Publications by authors named "Mansooreh Dehghani"

32 Publications

The effects of exogenous application of melatonin on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of Festuca.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 22;274:116559. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The study aimed to assess the effects of melatonin, a plant growth regulator, on the degradation of phenanthrene (Phe) and pyrene (Py), in the rhizosphere of the Festuca grass. The experiments were divided into the following groups: 1) soil contaminated with Phe and Py, without the Festuca, 2) contaminated soil + Festuca, 3-5), contaminated soil + Festuca + the application of melatonin in three separate doses: 10, 50, or 100 μM. After 90 days, the effects of melatonin supplementation on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed by evaluating the rate of PAHs degradation, the expression of genes encoding salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase (SDH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzymes in Pseudomonas putida, as well as by measuring the total activity of dehydrogenase and peroxidase enzymes. Our results have shown that in soil contaminated by 300 mg kg PAHs, application of melatonin (10, 50, 100 μM), resulted in the following increase in the dehydrogenase and peroxidase activity in all three applied doses (19% and 5.7%), (45.3% and 34.3%), (40.9% and 14.3%), respectively in comparison to the control group. The experiment showed that soil supplementation with melatonin at 50 μM, resulted in the highest removal rate of PAHs. According to our results, melatonin demonstrated a potentially favorable role in enhancing plant biomass, as well as an increase in soil bacterial population, and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in P. putida, causing all tested parameters of the soil and the expression of desired genes to be advantageously altered for the degradation of the chosen PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116559DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessing BTEX exposure among workers of the second largest natural gas reserve in the world: a biomonitoring approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 8;27(35):44519-44527. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Environmental Health, Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Urinary benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) can be used as a reliable biomarker of exposure to these pollutants. This cross-sectional study aimed to employ biomonitoring to assess BTEX exposure among South Pars Gas Field (SPGF) workers in Assaluyeh, Iran. Forty employees who were working on the site were recruited as the case group. Besides, 31 administrative employees were recruited as the control group. Pre-shift and post-shift spot urine samples were collected from the subjects in the case group, while the subjects in the control group provided mid-morning urine samples. Overall, 111 urine samples, including 80 samples from the case group and 31 samples from the controls, were collected. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the urinary levels of BTEX compounds. The median urinary levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene in the post-shift samples of the exposed group were 1.24, 2.28, 0.5, 1.32, and 1.5 μg/l, respectively. Significant differences were observed in urinary BTEX levels among smokers and non-smokers in both studied groups (p < 0.05). Accordingly, the median urinary BTEX concentrations in smokers were 2 to 6.5 times higher than the corresponding values in non-smoker subjects. Smoking status was the only predictor of the urinary BTEX concentration. Our findings revealed that refinery workers are exposed to significant levels of BTEX compounds. Considering the health risks associated with BTEX exposure for refinery workers, implementation of suitable control strategies, such as using appropriate personal protective equipment and improving on-site ventilation systems, are recommended reducing their exposure to BTEX via the inhalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10379-xDOI Listing
December 2020

Investigating the relationship between synergistic effects and diversity of four widely used agricultural pesticides by using bacterial species in liquid culture medium.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Feb 15;192(3):176. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Interactive effects of mixtures of pesticides on bacteria are rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative, synergistic, and antagonistic effects of four widely used agricultural pesticides including deltamethrin, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Bacillus bacteria. The reduction of alamar blue, as an indicator of bacterial activity, was measured using a spectrophotometer at 600-nm wavelength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.0 software. The binary mixtures of pesticides had mainly antagonistic and additive effects, but quadruple mixtures of pesticides had synergistic effects on all of the three bacterial species. In the mixtures of pesticides, increasing the number of compounds leads to more synergistic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8125-5DOI Listing
February 2020

Health risk assessment of nitrate in groundwater resources of Iranshahr using Monte Carlo simulation and geographic information system (GIS).

MethodsX 2019 31;6:1812-1821. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical, Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Because of exposure to a wide range of chemical contaminants such as nitrate via potable water resources, the use of the approaches to set standards for drinking water quality and also to do a risk assessment is necessary for maintaining the public health. High levels of nitrate in drinking water can have adverse health effects; primarily for infants and pregnant women. So, the present study aimed to the assessment of nitrate health risk in drinking water resources of the Iranshahr city, Sistan and Baluchistan province and also, evaluation of the uncertainty of nitrate and the probability of contamination occurrence by Monte-Carlo Simulation (MCS) technique. Besides, the geographic information system (Arc GIS, Ver 10.3) was applied to mapping the nitrate concentration in groundwater resources of the studied area. For these aims, the numbers of 66 samples were collected from rural groundwater resources, and nitrate concentration was measured using a Spectrophotometer in wavelength of 220 nm. According to the results, the nitrate concentration was in the range of 6.49 mg/L, and its average level was 6.15 mg/L. Also, the simulation results with 90% confidence showed that the hazard equitant (HQ) in the infant groups, children-teenagers and adults was less than 0.331, 0.311, 0.312, and 0.3, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.07.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881658PMC
July 2019

