Publications by authors named "Manuel Eisner"

83 Publications

The role of social support in reducing the impact of violence on adolescents' mental health in São Paulo, Brazil.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(10):e0258036. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Preventive Medicine Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: We investigated whether perceived social support among adolescent students moderated the association between violence exposure and internalising symptoms in São Paulo city, Brazil.

Methods: We tested the stress-buffering model using data from the cross-sectional school-based, survey São Paulo Project on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents. Internalising symptoms were measured using an adapted version of the Social Behaviour Questionnaire; serious victimisation, being bullied once/week, school violence and community violence, friend and teacher support were scales adapted by the research team; the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire measured parenting style. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify moderation effects of (i) social support between violence exposure and internalising symptoms and (ii) gender between violence exposure and internalising symptoms across schools.

Results: Across schools, being bullied once/week, school violence, and community violence were associated with a significant (p<0.001) increase in internalising symptoms (e.g., bullied b = 5.76, 95% CI 2.26, 9.26; school violence b = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30, 0.67; community violence b = 0.36; 95% CI 0.22, 0.50). Males exposed to all types of violence had significantly lower (p<0.01) internalising symptoms compared to females (e.g., serious victimisation: b = -1.45; 95% CI -2.60, -0.29; school violence b = -0.27; 95% CI -0.30, -0.24; community violence b = -0.23; 95% CI -0.25, -0.20). As a main effect, social support was associated with a significant (p<0.01) decrease in internalising symptoms across schools (e.g., positive parenting b = -2.42; 95% CI -3.12, -1.72; parent involvement b = -2.75; 95% CI -3.32, -2.17; friend support b = -1.05; 95% CI -1.74, -0.34; teacher support b = -0.90; 95% CI -1.58, -0.22). Social support did not moderate the association between violence exposure and internalising symptoms.

Conclusions: Adolescent students in São Paulo exposed to violence have a higher likelihood of internalising symptoms, compared to those who are not. Support from parents, friends, and teachers, independent of violence, appear to be protective against internalising symptoms, pointing to potential programmes that could improve adolescent mental health.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258036PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494303PMC
October 2021

Frequent teenage cannabis use: Prevalence across adolescence and associations with young adult psychopathology and functional well-being in an urban cohort.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Sep 21;228:109063. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich, PO Box 1931, Lenggstrasse 31, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland; Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Winterthurerstr. 190, Y55 J04, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Amidst cannabis legalization efforts and laws, we do not fully understand how the youngest frequent cannabis users fare during young adulthood. This study aims to 1) examine the prevalence of cannabis use during adolescence, and 2) investigate links of frequent (i.e., weekly or daily) teenage cannabis use with psychopathology and functional well-being at age 20-compared to no or occasional use.

Methods: Data came from a prospective-longitudinal cohort study (assessments from 2004 to 2018, from ages 7-20) in an urban setting (N = 1482). Substance use was assessed with self-reports between ages 13 and 20. At age 20, participants reported on psychopathology (psychotic symptoms, problematic substance use, aggression, and internalizing symptoms) and functional well-being (delinquency, financial difficulties, social exclusion, general well-being, and not being in education, employment, or training). Covariates were based on self-, parent-, teacher-, and behavioral measures.

Findings: Almost one in five adolescents had used cannabis frequently between ages 13 and 17 (26.6% of males, 9.8% of females). Adjusting nearly 20 potential confounders, frequent teenage cannabis use was associated with age 20 problematic substance use and poorer functional well-being compared to the no cannabis use and the occasional use groups. Frequent teenage cannabis use was more consistently associated with age 20 functional outcomes compared to frequent teenage nicotine or alcohol use.

Conclusions: Frequent teenage cannabis use was common and associated with problematic substance use, more delinquency, and poorer functional well-being at age 20. Accordingly, frequent teenage cannabis users could experience increased difficulties in mastering the transitions of young adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.109063DOI Listing
September 2021

Frequent teenage cannabis use: Prevalence across adolescence and associations with young adult psychopathology and functional well-being in an urban cohort.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Sep 21;228:109063. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich, PO Box 1931, Lenggstrasse 31, 8032 Zurich, Switzerland; Neuroscience Center Zurich, University of Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Winterthurerstr. 190, Y55 J04, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Amidst cannabis legalization efforts and laws, we do not fully understand how the youngest frequent cannabis users fare during young adulthood. This study aims to 1) examine the prevalence of cannabis use during adolescence, and 2) investigate links of frequent (i.e., weekly or daily) teenage cannabis use with psychopathology and functional well-being at age 20-compared to no or occasional use.

Methods: Data came from a prospective-longitudinal cohort study (assessments from 2004 to 2018, from ages 7-20) in an urban setting (N = 1482). Substance use was assessed with self-reports between ages 13 and 20. At age 20, participants reported on psychopathology (psychotic symptoms, problematic substance use, aggression, and internalizing symptoms) and functional well-being (delinquency, financial difficulties, social exclusion, general well-being, and not being in education, employment, or training). Covariates were based on self-, parent-, teacher-, and behavioral measures.

