Publications by authors named "Manjula Kalia"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Proteomic landscape of Japanese encephalitis virus-infected fibroblasts.

J Gen Virol 2021 Sep;102(9)

Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Advances in proteomics have enabled a comprehensive understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Here we have characterized Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection-driven changes in the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) proteome. Through tandem mass tagging (TMT)-based mass spectrometry, we describe changes in 7.85 % of the identified proteome due to JEV infection. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that proteins involved in innate immune sensing, interferon responses and inflammation were the major upregulated group, along with the immunoproteasome and poly ADP-ribosylation proteins. Functional validation of several upregulated anti-viral innate immune proteins, including an active cGAS-STING axis, was performed. Through siRNA depletion, we describe a crucial role of the DNA sensor cGAS in restricting JEV replication. Further, many interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were observed to be induced in infected cells. We also observed activation of TLR2 and inhibition of TLR2 signalling using TLR1/2 inhibitor CU-CPT22-blocked production of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF-α from virus-infected N9 microglial cells. The major proteins that were downregulated by infection were involved in cell adhesion (collagens), transport (solute carrier and ATP-binding cassette transporters), sterol and lipid biosynthesis. Several collagens were found to be transcriptionally downregulated in infected MEFs and mouse brain. Collectively, our data provide a bird's-eye view into how fibroblast protein composition is rewired following JEV infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001657DOI Listing
September 2021

Inhibition of IRGM establishes a robust antiviral immune state to restrict pathogenic viruses.

EMBO Rep 2021 Sep 1:e52948. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Cell Biology and Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Infectious Disease Biology, Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.

The type I interferon (IFN) response is the major host arsenal against invading viruses. IRGM is a negative regulator of IFN responses under basal conditions. However, the role of human IRGM during viral infection has remained unclear. In this study, we show that IRGM expression is increased upon viral infection. IFN responses induced by viral PAMPs are negatively regulated by IRGM. Conversely, IRGM depletion results in a robust induction of key viral restriction factors including IFITMs, APOBECs, SAMHD1, tetherin, viperin, and HERC5/6. Additionally, antiviral processes such as MHC-I antigen presentation and stress granule signaling are enhanced in IRGM-deficient cells, indicating a robust cell-intrinsic antiviral immune state. Consistently, IRGM-depleted cells are resistant to the infection with seven viruses from five different families, including Togaviridae, Herpesviridae, Flaviviverdae, Rhabdoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Moreover, we show that Irgm1 knockout mice are highly resistant to chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Altogether, our work highlights IRGM as a broad therapeutic target to promote defense against a large number of human viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, CHIKV, and Zika virus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202152948DOI Listing
September 2021

Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I-Like Receptors Activate Snail To Limit RNA Viral Infections.

J Virol 2021 Oct 11;95(21):e0121621. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India.

Retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) are important cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense viral RNA before mounting a response leading to the activation of type I IFNs. Several viral infections induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), even as its significance remains unclear. Here, we show that EMT or an EMT-like process is a general response to viral infections. Our studies identify a previously unknown mechanism of regulation of an important EMT-transcription factor (EMT-TF) Snail during RNA viral infections and describe its possible implication. RNA viral infections, poly(I·C) transfection, and ectopic expression of RLR components induced Snail levels, indicating that RLR pathway could regulate its expression. Detailed examination using mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein knockout (MAVS-KO) cells established that MAVS is essential in this regulation. We identified two interferon-stimulated response elements (ISREs) in the promoter region and demonstrated that they are important in its transcriptional activation by phosphorylated IRF3. Increasing the levels of Snail activated RLR pathway and dramatically limited replication of the RNA viruses dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and vesicular stomatitis virus, pointing to their antiviral functions. Knockdown of Snail resulted in a considerable increase in the JEV titer, validating its antiviral functions. Finally, transforming growth factor β-mediated activation was dependent on Snail levels, confirming its important role in type I IFN activation. Thus, EMT-TF Snail is transcriptionally coregulated with type I IFN by RLRs and, in turn, promotes the RLR pathway, further strengthening the antiviral state in the cell. Our work identified an interesting mechanism of regulation of Snail that demonstrates potential coregulation of multiple innate antiviral pathways triggered by RLRs. Identification of antiviral functions of Snail also provides an opportunity to expand the sphere of RLR signaling. RLRs sense viral genomic RNA or the double-stranded RNA intermediates and trigger the activation of type I IFNs. Snail transcription factor, commonly associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), has been reported to facilitate EMT in several viral infections. Many of these reports are based on oncoviruses, leading to the speculation that EMT induced during infection is an important factor in the oncogenesis triggered by these infections. However, our studies reveal that EMT or EMT-like processes during viral infections have important functions in antiviral response. We have characterized a new mechanism of transcriptional regulation of Snail by IRF3 through interferon-stimulated response elements in their promoters, and this finding could have importance in nonviral contexts as well. We also identify that EMT-TF Snail promotes antiviral status of the infected cells through the RLR pathway. This study characterizes a new regulatory mechanism of activation of Snail and establishes its unidentified function in antiviral response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01216-21DOI Listing
October 2021

