Publications by authors named "Manuel S Thomas"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of indirect pulp capping using pozzolan-based cement (ENDOCEM-Zr®) and mineral trioxide aggregate - A randomized controlled trial.

J Conserv Dent 2020 Mar-Apr;23(2):152-157. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Affiliated to Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Pulp capping should always be considered as the primary treatment of choice for teeth without irreversible pulpitis in lesions approaching dental pulp. The predictability of vital pulp therapy has improved with the introduction of newer bioceramic materials.

Aim: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the outcomes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (Angelus, Londrina, Brazil) and a pozzolan-based cement (ENDOCEM-Zr [Maruchi, Wonju, Korea]) as an indirect pulp capping (IPC) material.

Materials And Methods: IPC was performed in forty patients who were randomly divided into ENDOCEM-Zr and MTA groups. The outcome was assessed using clinical and radiographic tests at different time intervals. The prognostic factors on the outcome of IPC were also evaluated.

Results And Conclusions: The success rate of ENDOCEM-Zr and MTA groups was 94.7% and 89.4%, respectively. The results were not statistically significant. Binary logical regression showed that the age of the patient and the status of the pulp before treatment were deciding variables for the outcome of the study. Therefore, it was concluded from the study that the evaluated pozzolan-based cement could be used as an alternative to MTA because of its faster setting time and lower discoloration potential. In addition, pulp capping should be performed with caution in individuals above 40 years and in teeth with reversible pulpitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_367_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720766PMC
November 2020

Effect of silver diamine fluoride-potassium iodide and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate cavity cleansers on the bond strength and microleakage of resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

J Conserv Dent 2019 Mar-Apr;22(2):201-206

Dental Material, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, Affiliated to Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Background: Disinfection of the prepared cavity can be a crucial step in the longevity of restorations. The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial action (AMA) of silver diamine fluoride-potassium iodide combination (SDF-KI) with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and to compare the alteration in bond strength and microleakage while using SDF-KI and CHX as cavity cleansers in resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restorations.

Materials And Methods: Samples were grouped as follows: Group 1: Polyacrylic acid (PAA), Group 2: CHX, Group 3: SDF-KI, and Group 4: Distilled water (CTRL). AMA was assessed by measuring the zone of inhibition of the above-mentioned materials by dispensing them into the punch hole prepared on agar plates with an inoculum of . For assessing the effect of the cavity cleansers on the bond strength of RMGIC, they were applied to the dentinal samples prepared from freshly extracted noncarious molars. After the surface was treated, cylindrical restoration of RMGIC was placed and allowed to set. The shear bond strength was then evaluated using a universal testing machine. Rhodamine-B dye penetration was viewed under a fluorescent microscope to evaluate the microleakage of RMGIC following surface treatment of the standardized cavities prepared on the cervical third of freshly extracted noncarious premolars.

Results: SDF-KI (34 ± 0.8 mm) showed potent AMA followed by CHX (23.9 ± 0.7 mm) and PAA (12.7 ± 0.8 mm). SDF-KI showed a drastic increase in the bond strength when compared to the PAA, CHX, and CTRL groups. Although the application of SDF-KI showed the least microleakage among all the groups, it was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: The application of SDF-KI and CHX is useful against in an study. Although SDF-KI group showed the least microleakage among the groups, it was not statistically significant. SDF-KI application has shown a drastic increase in the bond strength of RMGIC although further research is required for the suitable reasoning of the phenomenon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_485_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519189PMC
May 2019

Effect of various dentin disinfection protocols on the bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer restorative material.

J Clin Exp Dent 2017 Jul 1;9(7):e837-e841. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

MSc, PhD, Dept. of Dental Materials, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal.

Background: Disinfection of dentin surface prior to any restorative therapy is important for the longevity of the treatment rendered. However, these dentin disinfection methods should itself not interfere with the adhesion of the restorative material. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the effect of various dentin disinfection protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC).

Material And Methods: The occlusal surface of 40 extracted premolars were trimmed to obtain a flat dentinal surface and was randomly divided into four groups. CTRL was the control group; NaOCl was 1% sodium hypochlorite disinfection group; CHX was 2% chlorhexidine disinfection group; and PAD was the photo-activated disinfection group. Then a predetermined dimension of RMGIC was bonded to the pre-treated dentin surfaces. Following this, each sample was tested for SBS using universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min.

Results: Among the test groups, CHX showed the least reduction in SBS and NaOCl the highest reduction in SBS as compared to the control group. PAD on the other hand showed significantly lower SBS than CTRL and CHX groups, but the values were higher than the NaOCl group.