Findings: Almost one in five adolescents had used cannabis frequently between ages 13 and 17 (26.6% of males, 9.8% of females). Adjusting nearly 20 potential confounders, frequent teenage cannabis use was associated with age 20 problematic substance use and poorer functional well-being compared to the no cannabis use and the occasional use groups. Frequent teenage cannabis use was more consistently associated with age 20 functional outcomes compared to frequent teenage nicotine or alcohol use.

Conclusions: Frequent teenage cannabis use was common and associated with problematic substance use, more delinquency, and poorer functional well-being at age 20. Accordingly, frequent teenage cannabis users could experience increased difficulties in mastering the transitions of young adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.109063DOI Listing
September 2021

Intergenerational effects of violence on women's perinatal wellbeing and infant health outcomes: evidence from a birth cohort study in Central Vietnam.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Sep 23;21(1):648. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Institute for Community Health Research, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue, Vietnam.

Background: Girls exposed to violence have a high risk of being victimized as adults and are more likely than non-abused women to have children who are treated violently. This intergenerational transmission may be especially serious when women suffer violence during pregnancy and early motherhood, as it impairs maternal wellbeing and infant health and development. This study examined the intergenerational effects of being exposed to childhood maltreatment (CM) and prenatal intimate partner violence (p-IPV) on perinatal mental distress and birth outcomes in central Vietnam.

Methods: A birth cohort study in Hue City, Vietnam was conducted with 150 women in the third trimester of pregnancy (Wave 1) and 3 months after childbirth (Wave 2). Using multivariable logistic regression models, augmented inverse-probability-weighted estimators and structural equation modelling (SEM), we analyzed a theoretical model by evaluating adjusted risk differences and pathways between CM, p-IPV and subsequent perinatal adversity and indicators of infant health problems.

Results: One in two pregnant women experienced at least one form of CM (55.03%) and one in ten pregnant women experienced both CM and p-IPV (10.67%). Mothers who experienced p-IPV or witnessed IPV as a child were approximately twice as likely to experience poor mental health during pregnancy [ARR 1.94, 95% CI (1.20-3.15)]. Infants had a two-fold higher risk of adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight, preterm birth, admission to neonatal intensive care) [ARR 2.45 95% CI (1.42, 4.25)] if their mothers experienced any form of p-IPV, with greater risk if their mothers were exposed to both CM and p-IPV [ARR 3.45 95% CI (1.40, 8.53)]. Notably, significant pathways to p-IPV were found via adverse childhood experience (ACE) events (β = 0.13), neighborhood disorder (β = 0.14) and partner support (β = - 1.3).

Conclusion: These results emphasize the detrimental and prolonged nature of the effect of violence during childhood and pregnancy. Exposure to childhood maltreatment and violence during pregnancy increases the risk of maternal mental health difficulties and adverse birth outcomes. Antenatal care systems need to be responsive to women's previous experiences of violence and maternal mental health. The significant protective role of partner support and social support should also be considered when designing tailored interventions to address violence during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-04097-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461881PMC
September 2021

Association between self-control and health risk behaviors: a cross-sectional study with 9th grade adolescents in São Paulo.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 19;21(1):1706. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, BR. Address: Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 - 2o. andar - sala 2214, São Paulo, Postal Code: 01246-903, Brazil.

Background: Self-control (SC) has been consistently found associated with diverse health risk behaviors (HRBs), but little research refers to low- and middle-income countries. Furthermore, there is evidence that some HRBs tend to aggregate, however studies with the specific purpose of addressing the relation between SC and multiple health risk behaviors (MHRBs) are rare. The objective of this study is to analyze these associations and provide evidence to help filling these gaps.

Methods: A sample of 2106 9th grade students from the city of São Paulo responded a self-administered questionnaire in 2017. We tested the association of SC measured as an ordinal variable with four levels (higher, high, medium and low) with six HRBs (binge drinking, marijuana use, smoking, high consumption of ultra-processed food, sedentary behavior and bullying perpetration), in both separated and aggregated forms (MHRBs), controlling for potential confounders. Binary logistic regression was used to test the association between exposure (SC) and single outcomes. In order to analyze the association of SC with MHRBs, multinomial logistic regression was employed.

Results: SC was associated with five of six HRBs investigated and with MHRBs. The effect size of the association of SC and MHRBs increased in a steep pattern with accumulation of more HRBs.

Conclusion: Low self-control is associated with most HRBs investigated and the magnitude of the association increases when more than two or three HRBs are accumulated. There seems to be a group of adolescents in a position of pronounced vulnerability for MHRBs. This should be considered when designing public policy and prevention programs. In contexts of limited or scarce resources and public funds, interventions focusing the most vulnerable groups, instead of universal interventions, should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11718-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8451098PMC
September 2021

The impact of maternal adverse childhood experiences and prenatal depressive symptoms on foetal attachment: Preliminary evidence from expectant mothers across eight middle-income countries.