Pathobiology of Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

Mol Aspects Med 2021 Oct 15;81:100994. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Virology Research Group, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India. Electronic address:

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus, spread by the bite of carrier Culex mosquitoes. The subsequent disease caused is Japanese encephalitis (JE), which is the leading global cause of virus-induced encephalitis. The disease is predominant in the entire Asia-Pacific region with the potential of global spread. JEV is highly neuroinvasive with symptoms ranging from mild fever to severe encephalitis and death. One-third of JE infections are fatal, and half of the survivors develop permanent neurological sequelae. Disease prognosis is determined by a series of complex and intertwined signaling events dictated both by the virus and the host. All flaviviruses, including JEV replicate in close association with ER derived membranes by channelizing the protein and lipid components of the ER. This leads to activation of acute stress responses in the infected cell-oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy. The host innate immune and inflammatory responses also enter the fray, the components of which are inextricably linked to the cellular stress responses. These are especially crucial in the periphery for dendritic cell maturation and establishment of adaptive immunity. The pathogenesis of JEV is a combination of direct virus induced neuronal cell death and an uncontrolled neuroinflammatory response. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the JEV life cycle and how the cellular stress responses dictate the pathobiology and resulting immune response. We also deliberate on how modulation of these stress pathways could be a potential strategy to develop therapeutic interventions, and define the persisting challenges.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2021.100994DOI Listing
October 2021

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infected Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Activate a Transcriptional Network Leading to an Antiviral Inflammatory Response.

Front Immunol 2021 17;12:638694. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, Faridabad, India.

A comprehensive understanding of the human immune response to virus infection is imperative for developing effective therapies, antivirals, and vaccines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells to encounter the virus and are also key antigen-presenting cells that link the innate and adaptive immune system. In this study, we focus on the human immune response to the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is the leading cause of virus-induced encephalitis in south-east Asia and has the potential to become a global pathogen. We describe the gene regulatory circuit of JEV infection in human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) along with its functional validation. We observe that JEV can productively infect human moDCs leading to robust transcriptional activation of the interferon and NF-κB-mediated antiviral and inflammatory pathways. This is accompanied with DC maturation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, MCP-1. and RANTES. JEV-infected moDCs activated T-regulatory cells (Tregs) in allogenic mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) as seen by upregulated FOXP3 mRNA expression, suggestive of a host response to reduce virus-induced immunopathology. The virus also downregulated transcripts involved in Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) signalling and fatty acid metabolism pathways suggesting that changes in cellular metabolism play a crucial role in driving the DC maturation and antiviral responses. Collectively, our data describe and corroborate the human DC transcriptional network that is engaged upon JEV sensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.638694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247639PMC
June 2021

Valosin-containing protein/p97 plays critical roles in the Japanese encephalitis virus life cycle.

J Virol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad-121001, India

Host factors provide critical support for every aspect of the virus life cycle. We recently identified the valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97, an abundant cellular ATPase with diverse cellular functions, as a host factor important for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) replication. In cultured cells, using siRNA-mediated protein depletion and pharmacological inhibitors, we show that VCP is crucial for replication of three flaviviruses: JEV, Dengue, and West Nile viruses. An FDA-approved VCP inhibitor, CB-5083, extended survival of mice in the animal model of JEV infection. While VCP depletion did not inhibit JEV attachment on cells, it delayed capsid degradation, potentially through the entrapment of the endocytosed virus in clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Early during infection, VCP-depleted cells showed an increased colocalization of JEV capsid with clathrin, and also higher viral RNA levels in purified CCVs. We show that VCP interacts with the JEV nonstructural protein NS5 and is an essential component of the virus replication complex. The depletion of the major VCP cofactor UFD-1 also significantly inhibited JEV replication. Mechanistically, thus, VCP affected two crucial steps of the JEV life cycle - nucleocapsid release and RNA replication. Our study establishes VCP as a common host factor with a broad antiviral potential against flaviviruses.JEV is the leading cause of viral encephalitis epidemics in South-east Asia, affecting majorly children with high morbidity and mortality. Identification of host factors is thus essential for the rational design of anti-virals that are urgently need as therapeutics. Here we have identified the VCP protein as one such host-factor. This protein is highly abundant in cells and engages in diverse functions and cellular pathways by its ability to interact with different co-factors. Using siRNA mediated protein knockdown, we show that this protein is essential for release of the viral RNA into the cell so that it can initiate replication. The protein plays a second crucial role for the formation of the JEV replication complex. FDA-approved drugs targeting VCP show enhanced mouse survival in JE model of disease, suggesting that this could be a druggable target for flavivirus infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02336-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139707PMC
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Japanese encephalitis virus capsid protein interacts with non-lipidated MAP1LC3 on replication membranes and lipid droplets.