Conclusions: Thus, it could be concluded from the present study that use of chlorhexidine based dentin disinfection does interfere with the adhesion of RMGIC. However, photo-activated disinfection should be done with caution. Moreover, sodium hypochlorite based disinfectants should be avoided prior to the use of RMGIC. Chlorhexidine, Dentin disinfection, Photo-activated disinfection, Resin modified glass ionomer cement, Shear bond strength, Sodium hypochlorite.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.53725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5549579PMC
July 2017

Concept of Minimally Invasive Indirect Veneers.

N Y State Dent J 2017 Apr;83(3):32-6

Minimally invasive indirect veneers (MIIV) are ultrathin porcelain veneers that can be cemented onto labial surfaces after no or minimal tooth preparation. The benefits of no or minimal veneer preparation are conservation of tooth structure, absence of postoperative sensitivity, bonding to enamel, minimal flexural stresses, no need for provisionals and improved patient acceptance. However, no or minimal preparation veneers should be considered only after thorough functional and aesthetic evaluation. The article presented here illustrates a case of diastema closure using MIIV, to highlight the importance of treatment planning for achieving good results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2017

Medication-related dental erosion: a review.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2015 Oct;36(9):662-6; quiz 668

Assistant Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, India.

Dental erosion has become a major problem that affects the long-term health of the dentition. Among the various potential causes for erosive tooth wear, the different drugs prescribed for patients may be overlooked. Several therapeutic medications can directly or indirectly be associated with dental erosion. It is the responsibility of oral health providers to make both patients and colleagues aware of drugs that may contribute to this condition. Therefore, the purpose of this discussion is to provide an overview of the various therapeutic medications that can be related to tooth erosion. The authors also include precautionary measures-summarized as The 9 Rs-to avoid or at least reduce medication-induced erosion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2015

Resurrecting an unsalvageable lower incisor with a mono-block approach.

J Conserv Dent 2015 Sep-Oct;18(5):423-6

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Contemporary techniques, as well as the availability of bioactive and adhesive materials in endodontics, have helped revivifying teeth that were deemed hopeless. These newer materials and techniques would enable the clinician: (a) to predictably stop microbial activity (b) to achieve a total corono-apical fluid tight seal and (c) to strengthen mutilated teeth by obtaining intra-radicular reinforcement through mono-block effect. This case report demonstrates the successful treatment of a mutilated anterior tooth with the use of bioactive and adhesive materials to obtain a total seal and mono-block effect. This article also shows the use of a simple method in the placement of root filling cement into the root canal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.164061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578191PMC
October 2015

Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin.

J Clin Exp Dent 2015 Jul 1;7(3):e356-60. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

MSc, PhD, Dept. of Dental Materials, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal- 576104.

Background: Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent.

Material And Methods: The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min.

Results: There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05).

Conclusions: The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/jced.52284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4554233PMC
July 2015

Medication-related tooth discoloration: a review.

Dent Update 2014 Jun;41(5):440-2, 445-7

Tooth discoloration is a common problem for which patients seek dental care. Various medications can directly or indirectly result in tooth discoloration. As clinicians, it is our responsibility to know these therapeutic drugs which can cause tooth discoloration and educate our fellow colleagues to take necessary precautions when prescribing these medications. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to give an overview of the various medications that can be linked to tooth discoloration and to suggest the precautionary measures that can be taken to avoid or minimize it. Clinical Relevance: Dental discoloration potential of medications always needs to be considered before prescribing them.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/denu.2014.41.5.440DOI Listing
June 2014

Effect of calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicaments on the incidence of inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients: An in vivo study.

J Conserv Dent 2014 May;17(3):208-11

Department of Pharmacology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of antibacterial intracanal medicaments on inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients.

Materials And Methods: Fifty diabetic patients requiring root canal treatment were assigned into groups I, II, and III. In group I, no intracanal medicament was placed. In groups II and III, calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic pastes were placed as intracanal medicaments, respectively. Patients were instructed to record their pain on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Inter-appointment flare-up was evaluated using verbal rating scale (VRS).

Results: Overall incidence of inter-appointment flare-up among diabetic patients was found to be 16%. In group I, 50% of the patients and in group II, 15% of the patients developed inter-appointment flare-up. However, no patients in group III developed inter-appointment flare-up. The comparison of these results was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.002; χ(2) = 12.426). However, with respect to intergroup comparison, only the difference between groups I and III was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.002; χ(2) = 12.00).

