Publications by authors named "Manuel Martín-Fernández"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Short Measure of Acceptability of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: Development and Validation of the A-IPVAW-8 Scale.

Assessment 2021 Mar 18:10731911211000110. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Attitudes of acceptability of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) are considered one of the main risk factors of this type of violence. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a short version of the acceptability of IPVAW scale, the A-IPVAW-8, for large scale studies where space and time are limited. A panel of experts were asked to assess item content validity. Two samples were recruited to assemble an 8-item short version of the scale using automated test assembly, and to reassess the psychometric properties of the A-IPVAW-8 in an independent sample. Results showed that the A-IPVAW-8 had adequate internal consistency (α = .72-.76, ω = .73-.81), a stable one-factor latent structure (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.94, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.077), validity evidences based on its relationships to other variables in both samples, and was also invariant across gender (ΔCFI < |0.02|). This study provides a short, easy-to-use tool to evaluate attitudes of acceptability of IPVAW for large scale studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10731911211000110DOI Listing
March 2021

Ensuring the comparability of cross-national survey data on intimate partner violence against women: a cross-sectional, population-based study in the European Union.

BMJ Open 2020 03 4;10(3):e032231. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objectives: To ensure the cross-national comparability of the set of questions addressing physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) included in the European Union (EU) Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) survey. Once the measurement invariance of these measures is established, we aim to make appropriate and valid comparisons of the levels of physical and sexual IPVAW across the EU countries.

Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study.

Participants: Data were drawn from the survey conducted by the FRA on violence against women, including the responses of 42 002 adult women from the 28 countries of the EU.

Main Outcome Measures: The set of questions addressing lifetime prevalence of physical and sexual IPVAW used in the FRA survey. The psychometric properties (ie, reliability and validity) of these measures were examined, as well as their latent structure and their measurement invariance across the 28 EU countries.

Results: The physical and sexual IPVAW measures presented adequate internal consistency and validity evidence based on their relations to other variables in all countries. A latent two-factor structure was supported and scalar invariance was established across countries. Our results showed that the average levels of physical and sexual IPVAW were highest in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and UK compared with the rest of the EU countries. In many of the other countries the levels of these types of violence overlapped, especially in the case of sexual IPVAW.

Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the set of questions addressing physical and sexual IPVAW included in the FRA survey can be compared across all EU countries, highlighting the importance of testing the measurement equivalence of the instruments used in large sociodemographic surveys in order to make valid cross-national comparisons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059519PMC
March 2020

Psychological intimate partner violence against women in the European Union: a cross-national invariance study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Dec 27;19(1):1739. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a worldwide public health problem. One of the most frequent forms of this type of violence in western societies is psychological IPVAW. According to the European Union (EU) Fundamental Rights Association (FRA) the prevalence of psychological IPVAW in the EU is 43%. However, the measurement invariance of the measure addressing psychological IPVAW in this survey has not yet been assessed.

Methods: The aim of this study is to ensure the cross-national comparability of this measure, by evaluating its measurement invariance across the 28 EU countries in a sample of 37,724 women, and to examine how the levels of this type of violence are distributed across the EU.

Results: Our results showed that the psychological IPVAW measure presented adequate psychometric properties (reliability and validity) in all countries. A latent structure of one factor was supported and scalar invariance was established in all countries. The average levels of psychological IPVAW were higher in countries like Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden compared to the rest of the EU countries. In many of the other countries the levels of this type of violence overlapped.

Conclusion: Our findings underlined the importance of using appropriate statistical methods to make valid cross-national comparisons in large population surveys.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7998-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935167PMC
December 2019

Prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in Sweden and Spain: A psychometric study of the 'Nordic paradox'.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(5):e0217015. Epub 2019 May 16.

Unit for Social Epidemiology, University of Lund, Malmö, Sweden.