Changing face of Candida colonization pattern in pediatric patients with hematological malignancy during repeated hospitalizations, results of a prospective observational study (2016-2017) in shiraz, Iran.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Aug 30;19(1):759. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Surveillance of current changes in the epidemiology of Invasive Fungal Diseases (IFDs) as an important component of the antifungal stewardship programs (ASP), requires careful regular monitoring, especially in high-risk settings such as oncology centers. This study aimed to examine Candida colonization status and corresponding current changes in children with malignancy during repeated admissions and also investigate the possible epidemiological shifts after the implementation of ASP.

Methods: In this prospective observational study, all eligible patients younger than 18 years were recruited during 2016-2017 at Amir Medical Oncology Center (AMOC) in Shiraz, Iran. Totally, 136 patients were enrolled and 482 samples were collected from different sites (oral/nasal discharges, urine and stool). Weekly regular sampling was carried out during hospitalization. Candida colonization status and epidemiological changes were monitored during repeated admissions. Samples were cultivated on Sabouraud Dextrose agar medium and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Estimated Candida colonization incidence was 59.9% (82/136) in our patients. Candida colonization was found to be higher in oral cavity and rectum than that in nasal cavity. Among those long-term follow ups and repetitive hospitalizations, a significant number of patients exhibited changes in their colonization patterns (37.7%). Candida colonization did not reveal any significant relationship with age, sex, oncologic diseases and degree of neutropenia. C. albicans (72.0%) was found as the most common Candida species in colonized patients, followed by C. krusei, C. kefyr, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis.

Conclusion: Given the high incidence of Candida infections in children with cancers, close monitoring of epidemiologic changes is essential for judicious management, based on local surveillance data and improvement of overall quality of care in high risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4372-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717378PMC
August 2019

Data on the trend of corrosivity and scale formation potential of Shiraz groundwater drinking water resources during 2001-2007.

Data Brief 2019 Apr 7;23:103736. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

School of Paramedical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the corrosivity and scale formation potential of groundwater drinking water resources for the time period of 2001 to 2007 in Shiraz, Iran. Chemical parameters including total alkalinity, EC, pH, temperature, and TDS of ground water resources were analyzed. Langelier saturation indices (LSI) and Ryznar stability indices (RSI) were utilized to determine the potential for corrosivity and scale formation. The data showed that Shiraz groundwater potable water resources tended more likely towards the scale formation potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2019.103736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660463PMC
April 2019

Root structural changes of two remediator plants as the first defective barrier against industrial pollution, and their hyperaccumulation ability.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Feb 9;191(3):148. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

In the present day, plants are increasingly being utilized to safeguard the environment. In this study, we used Salsola crassa M. B. and Suaeda maritima L. Dumort for phytoremediation of water contaminated with heavy metals and simultaneous examination of the effect of industrial pollution on their root structures. After irrigation of a treatment group with wastewater and a control group with fresh water for 3 months, we fixed the root parts in the FAA fixator for developmental study, and measured the concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cu, and Pb in the roots, shoots, soil, and irrigating water. The plants irrigated with wastewater showed significant accumulation of heavy metals in the roots and some translocation of heavy metals from the roots to the shoots. We also performed an experiment with two 0.3 m pools to more closely study the feasibility of these plants for filtering water of contaminants, including mineral compounds, and altering its chemical characteristics. In our anatomical studies, the cells of the treatment roots showed irregularities and abnormal appearances in all tissue layers. The diameter and area of the xylem and the size of the cortical parenchyma have increased in the treatment plants of both species, confirmed by Stereolite software. Phytoremediation studies indicated that S. crassa accumulated As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, and Ni, and S. maritima accumulated As, Co, Zn, and Cu. S. crassa accumulated more heavy metals in its roots, whereas S. maritima accumulated more in its shoots. The biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were also significantly reduced in the wastewater passed through pools with S. crassa. Our results indicate that both genera are hyperaccumulators of heavy metals and therefore hold promise for industrial wastewater treatment, especially the absorption of As.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7240-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Data on heavy metal concentration in common carp fish consumed in Shiraz, Iran.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 14;21:1890-1894. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran.