J Affect Disord 2021 Sep 4;295:612-619. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Psychology Department, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: Mothers from middle-income countries (MIC) are estimated to have higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and depression during pregnancy compared to mothers from high income countries. Prenatal depression can adversely impact on a mother's feelings towards her foetus and thus may be partially responsible for intergenerational transmission of risk associated with maternal ACEs. However, the extent to which prenatal depressive symptoms mediate the association between maternal ACEs and foetal attachment is unknown.

Methods: Data on foetal attachment, ACEs, and prenatal depression came from mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy (n = 1,185) located across eight MICs, participating in the prospective birth cohort Evidence for Better Lives Study - Foundational Research (EBLS-FR). Data were from the baseline measurement.

Results: Full-sample path mediation analyses, adjusting for relevant covariates, suggested a full mediating effect of prenatal depression. However, at the individual-country level, both positive and negative effects of ACEs on foetal attachment were observed after the inclusion of depressive symptoms as a mediator, suggesting cultural and geographical factors may influence a mother's empathic development after ACE exposure.

Limitations: As no follow-up measurements of depressive symptoms or postnatal attachment were included in the analyses, the findings cannot be extrapolated to the postnatal period and beyond. Further, causality cannot be inferred as the study was observational.

Conclusions: The findings reinforce the importance of screening for prenatal depression during antenatal care in MICs. Addressing prenatal depression within maternal health care may support foetal attachment and contribute to reducing the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.066DOI Listing
September 2021

The role of moral neutralization of aggression and justification of violence against women in predicting physical teen dating violence perpetration and monitoring among adolescents in Switzerland.

New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Although dating violence poses a serious threat to adolescents' health and well-being around the globe, little evidence is available for Europe in general and Switzerland in particular. Also, evidence on the role of cognitive predictors related to a more general justification of aggressive behavior and gender-based violence is lacking. Therefore, this two-wave longitudinal study conducted with Swiss adolescents (N = 646) examined moral neutralization of aggression and justification of violence against women as predictors of physical dating violence perpetration and monitoring. As expected, higher moral neutralization of aggression predicted a higher likelihood of perpetrating physical dating violence and monitoring among both female and male adolescents. Justification of violence against women was positively associated with physical dating violence perpetration among males, but negatively among females. Also, a negative relationship was found with monitoring among females. The role of gender and implications of these findings for research, practice, and policy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cad.20430DOI Listing
September 2021

Developmental Relations Between Internalising Problems and ADHD in Childhood: a Symptom Level Perspective.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Aug 7. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Department of Psychology, Univsersity of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

ADHD and internalising problems commonly co-occur with up to 50% of children diagnosed with ADHD also suffering from anxiety or depression. However, their developmental relations are currently not well understood. Longitudinal symptom level analyses can provide valuable insights into how difficulties in these areas of psychosocial functioning affect each other. Using Gaussian Graphical Models and Graphical Vector Autoregression Models, this study estimated cross-sectional and longitudinal networks of ADHD and internalising symptoms in 1387 children using parent- and teacher-reported Social Behaviour Questionnaires (SBQ) when children were aged 7, 9 and 11. Cross-sectional and longitudinal networks suggested that ADHD shares reciprocal relations with internalising symptoms through a number of potential bridge symptoms that are primarily connected to anxiety symptoms. High scores on child cannot sit still, is restless, or hyperactive were found to be the strongest bridge symptom acting as an antecedent to higher internalising symptoms whereas child is worried was the strongest antecedent for higher ADHD symptoms. Findings of this study highlight several potential bridge symptoms that may serve as key intervention targets and further emphasise the need for clinicians to assess children presenting with ADHD symptoms for internalising problems and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-021-00856-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Self-Injury and Domestic Violence in Young Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Trajectories, Precursors, and Correlates.

J Res Adolesc 2021 Sep 27;31(3):560-575. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich.

We examined the longitudinal course of, and pre- and during-pandemic risk factors for, self-injury and domestic physical violence perpetration in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data came from a Swiss longitudinal study (N = 786, age ˜22 in 2020), with one prepandemic (2018) and four during-pandemic assessments (2020). The prevalence of self-injury did not change between April (during the first Swiss national lockdown) and September 2020 (postlockdown). Domestic violence perpetration increased temporarily in males. Prepandemic self-injury was a major risk factor for during-pandemic self-injury. Specific living arrangements, pandemic-related stressor accumulation, and a lack of adaptive coping strategies were associated with during-pandemic self-injury and domestic violence. Stressor accumulation had indirect effects on self-injury and domestic violence through negative emotions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420612PMC
September 2021