The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in countries with high levels of gender equality has been defined as the "Nordic paradox". In this study we compared physical and sexual IPVAW prevalence data in two countries exemplifying the Nordic paradox: Sweden (N = 1483) and Spain (N = 1447). Data was drawn from the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights Survey on violence against women. To ascertain whether differences between these two countries reflect true differences in IPVAW prevalence, and to rule out the possibility of measurement bias, we conducted a set of analyses to ensure measurement equivalence, a precondition for appropriate and valid cross-cultural comparisons. Results showed that in both countries items were measuring two separate constructs, physical and sexual IPVAW, and that these factors had high internal consistency and adequate validity. Measurement equivalence analyses (i.e., differential item functioning, and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis) supported the comparability of data across countries. Latent means comparisons between the Spanish and the Swedish samples showed that scores on both the physical and sexual IPVAW factors were significantly higher in Sweden than in Spain. The effect sizes of these differences were large: 89.1% of the Swedish sample had higher values in the physical IPVAW factor than the Spanish average, and this percentage was 99.4% for the sexual IPVAW factor as compared to the Spanish average. In terms of probability of superiority, there was an 80.7% and 96.1% probability that a Swedish woman would score higher than a Spanish woman in the physical and the sexual IPVAW factors, respectively. Our results showed that the higher prevalence of physical and sexual IPVAW in Sweden than in Spain reflects actual differences and are not the result of measurement bias, supporting the idea of the Nordic paradox.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217015PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522122PMC
February 2020

Validation of the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer Short Version with male intimate partner violence offenders.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2018 May-Aug;18(2):152-161. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

University of Valencia, Spain.

The working alliance is a key element to increase intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders' motivation, adherence to treatment, and active participation in batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The objective of the present study is to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer Short Version (WAI-O-S) with a sample of IPV offenders. The sample was 140 men convicted for IPV and court-mandated to a community-based BIP. Inter-rater agreement and reliability were evaluated by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient. To test the latent structure a Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. To test criterion-related validity, the WAI-O-S factorial scores were correlated to protherapeutic behavior, stage of change and motivation to change. The WAI-O-S showed an adequate reliability. Results from Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses showed two first-order factors ( and ), and a second-order factor () explaining the relationship between the first-order factors. Results also support the validity of this instrument. The availability of reliable and valid observational measure of the working alliance provides a useful tool to overcome self-report measurement limitations such as social desirability, deception, and denial among IPV offenders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2018.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225049PMC
March 2018

The Willingness to Intervene in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women (WI-IPVAW) Scale: Development and Validation of the Long and Short Versions.

Front Psychol 2018 17;9:1146. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Willingness to intervene when one becomes aware of a case of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) reflects the level of tolerance and acceptance of this type of violence in society. Increasing the likelihood of intervention to help victims of IPVAW is also a target for prevention strategies aiming to increase informal social control of IPVAW. In this study, we present the development and validation of the Willingness to Intervene in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence (WI-IPVAW) scale. We report data for both the long and short versions of the scale. We analyzed the latent structure, the reliability and validity of the WI-IPVAW across four samples ( = 1648). Factor analyses supported a bifactor model with a general non-specific factor expressing willingness to intervene in cases of IPVAW, and three specific factors reflecting different intervention preferences: a preference for setting the law enforcement process in motion ("calling the cops" factor), a preference for personal intervention ("personal involvement" factor), and a preference for non-intervention ("not my business" factor). Configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance across genders were supported. Two short versions of the scale, with nine and six items, respectively, were constructed on the base of quantitative and qualitative criteria. The long and short versions of the WI-IPVAW demonstrated both high reliability and construct validity, as they were strongly related to the acceptability of IPVAW, victim-blaming attitudes, perceived severity of IPVAW, and hostile sexism. These results confirm that both the long and short versions of the WI-IPVAW scale are psychometrically sound instruments to analyze willingness to intervene in cases of IPVAW in different settings and with different research needs (e.g., long versions for clinical and research settings, and short versions for large population surveys). The WI-IPVAW is also useful for assessing prevention policies and public education campaigns design to promote a more responsive social environment in cases of IPVAW, thus contributing to deter and reduce this major social and public health problem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056762PMC
July 2018

Acceptability of Family Violence: Underlying Ties Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse.