Food contamination by heavy metals can lead to the accumulation of these elements in the body of consumers and the contraction of diseases. Accordingly, heavy metal concentration in common carp fishes consumed in Shiraz, Iran was determined in the present study. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu were 0.23, 0.07, 0.47, and 0.59 mg/kg (dry weight), respectively. The average concentration of heavy metals in the muscle of common carps consumed in Shiraz was less than the permissible standard of the WHO and FAO. The estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the studied metals was below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The maximum and minimum relative risk (RR) equaled 48.93 and 0.55% of the total risk for Cd and Zn, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.11.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6260411PMC
December 2018

Concentration and type of bioaerosols before and after conventional disinfection and sterilization procedures inside hospital operating rooms.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 17;164:277-282. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Operating rooms (ORs) in hospitals are sensitive wards because patients can get infections. This work aimed to characterize the type and concentration of bioaerosols in nine ORs of an educational hospital before and after sterilization and disinfection. During 2017, fungal samples were incubated at 25-28 °C for 3-7 days and bacterial samples at 37 °C for 24-48 h. The study results showed that the concentrations of fungi before cleaning procedures (for both of disinfection and sterilization) were limited from 4.83 to 18.40 CFU/m and after cleaning procedures ranged from 1.90 to 8.90 CFU/m. In addition, the concentrations of bacteria before cleaning procedures were limited 14.65-167.40 CFU/m and after cleaning procedures ranged from 9.50 to 38.40 CFU/m. The difference between the mean concentrations of airborne bioaerosols before and after sterilization was significantly different than the suggested value of 30 CFU/m (p ≤ 0.05). The bacterial concentration was higher than the recommended value (30 CFU/m) in 41% of the ORs. The main fungal species identified in the indoor air of ORs (before vs. after sterilization) were A. fumigatus (25.6 vs. 18.3%), A. Niger (11.6 vs. 5.8%), Penicillium spp. (5.5 vs. 3.3%), Alternaria spp. (2.8 vs. 0.7%), Fusarium spp. (9.7 vs. 3.7%), Mucor spp. (15 vs. 12.7%), Cephalotrichum spp. (1.7 vs. 0.8%), A. Flavus (24.6 vs. 18.5%), Cladosporium spp. (2.6 vs. 0.8%), and Trichoderma spp. (0 vs. 0.9%). The growth of biological species even after sterilization and disinfection likely resulted from factors including poor ventilation, sweeping of OR floors, inadequate HVAC filtration, high humidity, and also lack of optimum management of infectious waste after surgery. Designing well-constructed ventilation and air-conditioning systems, replacing HEPA filters, implementing more stringent, frequent, and comprehensive disinfection procedures, and controlling temperature and humidity can help decrease bioaerosols in ORs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.08.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151147PMC
November 2018

Corrigendum to "Characteristics and health effects of BTEX in a hot spot for urban pollution" [Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 155 (2018) 133-143].

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 11 31;163:686. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.07.095DOI Listing
November 2018

Characteristics and health effects of BTEX in a hot spot for urban pollution.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Jul 3;155:133-143. Epub 2018 Mar 3.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

This study reports a spatiotemporal characterization of toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes concentrations (BTEX) in an urban hot spot in Iran, specifically at an bus terminal region in Shiraz. Sampling was carried out according to NIOSH Compendium Method 1501. The inverse distance weighting (IDW) method was applied for spatial mapping. The Monte Carlo simulation technique was applied to evaluate carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk owing to BTEX exposure. The highest average BTEX concentrations were observed for benzene in the morning (at 7:00-9:00 A.M. local time) (26.15 ± 17.65 µg/m) and evening (at 6:00-8:00 P.M. local time) (34.44 ± 15.63 µg/m). The benzene to toluene ratios in the morning and evening were 2.02 and 3.07, respectively. The main sources of BTEX were gas stations and a municipal solid waste transfer station. The inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) for benzene in the morning and evening were 1.96 × 10 and 2.49 × 10, respectively, which exceeds the recommended value by US EPA and WHO. The hazard quotient (HQ) of all these pollutants was less than 1. The results of this work have implications for public health near 'hot spots' such as IKBT where large populations are exposed to carcinogenic emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.02.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5916771PMC
July 2018

Biodegradation of atrazine from wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor under nitrate-reducing conditions: A kinetic study.

J Environ Manage 2018 Apr 22;212:506-513. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study employed an anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (AnMBBR) to evaluate the effects of hydraulic and toxic shocks on performance reactor. The results indicated a relatively good resistance of system against exercised shocks and its ability to return to steady-state conditions. In optimal conditions when there was the maximum rate of atrazine and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were 74.82% and 99.29% respectively. Also, atrazine biodegradation rapidly declines in AnMBBR from 74% ± 0.05 in the presence of nitrate to 9.12% only 3 days after the nitrate was eliding from the influent. Coefficients kinetics was studied and the maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by modified Stover & Kincannon model (U = 9.87 g/md). Results showed that AnMBBR is feasible, easy, affordable, so suitable process for efficiently biodegrading toxic chlorinated organic compounds such as atrazine. Also, its removal mechanism in this system is co-metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.043DOI Listing
April 2018