To what extent does emotional dysregulation account for aggression associated with ADHD symptoms? An experience sampling study.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Sep 16;303:114059. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Previous research suggests that aggression is associated with ADHD symptoms and this may partly reflect problems with emotional regulation. Using data from the D2M study (n=260) we found that ADHD symptoms were associated with both emotional lability and aggression, but emotional lability did not mediate the ADHD-aggression association. Results suggest that other factors may be more important for explaining elevated levels of aggression in ADHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.114059DOI Listing
September 2021

A global analysis of the impact of COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions on crime.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 07 2;5(7):868-877. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

The stay-at-home restrictions to control the spread of COVID-19 led to unparalleled sudden change in daily life, but it is unclear how they affected urban crime globally. We collected data on daily counts of crime in 27 cities across 23 countries in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Asia. We conducted interrupted time series analyses to assess the impact of stay-at-home restrictions on different types of crime in each city. Our findings show that the stay-at-home policies were associated with a considerable drop in urban crime, but with substantial variation across cities and types of crime. Meta-regression results showed that more stringent restrictions over movement in public space were predictive of larger declines in crime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01139-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298205PMC
July 2021

Young Adulthood Outcomes of Joint Mental Health Trajectories: A Group-Based Trajectory Model Analysis of a 13-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Developmental trajectories of common mental health issues such as ADHD symptoms, internalising problems, and externalising problems can often be usefully summarised in terms of a small number of 'developmental subtypes' (e.g., 'childhood onset', 'adolescent onset') that may differ in their profiles or levels of clinically meaningful variables such as etiological risk factors. However, given the strong tendency for symptoms in these domains to co-occur, it is important to consider not only developmental subtypes in each domain individually, but also the joint developmental subtypes defined by symptoms trajectories in all three domains together (e.g., 'late onset multimorbid', 'pure internalising', 'early onset multimorbid'). Previous research has illuminated the joint developmental subtypes of ADHD symptoms, internalising problems, and externalising problems that emerge from normative longitudinal data using methods such as group-based trajectory modelling, as well as predictors of membership in these developmental subtypes. However, information on the long-term outcomes of developmental subtype membership is critical to illuminate the likely nature and intensity of support needs required for individuals whose trajectories fit different developmental subtypes. We, therefore, evaluated the relations between developmental subtypes previously derived using group-based trajectory modelling in the z-proso study (n = 1620 with trajectory data at ages 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15) and early adulthood outcomes. Individuals with multimorbid trajectories but not 'pure' internalising problem elevations showed higher levels of social exclusion and delinquency at age 20. These associations held irrespective of the specific developmental course of symptoms (e.g., early versus late onset versus remitting). There was also some evidence that intimate partner violence acts as a form of heterotypic continuity for earlier externalising problems. Results underline the need for early intervention to address the pathways that lead to social exclusion and delinquency among young people with multiple co-occurring mental health issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01193-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Pitfalls of Using Data Portals as Sources for Psychological Research: The Example of Cross-National Homicide Data.

Psychol Sci 2021 06 27;32(6):863-865. Epub 2021 May 27.

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797621989967DOI Listing
June 2021

The association of polyvictimization with violent ideations in late adolescence and early adulthood: A longitudinal study.

Aggress Behav 2021 07 27;47(4):472-482. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Violent ideations are increasingly recognized as an important psychological predictor for aggressive and violent behavior. However, little is known about the processes that contribute to violent ideations. This paper examines the extent to which polyvictimization triggers violent ideations in late adolescence and early adulthood, while also adjusting for dispositional and situational factors as well as prior violent ideations. Data came from three waves of the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood into Adulthood (z-proso; n = 1465). Full-information maximum likelihood Tobit models were fitted to regress violent ideations experienced at ages 17 and 20 on multiple victimization experiences in the preceding 12 months while controlling for antecedent developmental risk factors and prior violent ideations. The results showed that violent ideations in late adolescence and early adulthood are influenced by violent thoughts, aggressive behavior, violent media consumption, moral neutralization of violence, and internalizing symptoms measured 2 years earlier. Experiences of polyvictimization significantly contributed to an increase in violent ideations both during late adolescence and in early adulthood. The exposure-response relationship between victimization and violent ideations did not significantly differ by sex. The findings are consistent with the notion that violent ideations are triggered by a retaliation-linked psychological mechanism that entails playing out other directed imaginary aggressive scenarios specifically in response to experiencing intentional harm-doing by others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21965DOI Listing
July 2021

The Co-development of Friends' Delinquency with Adolescents' Delinquency and Short-term Mindsets: The Moderating Role of Co-Offending.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Aug 21;50(8):1601-1615. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