J Interpers Violence 2020 09 12;35(17-18):3217-3236. Epub 2017 May 12.

University of Valencia, Spain.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260517707310DOI Listing
September 2020

Development and Validation of the ADAS Scale and Prediction of Attitudes Toward Affective-Sexual Diversity Among Spanish Secondary Students.

J Homosex 2018 19;65(8):1032-1050. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

d Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology , Universidad Autónoma de Madrid , Madrid , Spain.

Violence against non-heterosexual adolescents in educational contexts remains a worrying reality, but no adequate attitudes toward affective-sexual diversity (AtASD) measure exists for Spanish adolescent students. We developed a 27-item scale including cognitive, affective, and behavioral aspects, which was completed by 696 secondary school students from the Madrid area. Factor analyses suggested a unidimensional model, Cronbach's alpha indicated excellent scale scores reliability, and item calibration under the item response theory framework showed that the scale is especially informative for homophobic attitudes. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that variables traditionally related to AtASD (gender, age, religion, nationality, perceived parental/peer attitudes, direct contact with LGB people) also were so in our sample. Moreover, interest in sexuality topics and perceived center's efforts to provide AtASD education were related to better AtASD. Our scale was reliable and valid, and it may also prove useful in efforts to detect those students with homophobic attitudes and to guide interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2017.1364951DOI Listing
June 2018

Validation of a Google Street View-Based Neighborhood Disorder Observational Scale.

J Urban Health 2017 04;94(2):190-198

University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing new tools to measure neighborhood features using the benefits of emerging technologies. This study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a neighborhood disorder observational scale using Google Street View (GSV). Two groups of raters conducted virtual audits of neighborhood disorder on all census block groups (N = 92) in a district of the city of Valencia (Spain). Four different analyses were conducted to validate the instrument. First, inter-rater reliability was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficients, indicating moderated levels of agreement among raters. Second, confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test the latent structure of the scale. A bifactor solution was proposed, comprising a general factor (general neighborhood disorder) and two specific factors (physical disorder and physical decay). Third, the virtual audit scores were assessed with the physical audit scores, showing a positive relationship between both audit methods. In addition, correlations between the factor scores and socioeconomic and criminality indicators were assessed. Finally, we analyzed the spatial autocorrelation of the scale factors, and two fully Bayesian spatial regression models were run to study the influence of these factors on drug-related police interventions and interventions with young offenders. All these indicators showed an association with the general neighborhood disorder. Taking together, results suggest that the GSV-based neighborhood disorder scale is a reliable, concise, and valid instrument to assess neighborhood disorder using new technologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11524-017-0134-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391333PMC
April 2017

A multistage adaptive test of fluid intelligence.

Psicothema 2016 Aug;28(3):346-52

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.

Background: Multistage adaptive testing has recently emerged as an alternative to the computerized adaptive test. The current study details a new multistage test to assess fluid intelligence.

Method: An item pool of progressive matrices with constructed response format was developed, and divided into six subtests. The subtests were applied to a sample of 724 college students and their psychometric properties were studied (i.e., reliability, dimensionality and validity evidence). The item pool was calibrated under the graded response model, and two multistage structures were developed, based on the automatic test assembly principles. Finally, the test information provided by each structure was compared in order to select the most appropriate one.

Results: The item pool showed adequate psychometric properties. From the two compared multistage structures, the simplest structure (i.e., routing test and two modules in the next stages) were more informative across the latent trait continuum and were therefore kept.

Discussion: Taken together, the results of the two studies support the application of the FIMT (Fluid Intelligence Multistage Test), a multistage test to assess fluid intelligence accurately and innovatively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2015.287DOI Listing
August 2016