Land use change and conversion effects on ground water quality trends: An integration of land change modeler in GIS and a new Ground Water Quality Index developed by fuzzy multi-criteria group decision-making models.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Apr 14;114:204-214. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Blvd Keshavarz, St Poursina, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study aggregated Land Change Modeller (LCM) as a useful model in GIS with an extended Groundwater Quality Index (GWQI) developed by fuzzy Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models to investigate the effect of land use change and conversion on groundwater quality being supplied for drinking. The model's performance was examined through an applied study in Shiraz, Iran, in a five year period (2011 to 2015). Four land use maps including urban, industrial, garden, and bare were employed in LCM model and the impact of change in area and their conversion to each other on GWQI changes was analysed. The correlation analysis indicated that increase in the urban land use area and conversion of bare to the residential/industrial land uses, had a relation with water quality decrease. Integration of LCM and GWQI can accurately and logically provide a numerical analysis of the possible impact of land use change and conversion, as one of the influencing factors, on the groundwater quality. Hence, the methodology could be used in urban development planning and management in macro level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.025DOI Listing
April 2018

Evaluation of kenaf fibers as moving bed biofilm carriers in algal membrane photobioreactor.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 May 30;152:1-7. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

In this lab-scale study, the feasibility of using kenaf fibers as moving bed biofilm carriers in hybrid microalgal membrane photobioreactors (HMPBR) in organic matter and atrazine elimination from real secondary effluent was evaluated. For evaluating the kinetics of biofilm substrate consumption, an experimental model was proposed. Inoculation of wastewater samples with free carriers resulted in the greater removal of target pollutants. Removal efficiency of atrazine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased to 27% and 16%, with respect to the control, respectively. The total biomass accumulation in HMPBR exceeded 5g/L, and the microalgae tended to aggregate and attached to biofilm carriers. The removal efficiency of HMPBR improved significantly via inoculation of kenaf fiber carriers with bioremediation microalgal strains (p < 0.01). A lower stabilization ratio (VSS/TSS) was also recorded. The biomass in HMPBR included more lipids and carbohydrates. The results revealed that kenaf fibers could improve and upgrade the biological activity of different wastewater treatment applications, considering the great potential of biofilm carriers and their effluent quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.01.024DOI Listing
May 2018

Direct red 81 adsorption on iron filings from aqueous solutions; kinetic and isotherm studies.

Environ Technol 2019 May 31;40(13):1705-1713. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

a Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health , Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz , Iran.

Direct Red 81 (DR-81) dye with a very high water solubility is widely used in many industries particularly textile industries. This study aimed to evaluate the practicability of using iron filings for the adsorption of DR-81 dye from the aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, adsorbent dose, initial DR-81 dye concentration, and adsorption time on adsorption process were also evaluated. The maximum of adsorption efficiency of DR-81 dye achieved in the optimum pH: 3, adsorbent dose: 2.5 g/L, contact time: 30 min, and initial dye concentration: 50 mg/L. The dye adsorption efficiency is increased by increasing the adsorbent dose and adsorption time. The kinetic and isotherm studies indicated that the adsorption process obeys a pseudo-first-order and Langmuir isotherm models. The experimental studies indicated that iron filings had the potential to act as an alternative adsorbent to remove the DR-81 dye from an aqueous solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2018.1428228DOI Listing
May 2019

Simultaneous removal of atrazine and organic matter from wastewater using anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor: A performance analysis.

J Environ Manage 2018 Mar 8;209:515-524. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

In this study, an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was designed to biodegrade atrazine under mesophilic (32 °C) condition and then it was evaluated for approximately 1 year. After biofilm formation, acclimation, and enrichment of microbial population within the bioreactor, the effect of various operation conditions such as changes in the concentration of influent atrazine and sucrose, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and salinity on the removal of atrazine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were studied. In optimum conditions, the maximum removal efficiency of atrazine and COD was 60.5% and 97.4%, respectively. Various models were developed to predict the performance of atrazine removal as a function of HRT during continuous digestion. Also, coefficients kinetics was studied and the maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by Stover - Kincannon model (r = 0.223 kg/md). Increasing salinity up to 20 g/L NaCl in influent flow could inhibit atrazine biodegradation process strongly in the AMBBR reactor; whereas, the reactor could tolerate the concentrations less than 20 g/L easily. Results showed that AMBBR is feasible, easy, affordable, so suitable process for efficiently biodegrading toxic chlorinated organic compounds such as atrazine. There was no accumulation of atrazine in the biofilm and the loss of atrazine in the control reactor was negligible; this shows that atrazine removal mechanism in this system was due to co-metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.081DOI Listing
March 2018

Studies on influence of process parameters on simultaneous biodegradation of atrazine and nutrients in aquatic environments by a membrane photobioreactor.