Conclusions: Calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste are effective for managing inter-appointment flare-ups in diabetic patients. Triple antibiotic paste is more effective than calcium hydroxide in preventing the occurrence of flare-up in diabetic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.131776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4056388PMC
May 2014

Evaluation and comparison of bond strength to 10% carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions: An in vitro study.

J Conserv Dent 2013 Mar;16(2):111-5

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Aim: To evaluate and compare composite bond strength to carbamide peroxide bleached enamel following the application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions.

Materials And Methods: Sixty premolars were divided into six groups. Groups I and VI served as unbleached and bleached controls respectively. Groups II, III, IV and V served as the experimental groups and were subjected to 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching followed by 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 10% and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions, respectively. Following composite bonding, shear bond strength was determined and the results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey highest significant difference test.

Results: Only Group IV showed significantly lower bond strength when compared to Group I (unbleached control). When compared to Group VI (bleached control), except Group IV, groups II, III and V showed significantly higher bond strength. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups corresponding to 10% and 25% and similar concentrations of sodium ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol solutions.

Conclusion: Following 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching, except 10% alpha tocopherol, 10 min application of 10% and 25% sodium ascorbate and 25% alpha-tocopherol solutions significantly improves the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.108184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659853PMC
March 2013

Pulp hyperthermia during tooth preparation: the effect of rotary--instruments, lasers, ultrasonic devices, and airborne particle abrasion.

J Calif Dent Assoc 2012 Sep;40(9):720-31

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

The rise in pulp temperature during restorative therapy can compromise vitality of the dental pulp. Of the various reasons for the increase in intrapulpal temperature, tooth preparation is considered to be the primary cause. This article describes the reasons for the rise in pulp temperature during various modalities of tooth preparation. The article also comments on the measures that need to be taken to avoid the risk of pulp hyperthermia during tooth preparation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2012

Management of supernumerary teeth.

J Conserv Dent 2011 Jul;14(3):221-4

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India.

Supernumerary paramolars are the rare anomalies of the maxillofacial complex. These are more common in the maxilla than in the mandible. This article reviews the etiology, frequency, classification, complications, diagnosis and management of supernumerary teeth (bilateral maxillary paramolars).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.85791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3198547PMC
July 2011

Nonsurgical gingival displacement in restorative dentistry.

Compend Contin Educ Dent 2011 Jun;32(5):26-34; quiz 36, 38

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore, India.

Gingival displacement is critical for obtaining accurate impressions for the fabrication of fixed restorations, especially when the finish line is at or just within the gingival sulcus. Displacement of the gingival tissue is also important when dealing with the restoration of cervical lesions due to their proximity to the periodontal tissue. The methods of gingival tissue displacement can be broadly classified as nonsurgical and surgical techniques, with nonsurgical being the more commonly practiced method. Dentists must alter their armamentarium and gingival displacement techniques to meet specific demands and obtain predictable results. Hence, the purpose of this article is to describe the different means by which nonsurgical gingival displacement can be achieved effectively under a variety of clinical situations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2011

Dentin hypersensitivity.

Authors:
Manuel S Thomas

J Am Dent Assoc 2011 Jan;142(1):16; author reply 16-8

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2011.0001DOI Listing
January 2011

Comparison of the shear bond strength of RMGIC to a resin composite using different adhesive systems: An in vitro study.

J Conserv Dent 2010 Apr;13(2):80-3

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Aim: This study evaluated and compared the role of newer dental adhesives to bond composite resin to the resin modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) liner.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-six specimens were prepared on acrylic blocks, with wells prepared in it by drilling holes, to retain the RMGIC. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups of 12 specimens each. In group I, a thin layer of an adhesive, which was a Total-etch type (Adper Single bond-2), was applied between RMGIC and the composite resin. Ingroup II, a Self-Etch adhesive (Adper prompt-L pop) was applied, and in group III there was no application of any adhesive between RMGIC and the composite resin. After curing all the specimens, the shear bond strength was measured using an Instron universal testing machine.

Results: The results were drawn and tabulated using ANOVA-fishers and Tukey's statistical tests. The maximum shear bond strength values were recorded in group II specimens with the self-etch adhesive (Adper prompt-L pop), showing a mean value of 5.826 when compared to the group I adhesive-Total-etch type with a mean shear bond strength of 4.6380, while group III specimens, where no adhesive was used, showed a minimum mean shear bond strength of 2.8385. There was a great and significant difference between group I and group II (P value 0.003), whereas, both group I and group II showed a vast and significant difference from group III (P value 0 - 001).