The companions in crime hypothesis suggests that co-offending moderates the link between peer delinquency and adolescent delinquency. However, this hypothesis has rarely been investigated longitudinally. Hence, this study investigated the co-development of friends' delinquency and adolescents' delinquency, as well as the co-development of friends' delinquency and short-term mindsets (impulsivity and lack of school future orientation). Whether this co-development is stronger when adolescents engage in co-offending was also investigated. Three data waves with two year lags from an ethnically-diverse adolescent sample (at wave 1: N = 1365; 48.6% female; M = 13.67; age range = 12.33-15.09 years) in Switzerland were used. The results from parallel process latent growth modeling showed that the co-development between friends' delinquency and adolescents' delinquency was stronger when adolescents engaged in co-offending. Thus co-offending likely provides direct access to a setting in which adolescents continue to model the delinquency they learned with their peers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01417-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270852PMC
August 2021

An Evaluation of Dual Systems Theories of Adolescent Delinquency in a Normative Longitudinal Cohort Study of Youth.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Jul 15;50(7):1293-1307. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Dual systems theories of adolescent risk-taking propose that the socioemotional and self-regulation systems develop at different rates, resulting in a peak in sensation-seeking in adolescence at a time when self-regulation abilities are not yet fully mature. This "developmental imbalance" between bottom-up drives for reward and top-down control is proposed to create a period of vulnerability for high-risk behaviors such as delinquency, substance use, unprotected sex, and reckless driving. In this study, data from the Swiss longitudinal normative z-proso study (n = 1522, n = 784 male; aged 11, 13, 15, 17, and 20) were used to test whether the presence of a developmental imbalance between sensation-seeking and self-regulation is associated with trajectories of engagement in delinquency across early adolescence to adulthood. Using a latent class growth analysis of sensation-seeking, self-regulation, and delinquency, it was found that a model with 3 classes was optimal in the whole sample and male sub-sample, including one class characterized by a developmental imbalance and corresponding adolescent peak in delinquency. In females, there was no evidence for a class that could be described according to the trajectories hypothesized in dual systems theory. This study's results support the claim that a developmental imbalance may drive an adolescent increase in delinquency. However, this applies only to a small subgroup of individuals, particularly males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01433-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219591PMC
July 2021

Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, and mHealth: The Frontiers of the Prevention of Violence Against Children.

Front Artif Intell 2020 22;3:543305. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Violence against children is a global public health threat of considerable concern. At least half of all children worldwide experience violence every year; globally, the total number of children between the ages of 2 and 17 years who have experienced violence in any given year is one billion. Based on a review of the literature, we argue that there is substantial potential for AI (and associated machine learning and big data), and mHealth approaches to be utilized to prevent and address violence at a large scale. This is particularly marked in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), although whether it could translate into effective solutions at scale remains unclear. We discuss possible entry points for Artificial Intelligence (AI), big data, and mHealth approaches to violence prevention, linking these to the World Health Organization's seven INSPIRE strategies. However, such work should be approached with caution. We highlight clear directions for future work in technology-based and technology-enabled violence prevention. We argue that there is a need for good agent-based models at the level of entire cities where and when violence can occur, where local response systems are. Yet, there is a need to develop common, reliable, and valid population- and individual/family-level data on predictors of violence. These indicators could be integrated into routine health or other information systems and become the basis of Al algorithms for violence prevention and response systems. Further, data on individual help-seeking behavior, risk factors for child maltreatment, and other information which could help us to identify the parameters required to understand what happens to cause, and in response to violence, are needed. To respond to ethical issues engendered by these kinds of interventions, there must be concerted, meaningful efforts to develop participatory and user-led work in the AI space, to ensure that the privacy and profiling concerns outlined above are addressed explicitly going forward. Finally, we make the case that developing AI and other technological infrastructure will require substantial investment, particularly in LMIC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frai.2020.543305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7861328PMC
October 2020

Depression and its associated factors among pregnant women in central Vietnam.

Health Psychol Open 2021 Jan-Jun;8(1):2055102920988445. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Faculty of Public Health and Institute for Community Health Research, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Vietnam.

To date, little attention has been given to prenatal depression, especially in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence of depression and its associated factors amongst pregnant women in a central Vietnamese city. This cross-sectional study included 150 pregnant women from 29 to 40 weeks of gestation, from eight wards of Hue city, via quota sampling from February to May 2019. We employed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression. Findings suggest the need to provide routine screening of pregnant women in primary care for depressive symptoms and other mental health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102920988445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841685PMC
January 2021

Prenatal attachment: using measurement invariance to test the validity of comparisons across eight culturally diverse countries.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2021 08 9;24(4):619-625. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Studies in high-income countries (HICs) have shown that variability in maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) predict important maternal health and child outcomes. However, the validity of MFA ratings in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains unknown. Addressing this gap, we assessed measurement invariance to test the conceptual equivalence of the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI: Muller, 1993) across eight LMICs. Our aim was to determine whether the PAI yields similar information from pregnant women across different cultural contexts. We administered the 18-item PAI to 1181 mothers in the third trimester (Mean age = 28.27 years old, SD = 5.81 years, range = 18-48 years) expecting their first infant (n = 359) or a later-born infant (n = 820) as part of a prospective birth cohort study involving eight middle-income countries: Ghana, Jamaica, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. We used Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analyses to assess across-site measurement invariance. A single latent factor with partial measurement invariance was found across all sites except Pakistan. Group comparisons showed that mean levels of MFA were lowest for expectant mothers in Vietnam and highest for expectant mothers in Sri Lanka. MFA was higher in first-time mothers than in mothers expecting a later-born child. The PAI yields similar information about MFA across culturally distinct middle-income countries. These findings strengthen confidence in the use of the tool across different settings; future studies should explore the use of the PAI as a screen for maternal behaviour that place children at risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-021-01105-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266779PMC
August 2021