Environ Res 2018 02;161:599-608

Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4 Allée Emile Monso, F31432 Toulouse, France.

A Lab scale algal-bacterial membrane photobioreactor (MPBR) was designed and operated under 12-h light and 12-h dark conditions with a light intensity of 8000lx, in order to investigate the effects of initial concentrations of atrazine, carbon concentration, and hydraulic retention time on the ability of this photobioreactor in simultaneous removal of atrazine and nutrients in the continuous mode. The removal efficiencies of atrazine (ATZ), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphorus (PO-P) and nitrogen (NOx) in optimum condition was more than 95%, 99%, 98% and 97% when the maximum removal rates were 9.5 × 10, 99.231, 11.773 and 7.762mg/L-day, respectively. Results showed that the quality of the effluent was reduced by the increase of atrazine concentration. The outcomes on the hydraulic and toxic shocks indicated that the system has a relatively good resistance to the shocks and can return to the stable conditions. Microalgae showed a great deal of interest and capability in cultivating and attaching to the surface of the membrane and bioreactor, and the total biomass accumulated in the system was greater than 6g/L. The kinetic coefficients of atrazine removal were also studied using various kinetic models. The maximum atrazine removal rate was determined by the modified Stover-Kincannon model. The results approved the ability of the MPBR reactor in wastewater treatment and microalgae cultivation and growth. The decline of atrazine concentration in this system could be attributed to the algal-bacterial symbiosis and co-metabolism process. Accordingly, the MPBR reactor is a practical, simple, economical and therefore suitable process for simultaneous biodegradation of chlorinated organic compounds and nutrients removal from aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.11.045DOI Listing
February 2018

A new recycling technique for the waste tires reuse.

Environ Res 2017 10 7;158:462-469. Epub 2017 Jul 7.

Environmental and Food Hygiene Laboratories (LIAA), Department of Medical, Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, Italy.

In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using fixed bed biofilm carriers (FBBC) manufactured from existing reclaimed waste tires (RWTs) for wastewater treatment was evaluated. To assess polyamide yarn waste tires as a media, the fixed bed sequence batch reactor (FBSBR) was evaluated under different organic loading rate (OLRs). An experimental model was used to study the kinetics of substrate consumption in biofilm. Removal efficiency of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ranged by 76-98% for the FBSBR compared to 71-96% in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Removal efficiency of FBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these RWTs carriers. The results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y) was significantly less in the FBSBR compared to the SBR (p < 0.01). It also produced less sludge and recorded a lower stabilization ratio (VSS/TSS). The findings show that the Stover-Kincannon model was the best fit (R > 99%) in a FBSBR. Results from this study suggest that RWTs to support biological activity for a variety of wastewater treatment applications as a biofilm carrier have high potential that better performance as COD and TSS removal and sludge settling properties and effluent quality supported these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.07.003DOI Listing
October 2017

Characterisation and potential source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particles (PM) from urban and suburban residential areas in Shiraz, Iran.

Chemosphere 2017 Sep 16;183:557-564. Epub 2017 May 16.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a generally hazardous class of organic compounds that are identified as toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, and are considered to be a concern for human health because of their potential for causing adverse health effects. The present study aims to determine the atmospheric concentration and potential sources of particulate-bound PAHs in urban and suburban atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) in Shiraz, Iran. Ambient air samples were collected from urban and suburban areas using a SKC sampling pump equipped with a size-selective air intake during the spring of 2015. The mean PM10 concentration at the urban station (62.73 ± 23.38 μg m) was higher than that at the suburban station (60.88 ± 31.03 μg m). The mean (±SD) concentrations of the 16 total PAHs in the particulate phase were 19.28 ± 7.48 ng mand 17.80 ± 9.17 ng m at the urban and suburban stations, respectively. Among different types of PAHs, phenanthrene had the highest concentration in both stations. Various diagnostic ratios have been suggested, which were used in this study for identification of PAHs' sources. The results of these diagnostics showed that in Shiraz, the most dominant sources of PAHs were traffic emissions, especially vehicle emissions and petroleum automobiles emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.101DOI Listing
September 2017

The effects of air pollutants on the mortality rate of lung cancer and leukemia.

