Publications by authors named "Manuela Borelli"

11 Publications

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Immunological Characterization of Whole Tumour Lysate-Loaded Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy.

PLoS One 2016 21;11(1):e0146622. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Segrate, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Dendritic cells play a key role as initiators of T-cell responses, and even if tumour antigen-loaded dendritic cells can induce anti-tumour responses, their efficacy has been questioned, suggesting a need to enhance immunization strategies.

Matherials & Methods: We focused on the characterization of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with whole tumour lysate (TAA-DC), as a source of known and unknown antigens, in a mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras). Dendritic cells were evaluated for antigen uptake and for the expression of MHC class I/II and costimulatory molecules and markers associated with maturation.

Results: Results showed that antigen-loaded dendritic cells are characterized by a phenotypically semi-mature/mature profile and by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Activated dendritic cells stimulated T-cell proliferation and induced the production of high concentrations of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ but only low levels of IL-10, indicating their ability to elicit a TH1-immune response. Furthermore, administration of Antigen loaded-Dendritic Cells in MMTV-Ras mice evoked a strong anti-tumour response in vivo as demonstrated by a general activation of immunocompetent cells and the release of TH1 cytokines.

Conclusion: Data herein could be useful in the design of antitumoral DC-based therapies, showing a specific activation of immune system against breast cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146622PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721657PMC
July 2016

Cholecalciferol supplementation in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency: effects on vitamin D status and T-cell phenotype: a randomized controlled trial.

HIV Clin Trials 2013 Mar-Apr;14(2):51-60

Department of Paediatrics, Luigi Sacco Hospital - Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: In addition to its known effects on bone metabolism, vitamin D may regulate immune function.

Design: We performed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test whether cholecalciferol supplementation can improve vitamin D status and affect the T-cell phenotype in HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency.

Methods: Fifty-two HIV-infected patients aged 8 to 26 years and with serum 25(OH) D <30 ng/mL were randomized to receive orally vitamin D3 100,000 IU or placebo every 3 months for 4 doses. Serum 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, PTH, and CD4+ T cells were assessed 3 months before baseline and at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, while Th1-, Th2-, Th17-, and Treg-subsets and T-lymphocyte vitamin D receptor were assessed at 0, 3, and 12 months.

Results: Forty-eight subjects (25 receiving vitamin D and 23 receiving placebo) completed the RCT. Cholecalciferol supplementation produced an early (3 months) decrease in PTH, a concomitant increase in 25(OH)D, and a later (6 months) increase in 1,25(OH)2D levels, all persisting at 12 months. The frequency of vitamin D insufficiency at 12 months was 20% versus 60% in the intervention versus placebo group (P = .007). Cholecalciferol supplementation had no effect on CD4+ T-cell counts but was associated with a decreased Th17:Treg ratio at 3 months.

Conclusions: In our cohort of HIV-infected youth, a 12-month cholecalciferol supplementation increased 25(OH)D and 1-25(OH)2D and decreased PTH levels but had no effect on CD4+ T-cells. However, it was associated with changes in CD4+ T-cell phenotype, warranting further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1310/hct1402-51DOI Listing
June 2013

In vivo imaging of lymph node migration of MNP- and (111)In-labeled dendritic cells in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras).

Mol Imaging Biol 2012 Apr;14(2):183-96

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, Section of Radiological Sciences, University of Milan, via di Rudinì 8, 20142 Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The authors present a protocol for the in vivo evaluation, using different imaging techniques, of lymph node (LN) homing of tumor-specific dendritic cells (DCs) in a murine breast cancer model.

Procedures: Bone marrow DCs were labeled with paramagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) or (111)In-oxine. Antigen loading was performed using tumor lysate. Mature DCs were injected into the footpads of transgenic tumor-bearing mice (MMTV-Ras) and DC migration was tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ex vivo analyses were performed to validate the imaging data.

Results: DC labeling, both with MNPs and with (111)In-oxine, did not affect DC phenotype or functionality. MRI and SPECT allowed the detection of iron and (111)In in both axillary and popliteal LNs. Immunohistochemistry and γ-counting revealed the presence of DCs in LNs.

Conclusions: MRI and SPECT imaging, by allowing in vivo dynamic monitoring of DC migration, could further the development and optimization of efficient anti-cancer vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-011-0496-0DOI Listing
April 2012

TLR activation pathways in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals.

J Immunol 2010 Mar 1;184(5):2710-7. Epub 2010 Feb 1.