Developmental Cascades from Aggression to Internalizing Problems via Peer and Teacher Relationships from Early to Middle Adolescence.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Apr 2;50(4):663-673. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Previous research has provided evidence for developmental cascades between externalizing and internalizing problems via mechanisms such as peer and academic problems; however, there remains a need to illuminate other key mediating processes that could serve as intervention targets. This study, thus, evaluated whether developmental associations between aggression and internalizing are mediated by teacher-as well as peer-relationships. Using data from z-proso, a longitudinal study of Swiss youth (n = 1523; 785 males), an autoregressive latent trajectory model with structured residuals (ALT-SR) was fit over ages 11, 13, and 15 to examine within-person developmental links between aggression, internalizing problems, and the mediating role of peer and teacher relationships, while disaggregating between- and within-person effects. Teacher and peer relationships did not play a role in the progression of externalizing to internalizing problems or vice versa, however, teacher and peer relationships showed a protective effect against developing internalizing problems at ages 13. The results suggest that good quality relationships with teachers in early adolescence can help prevent internalizing problems from developing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-021-01396-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979623PMC
April 2021

Validation of a Brief Measure of Aggression for Ecological Momentary Assessment Research: The Aggression-ES-A.

Assessment 2020 Dec 1:1073191120976851. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) holds significant potential within aggression research. It affords researchers the possibility of collecting data in ecological context, in near real time. However, there is a lack of measures of aggression that have been developed and validated for use in EMA contexts. In this study, we report on the validation of a measure specifically designed to address this need: the Aggression-ES-A. Building on a previous pilot study, we evaluate the within- and between-person reliability, nomological net and associations with a validated trait measure of aggression of the Aggression-ES-A in a sample of = 255 emerging adults from the Zurich Project on Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (z-proso). Using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling, we found support for the factorial validity, reliability, and concurrent validity of the Aggression-ES-A scores. Results support the use of the Aggression-ES-A in EMA studies utilizing community-ascertained samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120976851DOI Listing
December 2020

An ecological momentary assessment study of the role of emotional dysregulation in co-occurring ADHD and internalising symptoms in adulthood.

J Affect Disord 2021 02 12;281:708-713. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich.

Previous ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research in children has suggested that emotional dysregulation problems are commonly associated with ADHD symptoms and may help explain their relatively strong co-occurrence with anxiety and depression (collectively referred to as 'internalising problems'); however, this has yet to be replicated for adults. In this study, we used data from a n=260 longitudinal cohort and EMA study, to evaluate the hypothesis that emotional dysregulation mediates the association between ADHD symptoms and internalising problems in emerging adulthood. Emotional dysregulation was based on affect data collected in near real time and in ecological context over a 14-day period, providing a measure of emotional lability in the context of participants' daily lives. Cross-sectional mediation was tested using structural equation modelling. Emotional lability significantly mediated the association between ADHD symptoms and internalising problems. Results suggest that interventions that address the emotional dysregulation aspects of ADHD are likely to be beneficial for preventing and managing secondary internalising symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.086DOI Listing
February 2021

A multi-trajectory analysis of commonly co-occurring mental health issues across childhood and adolescence.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Developmental trajectories of mental health issues can often be usefully summarised in a small number of clinically meaningful subtypes. Given the high levels of heterotypic and homotypic comorbidity in child and adolescent mental health symptoms, we explored whether it was possible to identify clinically meaningful developmental subtypes of multiple commonly co-occurring mental health issues. We evaluated the combined developmental trajectories of the most common and commonly co-occurring child and adolescent mental health issues: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalising, and externalising symptoms in a normative sample of youth with data (n = 1620) at ages 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 15 using group-based multi-trajectory modelling. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of group membership. Our optimal model included six trajectory groups, labelled 'unaffected', 'normative maturing', 'internalising', 'multimorbid late onset', 'multimorbid remitting', and 'multimorbid with remitting externalising'. Examining covariates of group membership suggested that males and bully victims tend to have complex mental health profiles; academic achievement and smoking during pregnancy have general associations with mental health irrespective of symptom developmental trajectories or combination; and maternal post-natal depression is primarily related to symptoms that are already in evidence by the beginning of the school years. Results suggest that developmental trajectories of commonly co-occurring mental health issues can be usefully summarised in terms of a small number of developmental subtypes. These subtypes more often than not involve multiple co-occurring mental health issues. Their association with mental health covariates depends on the combination and developmental timing of symptoms in ways that suggest they can be clinically informative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01679-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Stressful Life Events in Different Social Contexts Are Associated With Self-Injury From Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood.