Mol Med Rep 2017 May 24;15(5):3390-3397. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Environmental and Food Hygiene Laboratories (LIAA), Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies 'G.F. Ingrassia', Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

World Health Organization classifies air pollution as the first cause of human cancer. The present study investigated impact of air pollutants on the mortality rates of lung cancer and leukemia in Shiraz, one of the largests cities of Iran. This cross‑sectional (longitudinal) study was carried out in Shiraz. Data on six main pollutants, CO, SO2, O3, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, were collected from Fars Environmental Protection Agency for 3,001 days starting from 1 January, 2005. Also, measures of climatic factors (temperature, humidity, and air pressure) were obtained from Shiraz Meteorological Organization. Finally, data related to number of deaths due to lung and blood cancers (leukemia) were gathered from Shiraz University Hospital. Relationship between variations of pollutant concentrations and cancers in lung and blood was investigated using statistical software R and MiniTab to perform time series analysis. Results of the present study revealed that the mortality rate of leukemia had a direct significant correlation with concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide in the air (P<0.05). Therefore, special attention should be paid to sources of these pollutants and we need better management to decrease air pollutant concentrations through, e.g., using clean energy respect to fossil fuels, better management of urban traffic planning, and the improvement of public transport service and car sharing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.6387DOI Listing
May 2017

Photocatalytic degradation of atrazine herbicide with Illuminated Fe-TiO Nanoparticles.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2017 14;15. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Environmental Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Atrazine is a herbicide that is widely used to control broadleaf and grassy weeds for growing many crops especially in maize production. It is a frequently detected herbicide in many groundwater resources. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using ultraviolet radiation UV and fortified nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO) doped with trivalent iron to remove atrazine from aqueous phase and determin the removal efficiency under the optimal conditions.

Results: The results of this study demonstrated that the maximum atrazine removal rate was at pH = 11 in the presence of Fe-TiO catalyst =25 mg/L and the initial concentration of atrazine equal to 10 mg/L. As the reaction time increased, the removal rate of herbicide increased as well. Atrazine removal rate was enhanced by the effect of UV radiation on catalyst activation in Fe-TiO/UV process. It was also revealed that pH has no significant effect on atrazine removal efficiency ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: Based on the data obtained in this study, atrazine removal efficiency was increased by increasing pH, initial atrazine concentration, catalyst, and contact time. The results also showed Fe-TiO/UV process was an appropriate method to reduce atrazine in contaminated water resources. In conclusion, Fe-TiO/UV process may enhance the rate of atrazine reduction in highly polluted water resources (more than 99%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40201-017-0270-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5348812PMC
March 2017

Biological monitoring of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene by PAHs exposure among primary school students in Shiraz, Iran.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2017 Feb 12;90(2):179-187. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Aim Of Study: This research aimed to estimate PAHs exposure in primary school students and determine its association with other PAHs-related factors.

Materials And Methods: In total, 120 male primary school students (9-12 years old) were randomly selected from urban and suburban areas in Shiraz. The parents were required to complete a questionnaire including information about second-hand smoke exposure, residential traffic density, daily diet, and walking or being driven to school. High-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was also used to analyze urinary 1-OHP. t test, ANOVA (with Ducan's post hoc test), and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the relationship between quantitative and qualitative variables and urinary 1-OHP concentration.

Results: The range and geometric mean of the creatinine-corrected 1-OHP levels were 120-6950 and 1460 ng/g creatinine, respectively. Besides, 1-OHP levels were higher among the children with smoker parents compared to those having non-smoker parents. The results also revealed a correlation between the duration of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and 1-OHP concentration. This correlation was also observed for daily uptake of smoked or grilled foods. However, traffic congestion did not have any significant effects on 1-OHP levels. PAHs are commonly present in Iranian diet. As a result, the weekly intake of dietary PAHs was the most effective predictor of PAHs exposure in the study population.

Conclusion: Due to adverse health effects of PAHs on humans, especially children, more extensive studies are required to identify the sources that contribute to environmental PAHs exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00420-016-1184-9DOI Listing
February 2017

GIS-assisted dispersion of SO2 in the industrial regions.

Pak J Biol Sci 2014 Jun;17(6):843-8

Sulfur dioxide is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas which cause respiratory problems and acid rain. The aim of this research is to study the feasibility of using passive diffusive air sampling and GIS technique to determine the dispersion level of SO2 in the industrialized Zarghan area and assessing the contribution level of generating sources of SO2 in the urban areas. It is also essential to determine the contribution of other sources and dispersion radius of pollutants in the area as well. In this study, we used passive sampling method to measure the concentration of sulfur dioxide at 10 monitoring stations. Interpolation tools in ArcGIS technique create a continuous surface from measured values to predict SO2 concentration in other parts of the city. The concentrations of SO2 around Shiraz oil refinery and Dudej region located at 3 km from the oil refinery were 60 and 19 μg m(-3), respectively. In conclusion the results indicated that SO2 concentration was not exceeded the standard limit in the residential area and the role of the local highway and industrial park was not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2014.843.848DOI Listing
June 2014

Survey on air pollution and cardiopulmonary mortality in shiraz from 2011 to 2012: an analytical-descriptive study.

Int J Prev Med 2014 Jun;5(6):734-40

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Expanding cities with rapid economic development has resulted in increased energy consumption leading to numerous environmental problems for their residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between air pollution and mortality rate due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Shiraz.

Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study in which the correlation between major air pollutants (including carbon monoxide [CO], sulfur dioxide [SO2], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and particle matter with a diameter of less than 10 μ [PM10]) and climatic parameters (temperature and relative humidity) with the number of those whom expired from cardiopulmonary disease in Shiraz from March 2011 to January 2012 was investigated. Data regarding the concentration of air pollutants were determined by Shiraz Environmental Organization. Information about climatic parameters was collected from the database of Iran's Meteorological Organization. The number of those expired from cardiopulmonary disease in Shiraz were provided by the Department of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. We used non-parametric correlation test to analyze the relationship between these parameters.

Results: The results demonstrated that in all the recorded data, the average monthly pollutants standard index (PSI) values of PM10 were higher than standard limits, while the average monthly PSI value of NO2 were lower than standard. There was no significant relationship between the number of those expired from cardiopulmonary disease and the air pollutant (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Air pollution can aggravate chronic cardiopulmonary disease. In the current study, one of the most important air pollutants in Shiraz was the PM10 component. Mechanical processes, such as wind blowing from neighboring countries, is the most important parameter increasing PM10 in Shiraz to alarming conditions. The average monthly variation in PSI values of air pollutants such as NO2, CO, and SO2 were lower than standard limits. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the average monthly variation in PSI of NO2, CO, PM10, and SO2 and the number of those expired from cardiopulmonary disease in Shiraz.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4085926PMC
June 2014

Optimizing photo-Fenton like process for the removal of diesel fuel from the aqueous phase.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 23;12:87. Epub 2014 May 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: In recent years, pollution of soil and groundwater caused by fuel leakage from old underground storage tanks, oil extraction process, refineries, fuel distribution terminals, improper disposal and also spills during transferring has been reported. Diesel fuel has created many problems for water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the feasibility of using photo-Fenton like method using nano zero-valent iron (nZVI/UV/H2O2) in removing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and determining the optimal conditions using Taguchi method.

Results: The influence of different parameters including the initial concentration of TPH (0.1-1 mg/L), H2O2 concentration (5-20 mmole/L), nZVI concentration (10-100 mg/L), pH (3-9), and reaction time (15-120 min) on TPH reduction rate in diesel fuel were investigated. The variance analysis suggests that the optimal conditions for TPH reduction rate from diesel fuel in the aqueous phase are as follows: the initial TPH concentration equals to 0.7 mg/L, nZVI concentration 20 mg/L, H2O2 concentration equals to 5 mmol/L, pH 3, and the reaction time of 60 min and degree of significance for the study parameters are 7.643, 9.33, 13.318, 15.185 and 6.588%, respectively. The predicted removal rate in the optimal conditions was 95.8% and confirmed by data obtained in this study which was between 95-100%.

Conclusion: In conclusion, photo-Fenton like process using nZVI process may enhance the rate of diesel degradation in polluted water and could be used as a pretreatment step for the biological removal of TPH from diesel fuel in the aqueous phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-12-87DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4045957PMC
June 2014

Removal of penicillin G from aqueous phase by Fe+3-TiO2/UV-A process.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 Mar 5;12(1):56. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Anomalous use of antibiotics and their entrance into the environment have increased concerns around the world. These compounds enter the environment through an incomplete metabolism and a considerable amount of them cannot be removed using conventional wastewater treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of this research are evaluation of the feasibility of using ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) and fortified nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) doped with Fe+3 to remove penicillin G (PENG) from aqueous phase and determining the optimum conditions for maximum removal efficiency.

Results: The results showed that the maximum removal rate of penicillin G occurred in acidic pH (pH = 3) in the presence of 90 mg/L Fe+3-TiO2 catalyst. In addition, an increase in pH caused a decrease in penicillin G removal rate. As the initial concentration of penicillin G increased, the removal rate of antibiotic decreased. Moreover, due to the effect of UV on catalyst activation in Fe+3-TiO2/UV-A process, a significant increase was observed in the rate of antibiotic removal. All of the variables in the process had a statistically significant effect (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the antibiotic removal rate increased by decreasing pH and increasing the amount of catalyst and contact time. In conclusion, Fe+3-TiO2/UV-A process is an appropriate method for reducing penicillin G in polluted water resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-12-56DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973869PMC
March 2014

The effects of Fenton process on the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons from oily sludge in Shiraz oil refinery, Iran.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 Jan 14;12(1):31. Epub 2014 Jan 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Due to the high concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in oily sludge and their environmental hazards, the concern regarding their effects on health and the environment has increased. The main objective of this research was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using Fenton process in removing TPH in oily sludge from Shiraz oil refinery, Southern Iran.