Cattedra di Immunologia, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

TLRs trigger innate immunity that recognizes conserved motifs of invading pathogens, resulting in cellular activation and release of inflammatory factors. The influence of TLR activation on resistance to HIV-1 infection has not been investigated in HIV-1 exposed seronegative (ESN) individuals. PBMCs isolated from heterosexually ESN individuals were stimulated with agonists specific for TLR3 (poly I:C), TLR4 (LPS), TLR7 (imiquimod), and TLR7/8 (ssRNA40). We evaluated expression of factors involved in TLR signaling cascades, production of downstream effector immune mediators, and TLR-expression in CD4+ and CD14+ cells. Results were compared with those obtained in healthy controls (HCs). ESN individuals showed: 1) comparable percentages of CD14+/TLR4+ and CD4+/TLR8+ CD14+/TLR8+ cells; 2) higher responsiveness to poly I:C, LPS, imiquimod, and ssRNA40 stimulation, associated with significantly increased production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CCL3; 3) augmented expression of mRNA specific for other targets (CCL2, CSF3, CSF2, IL-1alpha, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, cyclooxygenase 2) demonstrated by broader TLRs pathway expression analyses; and 4) increased MyD88/MyD88s(short) ratio, mainly following TLR7/8 stimulation. We also compared TLR-agonist-stimulated cytokine/chemokine production in CD14+ PBMCs and observed decreased IFN-beta production in ESN individuals compared with HCs upon TLR7/8-agonist stimulation. These data suggest that TLR stimulation in ESN individuals results in a more robust release of immunologic factors that can influence the induction of stronger adaptive antiviral immune responses and might represent a virus-exposure-induced innate immune protective phenotype against HIV-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0902463DOI Listing
March 2010

Costimulatory pathways in multiple sclerosis: distinctive expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in patients with different patterns of disease.

J Immunol 2009 Oct 30;183(8):4984-93. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Department of Immunology, University of Milano, Milan, Italy.

T lymphocytes costimulatory molecules, including CD80, CD86, CD28, CTLA4, PD-1, PD-L1, and B7-H3, are associated with the preferential production of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. We analyzed the expression of these molecules and myelin basic protein (MBP)-specific IL-10 and IFN-gamma production in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with relapsing-remitting acute (AMS, n = 40) or stable (SMS, n = 38). Twenty-two patients successfully undergoing therapy with glatimer acetate (n = 12) or IFNbeta (n = 10) were also analyzed. MBP-specific and PD-1-expressing T lymphocytes, PD-L1-expressing CD19(+) cells, and PD-L1(+)/IL-10(+)/CD14(+) and CD19(+) cells were significantly augmented in SMS patients. Additionally, MBP-specific and annexin V-expressing CD4(+) and CD8(+) (apoptotic) T lymphocytes were augmented and pAkt-positive (proliferating) cells were decreased in SMS compared with AMS patients. PD-1 ligation resulted in the increase of pAkt(+) lymphocytes in AMS patients alone. B7-H3 expression and IFN-gamma production were comparable in all individuals but the PD-L1(+)/IL-10(+) over B7-H3(+)/IFN-gamma(+) ratio was significantly lower in AMS compared with SMS patients. Finally, PD-L1 expression on immune cells was reduced in treated patients, suggesting that therapy-induced disease remission is not associated with the modulation of the expression of this molecule. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway plays an important role in modulating immune functions in MS patients; monitoring and targeting these proteins could offer diagnostic and therapeutic advantages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901038DOI Listing
October 2009

Treatment of periodontal disease results in improvements in endothelial dysfunction and reduction of the carotid intima-media thickness.

FASEB J 2009 Apr 12;23(4):1196-204. Epub 2008 Dec 12.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Luigi Sacco, Milan, Italy.

Several cohort studies reported a relation of cardiovascular events and periodontal disease. In particular, Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. We verified in a longitudinal study whether inflammation biomarkers, endothelial adhesion molecules, leukocyte activation markers, and intima-media thickness could be beneficially modified by periodontal treatment alone. Thirty-five otherwise healthy individuals affected by mild to moderate parodontopathy were enrolled in the study. Echo-Doppler cardiography of the carotid artery, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses on lymphocytes and monocytes, and plasma inflammatory indices were evaluated at baseline and at multiple time points after the periodontal treatment. Results showed that inflammation biomarkers were abnormally increased at baseline. Periodontal treatment resulted in a significant reduction of the total oral bacterial load that was associated with a significant amelioration of inflammation biomarkers and of adhesion and activation proteins. Notably, intima-media thickness was significantly diminished after treatment. Inflammatory alterations associated with the genesis of atherosclerotic plaques are detected in otherwise healthy individuals affected by parodontopathy and are positively influenced by periodontal treatment. Reduction of oral bacterial load results in a modification of an anatomical parameter directly responsible for atherosclerosis. These results shed light on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and could have practical implications for public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.08-119578DOI Listing
April 2009

The mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC/CCL28) modulates immunity in HIV infection.

