could possibly be an aid to avoiding devastating epidemics for the poultry industry in Member States.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0001-706x(02)00057-8DOI Listing
July 2002