Results: To determine optimum conditions, four different parameters were assessed at four different levels using Taguchi method. According to data, the optimum conditions were as follows: the reaction time of 1 hour, H2O2 to sample mass ratio of 15, H2O2 to Fe (II) molar ratio of 10 and pH of 5. The maximum TPH reduction rate was 36.47%. Because of the semi-solid nature of the sample and the hydroxyl radicals mainly generated in the aqueous solution, TPH reduction rate greatly improved by adding water. Ultimately, by adding 40 ml water per gram of the oily sludge under optimized conditions, the reduction rate of 73.07% was achieved.

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that this method can be used as a pre-treatment method for the oily sludge. Moreover, a complementary treatment is necessary to reach the standard limit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-12-31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896717PMC
January 2014

Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide in the aqueous phase using modified granular activated carbon.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2014 Jan 10;12(1):28. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Low cost 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) widely used in controlling broad-leafed weeds is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on evaluating the feasibility of using granular activated carbon modified with acid to remove 2,4-D from aqueous phase, determining its removal efficiency and assessing the adsorption kinetics.

Results: The present study was conducted at bench-scale method. The influence of different pH (3-9), the effect of contact time (3-90 min), the amount of adsorbent (0.1-0.4 g), and herbicide initial concentration (0.5-3 ppm) on 2,4-D removal efficiency by the granular activated carbon were investigated. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 3 and contact time of 60 min is optimal for 2,4-D removal. 2,4-D reduction rate increased rapidly by the addition of the adsorbent and decreased by herbicide initial concentration (63%). The percent of 2,4-D reduction were significantly enhanced by decreasing pH and increasing the contact time. The adsorption of 2,4-D onto the granular activated carbon conformed to Langmuir and Freundlich models, but was best fitted to type II Langmuir model (R2 = 0.999). The second order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of 2,4-D by modified granular activated carbon with R2 > 0.99. Regression analysis showed that all of the variables in the process have been statistically significant effect (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In conclusion, granular activated carbon modified with acid is an appropriate method for reducing the herbicide in the polluted water resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2052-336X-12-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895795PMC
January 2014

A preliminary assessment of dispersion level of SO 2 in Fars industrial region, south of Iran, by GIS.

J Environ Public Health 2013 12;2013:670590. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Environmental Health Engineering Department, School of Health and Nutrition, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The city of Zarghan is located 25 km northeast of Shiraz, southern Iran. Zarghan is affected by numerous pollution sources such as oil refinery, an industrial park, and Shiraz-Tehran highway. The numerous contaminating sources around Zarghan can cause serious local air pollution. Sulfur dioxide gas is an important index of air pollution in cities. Therefore, in order to control and manage Zarghan air quality, it is important to monitor sulfur dioxide concentration in the surrounding area. It is also essential to know about the contribution level of other sources of pollution as well as dispersion radius of pollutants in the area. In this study, the concentration of sulfur dioxide was measured by passive sampling at 10 different stations. These values were interpolated in other parts of the city using ArcGIS software. The results of sampling showed that the concentration of the gas was 60 µgm(-3) around oil refinery. The level was 19 µgm(-3) in region located about 3 km from the oil refinery. It was also demonstrated that the gas concentration was not higher than the standard limit within residential area. On the other hand, the role of the local highway and industrial park was not significant in contaminating air in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/670590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3791845PMC
September 2014

Outline of changes in cortisol and melatonin circadian rhythms in the security guards of shiraz university of medical sciences.

Int J Prev Med 2013 Jul;4(7):825-30

Department of Occupational Health, School of Health and Nutrition, Research Center for Health sciences,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: According to the literature, a large number of people working in industries and service providing personnel, such as firefighters, physicians, and nurses are shift workers. The spread of shift working in industrial societies and the incidence of the problems resulting from shift working have caused the researchers to conduct studies on this issue. The present study also aimed to investigate melatonin and cortisol circadian rhythms in the security guards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Methods: The present study was conducted on 20 security guards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. In order to collect the study data, blood samples were taken from the study subjects in different times of the day (1, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, and 22) and cortisol and melatonin levels were determined using the radioimmunoassay and enzyme immunoassay techniques, respectively.

Results: The results showed that as the intensity of light increased at night, the plasma cortisol level increased, as well. Besides, no statistically significant difference was found between the plasma cortisol levels in natural light and 4500-lux light. On the other hand, a significant difference was observed between the plasma cortisol levels in natural light and 9000-lux light as well as 4500- and 9000-lux lights. The study findings also showed that as the intensity of light increased at night, the plasma melatonin level decreased. In addition, a statistically significant difference was found between the plasma melatonin levels in natural light and 4500-lux light. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed between the plasma melatonin levels in the natural light and 9000-lux light as well as 4500- and 9000-lux lights.

Conclusions: The present study aimed to investigate the subsequences of shift working in the security guards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and showed that occupational exposure to bright light could affect some biological markers, such as melatonin and cortisol secretion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3775223PMC
July 2013