PLoS One 2007 Oct 3;2(10):e969. Epub 2007 Oct 3.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Laboratorio Interdisciplinare Technologie Avanzate Vialba, University of Milano, Milano, Italy.

Background: CCL28 (MEC) binds to CCR3 and CCR10 and recruits IgA-secreting plasma cells (IgA-ASC) in the mucosal lamina propria (MLP). Mucosal HIV-specific IgA are detected in HIV-infection and exposure. The CCL28 circuit was analyzed in HIV-infected and-exposed individuals and in HIV-unexposed controls; the effect of CCL28 administration on gastrointestinal MLP IgA-ASC was verified in a mouse model.

Methodology/findings: CCL28 was augmented in breast milk (BM) plasma and saliva of HIV-infected and -exposed individuals; CCR3+ and CCR10+ B lymphocytes were increased in these same individuals. Additionally: 1) CCL28 concentration in BM was associated with longer survival in HIV vertically-infected children; and 2) gastro-intestinal mucosal IgA-ASC were significantly increased in VSV-immunized mice receiving CCL28.

Conclusions: CCL28 mediates mucosal immunity in HIV exposure and infection. CCL28-including constructs should be considered in mucosal vaccines to prevent HIV infection of the gastro-intestinal MLP via modulation of IgA-ASC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0000969PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1989139PMC
October 2007

Modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by lactoferrin in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve children.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2007 Mar 2;29(3):353-5. Epub 2007 Feb 2.

Paediatrics, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Oral lactoferrin supplementation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve children resulted in a skewing of T-lymphocytes towards more differentiated subpopulations. Phagocytosis (P=0.01) and killing (P=0.009), Toll-like receptor 2 expression (P=0.01) and the interleukin-12/interleukin-10 ratio (P=0.001) were also improved by lactoferrin. Lactoferrin supplementation results in immune modulation and could be useful in HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.11.017DOI Listing
March 2007

Effects of specific immunotherapy on the B7 family of costimulatory molecules in allergic inflammation.

J Immunol 2007 Feb;178(3):1931-7

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy.

The effect of allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) on Ag presentation and T lymphocyte stimulation was evaluated by verifying the expression of costimulatory molecules in allergic patients. Thus, CD28 and CTLA-4, B7, and B7-H molecules on immune cells, as well as cytokine production, were analyzed in and out of the pollination period in 30 patients allergic to Betulaceae that had or had nor undergone specific IT. Results showed that IT attenuated the increase in the percentage of CD28(+)CD4 T cells and the decrease in the percentage of CTLA-4(+)CD4(+) T cells seen in untreated individuals. CD19(+)/CD80, CD19(+)/CD86(+), and CD14(+)/CD80(+) APCs were significantly augmented during pollination in unvaccinated individuals. B7-H1-expressing monocytes (CD14(+)) and B lymphocytes (CD19) as well as CD14 and CD19 B7-H1(+)/IL-10(+) APC were augmented in Betulaceae Ag-stimulated cell cultures of vaccinated patients independently of pollination, and were further increased in these individuals during pollination. As a result, the IL-10-IFN-gamma ratio in CD4(+), CD14(+), and CD19(+) cells increased in vaccinated patients, but decreased in unvaccinated individuals during pollination. These data clarify the cellular and molecular basis underlying the recent observation that peripheral expansion of IL-10-producing cells is associated with successful IT. B7-H1 could be an optimal target for IT of allergic diseases using mAbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.3.1931DOI Listing
February 2007

Immune activation and normal levels of endogenous antivirals are seen in healthy adolescents born of HIV-infected mothers.

AIDS 2007 Jan;21(2):245-8

Department of Pediatrics, Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Immunological analyses performed in healthy adolescents born of HIV-infected (seroreverters) or healthy mothers (healthy controls; HC) showed that immune activation and a skewing of postthymic differentiation are present in adolescent seroreverters. In-utero HIV exposure results in long-lasting imprinting on the immune system. Alternatively, an immune response naturally more prone to activation could prevent vertical infection. Endogenous antivirals (APOBEC, TRIM5alpha) were comparable in seroreverters and HC, and might not play a role in resistance to vertical HIV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e328011d7d3DOI Listing
January 2007