Front Psychiatry 2020 27;11:487200. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Self-injury often arises as a maladaptive coping strategy used to alleviate distress. Past research has typically examined how chronic stressors in a specific context are associated with self-injury. Little is known about the unique and cumulative associations between acute stressful life events that occur in different social contexts and self-injury among adolescents. This is especially the case for males, for whom the etiology of self-injury is understudied. We examine the unique and cumulative contributions of stressful life events in the contexts of adolescents' school life, peer networks, intimate relationships, and family life to self-injurious behavior in males and females from the community. Our data comes from a prospective-longitudinal community-representative study, the Zurich Project on the Social Development from Childhood to Adulthood (). Our sample consists of 1,482 adolescents (52% male) assessed at ages 13, 15, 17, and 20. At each age, adolescents reported whether they had engaged in self-injury during the previous month. They also reported stressful life events in the school, peer, intimate relationships, and family contexts, typically since the last assessment. Stressful life events in the peer context were consistently associated with self-injury. In the contexts of school, intimate relationships, and family, some associations were age- or sex-specific. For example, mid-adolescent females were more likely than mid-adolescent males to use self-injury when faced with stressful events in school and intimate relationships. With respect to risk accumulation, females' risk of self-injury increased with each additional life event between the ages of 13 and 17, beginning at 2+ events. This pattern did not hold for males. In early adulthood, 4+ life events were associated with an increased risk of self-injury, which suggests that the thresholds for the number of life events needed to trigger self-injury increased from adolescence to young adulthood. Our findings suggest that reducing risk of stressful events in different social contexts, and improving young people's coping skills could help reduce their risk of self-injury. New or revised theoretical models may be needed to better understand the emergence of self-injury in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.487200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653177PMC
October 2020

Evidence for Better Lives Study: a comparative birth-cohort study on child exposure to violence and other adversities in eight low- and middle-income countries - foundational research (study protocol).

BMJ Open 2020 10 10;10(10):e034986. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: Violence against children is a health, human rights and social problem affecting approximately half of the world's children. Its effects begin at prenatal stages with long-lasting impacts on later health and well-being. The (EBLS) aims to produce high-quality longitudinal data from cities in eight low- and middle-income countries-Ghana, Jamaica, Pakistan, the Philippines, Romania, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Vietnam-to support effective intervention to reduce violence against children. EBLS-Foundational Research (EBLS-FR) tests critical aspects of the planned EBLS, including participant recruitment and retention, data collection and analysis. Alongside epidemiological estimates of levels and predictors of exposure to violence and adversity during pregnancy, we plan to explore mechanisms that may link exposure to violence to mothers' biological stress markers and subjective well-being.

Methods And Analyses: EBLS-FR is a short longitudinal study with a sample of 1200 pregnant women. Data are collected during the last trimester of pregnancy and 2 to 6 months after birth. The questionnaire for participating women has been translated into nine languages. Measures obtained from mothers will include, among others, mental and physical health, attitudes to corporal punishment, adverse childhood experiences, prenatal intimate partner violence, substance use and social/community support. Hair and dry blood spot samples are collected from the pregnant women to measure stress markers. To explore research participation among fathers, EBLS-FR is recruiting 300 fathers in the Philippines and Sri Lanka.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study received ethical approvals at all recruiting sites and universities in the project. Results will be disseminated through journal publications, conferences and seminar presentations involving local communities, health services and other stakeholders. Findings from this work will help to adjust the subsequent stages of the EBLS project.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552842PMC
October 2020

Victims, bullies and bully-victims: prevalence and association with negative health outcomes from a cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil.

Int J Public Health 2020 Nov 6;65(8):1485-1495. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 - 2o. andar - sala 2177, São Paulo, São Paulo, 01246-903, Brazil.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported bullying as victims, bullies or bully-victims among 9th grade adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; to investigate association between bullying with negative health outcomes.

Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained in 2017 from a sample of Brazilian adolescents (n = 2680) using a structured, self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression were employed to assess in which extent the experience of bullying in position of victim, bully or bully-victim affects adolescents' health.

Results: Prevalence of bullying victimization was 18.3%, while victimization/perpetration and perpetration corresponded to 10.42% and 4.9%, respectively. Adolescents who experienced bullying victimization were more likely to present high levels of internalizing symptoms, to report self-harm, to present negative self-rated health and to use tobacco, when compared with those not involved. Bullies were more likely to use alcohol and to binge drinking. bully-victims presented a higher prevalence of all health outcomes, except for tobacco use.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the effect of bullying in adolescents' health, regardless of the position. Planned intersectoral efforts between parents, health and education systems to prevent bullying could therefore reduce negative health outcomes during adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00038-020-01481-5DOI Listing
November 2020

Non-compliance with COVID-19-related public health measures among young adults in Switzerland: Insights from a longitudinal cohort study.