Conclusion: Hence, this present study concludes that application of Self-Etch adhesive (Adper prompt-L pop) in between RMGIC and composite resin increases the shear bond strength between RMGIC and the resin composites, as compared to the Total-etch type adhesives (Adper Single Bond 2), as well as, without application of the adhesive agent.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.66716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936095PMC
April 2010

Effects of saliva contamination and decontamination procedures on shear bond strength of self-etch dentine bonding systems: An in vitro study.

J Conserv Dent 2010 Apr;13(2):71-5

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal, India.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effect of saliva contamination on the shear bond strength of two self-etch dentine bonding systems and also investigate the effect of decontamination procedure on the recovery of bond strength.

Materials And Methods: Sixty premolars extracted for orthodontic reason were obtained and the buccal surfaces of teeth were reduced to create a flat dentine surface. The samples were randomly divided into three sub-groups for AdheSE (ASE) (Ivoclar - Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and three sub-groups for Adper Prompt Self-Etch Adhesive (ADP) (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) of 10 each. For AdheSE (ASE); ASE-I was the control group (primer applied to fresh dentine surface), ASE-II was the contamination group (primer applied, followed by saliva contamination and then air dried) and ASE-III was the decontamination group (primer applied, followed by saliva contamination, air dried and then primer reapplied). For Adper Prompt (ADP); ADP-I was the control group (self-etch adhesive applied to fresh dentine surface), ADP-II was the contamination group (self-etch adhesive applied, followed by saliva contamination and then air dried) and ADP-III was the decontamination group (self-etch adhesive applied, followed by saliva contamination, air dried and then self-etch adhesive reapplied). Followed by the bonding procedure, a 5 mm composite resin block with Filtek P-60 (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) was built on the substrate. Shear bond strength (SBS) was tested with Instron Universal testing machine (Instron Corporation, Canton, MA, USA) with a cross head speed of 1 mm per minute. Data obtained was subjected to one way ANOVA test, while the inter group comparison was made using Tukey's multiple comparison and Unpaired t-test.

Results: In AdhSE group (ASE), the sub-group ASE-II (contamination group) [5.4 ± 2.2 MPa] showed lower SBS than ASE-I [11.8 ± 2.6 MPa] and ASE-III [8.9 ± 3.3 MPa], which was statistically significant. There was no significant difference in the bond strength between the ASE-I (control group) and ASE-III (decontamination group). In Adper Prompt group (ADP), there was a severe decrease of bond strength in ADP-II (contamination group) [4.6 ± 1.1 MPa] when compared to ADP-I (control group) [7.4 ± 1.4 MPa] and ADP-III (decontamination subgroup) [14.1 ± 2.2 MPa] which was statistically significant. The bond strength of ADP-III wherein Adper Prompt bonding agent was reapplied after salivary contamination was found to be statistically significant than ADP-I and ADP-II.

Conclusion: Saliva contamination reduces the dentine bond strength of both the self-etch systems; AdheSE and Adper Prompt. Re-application of the primer for the AdheSE and re-application of the adhesive for the Adper Prompt after air drying the saliva off can recover the dentine bond strength. In the Adper Prompt group, the added application of adhesives to decontaminate saliva not only recovered the bond strength but also improved it significantly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.66714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936093PMC
April 2010

Use of a natural tooth crown as a pontic following cervical root fracture: a case report.

Aust Endod J 2010 Apr;36(1):35-8

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

The loss of anterior teeth can be psychologically and socially damaging to the patient. Despite a wide range of treatment options available, traumatised teeth may be inevitably lost on certain occasions. This paper describes the immediate replacement of a right central incisor using a fibre-composite resin with the natural tooth crown as a pontic. The abutment teeth can be conserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible, and can be completed at chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. It can be used as an interim measure or a definitive prosthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4477.2009.00174.xDOI Listing
April 2010

Rehabilitation of gingival architecture by a conservative method: An innovative approach.

J Conserv Dent 2008 Jul;11(3):131-5

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems. Lifelong motivation is essential to the supportive therapy for these patients, and the maintenance of good esthetics, combined with conducive to maintaining long term dental and professional health. This paper aims to demonstrate an innovative treatment option for dealing with aesthetic challenges posed by a number of patients who have undergone initial cause related therapy for aggressive periodontitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.45253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2813107PMC
July 2008