Soc Sci Med 2021 01 16;268:113370. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, UK.

Rationale: Adolescents and young adults were identified internationally as a group with potentially low compliance rates with public health measures aimed at curbing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although non-compliance research during pandemics has typically focused on concurrent correlates, less is known about how prior social and psychological risk factors are associated with non-compliance during pandemics.

Objective: This paper leverages a prospective-longitudinal cohort study with data before and during the pandemic to describe patterns of non-compliance with COVID- 19 related public health measures in young adults and to identify which characteristics increase the risk of non-compliance.

Methods: Data came from an ongoing cohort study in Zurich, Switzerland (n=737). Non-compliance with public health measures and concurrent correlates were measured at age 22. Antecedent sociodemographic, social, and psychological factors were measured at ages 15-20. Young adults generally complied with COVID-19 public health measures, although non-compliance with some measures (e.g., cleaning/disinfecting mobile phones, standing 1.5-2 meters apart) was relatively higher.

Results: Non-compliance, especially with hygiene-related measures, was more prevalent in males, and in individuals with higher education, higher SES, and a nonmigrant background. Non-compliance was higher in young adults who had previously scored high on indicators of "antisocial potential," including low acceptance of moral rules, pre-pandemic legal cynicism, low shame/guilt, low self-control, engagement in delinquent behaviors, and association with delinquent peers. Young adults with low trust, including in the government's measures for fighting the virus, also complied less.

Conclusions: In order to increase voluntary compliance with COVID-19 measures, public health campaigns should implement strategies that foster moral obligation and trust in authorities, or leverage trustworthy individuals in the community to disseminate information. For young adults with low self-control, self-monitoring, environmental restructuring, or nudging may increase compliance. Long-term investments into integrating youth with antisocial potential into society may decrease rule-breaking behaviors, including during pandemics when compliance saves lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493799PMC
January 2021

Developmental relations between ADHD symptoms and bullying perpetration and victimization in adolescence.

Aggress Behav 2021 01 8;47(1):58-68. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, UK.

It has previously been hypothesized that individuals with elevated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are at greater risk of bullying perpetration and victimization. Using autoregressive latent trajectory models with structured residuals (ALT-SR) and four waves (ages 11, 13, 15, and 17) of longitudinal data from the normative z-proso study (n = 1526, 52% male), we evaluated the developmental relations between ADHD and bullying using both self- and teacher-reported ADHD symptom data. Analyses suggested that ADHD symptoms primarily increase the risk of bullying perpetration, with a within-person effect of ADHD symptoms on bullying perpetration symptoms identified across ages 13-15 (β = .13) and ages 15-17 (β = .19) based on self-reported ADHD symptoms and a similar effect identified across ages 11-13 (β = .24) and 13-15 (β = .29) based on teacher-reported inattention symptoms. There were also some indications of reciprocal effects and effects involving victimization that merit further exploration in future research. Results imply that the content of bullying intervention and prevention programs should take account of ADHD symptoms to ensure that those with elevated symptoms can benefit as much as their typically developing peers. This will involve addressing bullying perpetration that may reflect impulsive/reactive aggression and impaired social skills rather than instrumental aggression. Further, programs should go beyond classical curriculum/classroom-based delivery to ensure that individuals with elevated ADHD symptoms can be successfully engaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21930DOI Listing
January 2021

Assessing the measurement invariance and antecedents of legal cynicism in São Paulo, Zurich, and Montevideo.

J Adolesc 2020 08 4;83:83-94. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: This paper accomplishes two goals. First, we assesses the measurement invariance of legal cynicism among adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil, Montevideo, Uruguay, and Zurich, Switzerland. Second, we evaluate a series of social and individual antecedents that are expected to influence legal cynicism across contexts.

Methods: This paper first evaluates the measurement invariance of legal cynicism using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis with three randomized clustered samples of adolescents in Zurich (n = 1447), São Paulo (n = 2680) and Montevideo (n = 2204). Second, we assessed the correlates for legal cynicism in each city using structural equation modelling techniques.

Results: The results demonstrated metric invariance, but not scalar invariance among adolescents in São Paulo, Zurich, and Montevideo. We were able to establish partial measurement invariance for legal cynicism in São Paulo and Zurich, and therefore proceeded with the comparison of latent means and antecedents. The results show that on average legal cynicism is higher in Zurich, but that the size and strength of antecedents were similar across cities. Low self-control was by far the strongest correlate of legal cynicism.

Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that current operationalizations of legal cynicism may not be rooted in social structural context and experiences with legal authorities, but rather reflect how individuals interpret legal boundaries and dispositions towards rule-breaking. Researchers must reconsider how legal cynicism fits into models of legal socialization, and whether developmental models of self-control may help us understand the origins and nature of legal cynicism, as it is currently measured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.06.007DOI Listing
August 2020
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