J Gen Virol 2021 01 23;102(1). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1LC3) is a protein with a well-defined function in autophagy, but still incompletely understood roles in several other autophagy-independent processess. Studies have shown MAP1LC3 is a host-dependency factor for the replication of several viruses. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, replicates on ER-derived membranes that are marked by autophagosome-negative non-lipidated MAP1LC3 (LC3-I). Depletion of LC3 exerts a profound inhibition on virus replication and egress. Here, we further characterize the role of LC3 in JEV replication, and through immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation show that LC3-I interacts with the virus capsid protein in infected cells. This association was observed on capsid localized to both the replication complex and lipid droplets (LDs). JEV infection decreased the number of LDs per cell indicating a link between lipid metabolism and virus replication. This capsid-LC3 interaction was independent of the autophagy adaptor protein p62/Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1). Further, no association of capsid was seen with the Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein family, suggesting that this interaction was specific for LC3. High-resolution protein-protein docking studies identified a putative LC3-interacting region in capsid, FTAL and other key residues that could mediate a direct interaction between the two proteins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001508DOI Listing
January 2021

Proteins involved in actin filament organization are key host factors for Japanese encephalitis virus life-cycle in human neuronal cells.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 12;149:104565. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Vaccine & Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India; Regional Centre for Biotechnology, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Multiple membrane trafficking networks operate in the eukaryotic cell and are hijacked by viruses to establish infection. Recent studied have highlighted that viruses can exploit distinct pathways depending on the cell type. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a neurotropic flavivirus, can infect neuronal cells through a clathrin-independent endocytic mechanism. To further characterize the membrane trafficking requirements for JEV infection of neuronal cells, we have performed a RNA interference-based study targeting 136 proteins in the human cell line IMR-32. Through quantitative RT-PCR and plaque assays we have validated that JEV infection in neuronal cells was independent of clathrin, and identified host-factors that were crucial for establishment of infection. Several of these proteins were involved in regulation of actin filament organization such as RHOA, RAC1, proteins of the ARP2/3 complex and N-WASP family, LIMK1, PAK1 and ROCK2. The small molecule inhibitors of ARP2/3 complex, CK-548 and of the N-WASP, Wiskostatin inhibited virus replication highlighting the important roles of these proteins in the virus life-cycle. We also identified ATG12, BECN1, VAPA, VAPB and VCP proteins as crucial host-factors for JEV replication across epithelial and neuronal cell lineages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104565DOI Listing
December 2020

Synergistic antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of nisin like bacteriocin with curcumin and cinnamaldehyde against ESBL and MBL producing clinical strains.

Biofouling 2020 07 9;36(6):710-724. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Biotechnology, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida, India.

Bacteriocins are small peptides that can inhibit the growth of a diverse range of microbes. There is a need to identify bacteriocins that are effective against biofilms of resistant clinical strains. The present study focussed on the efficacy of purified nisin like bacteriocin-GAM217 against extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing clinical strains. Bacteriocin-GAM217 when combined with curcumin and cinnamaldehyde, synergistically enhanced antibacterial activity against planktonic and biofilm cultures of and . Bacteriocin-GAM217 and phytochemical combinations inhibited biofilm formation by >80%, and disrupted the biofilm for selected ESBL and MBL producing clinical strains. The anti-adhesion assay showed that these combinatorial compounds significantly lowered the attachment of bacteria to cells and that they elicited membrane permeability and rapid killing as viewed by confocal microscopy. This study demonstrates that bacteriocin-GAM217 in combination with phytochemicals can be a potential anti-biofilm agent and thus has potential for biomedical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2020.1804553DOI Listing
July 2020

Quantitative Proteome Analysis of -Deficient Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts Reveals the Range of the Autophagy-Modulated Basal Cellular Proteome.

mSystems 2019 Nov 5;4(6). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Basal autophagy is crucial for maintenance of cellular homeostasis. ATG5 is an essential protein for autophagosome formation, and its depletion has been extensively used as a tool to disrupt autophagy. Here, we characterize the impact of deficiency on the cellular proteome of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Using a tandem mass tagging (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics analysis, we observe that 14% of identified proteins show dysregulated levels in MEFs. These proteins were distributed across diverse biological processes, such as cell adhesion, development, differentiation, transport, metabolism, and immune responses. Several of the upregulated proteins were receptors involved in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, JAK-STAT signaling, junction adhesion, and interferon/cytokine-receptor interactions and were validated as autophagy substrates. Nearly equal numbers of proteins, including several lysosomal proteins and enzymes, were downregulated, suggesting a complex role of autophagy/ATG5 in regulating their levels. The MEFs had lower levels of key immune sensors and effectors, including Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, MLKL, and STAT1/3/5/6, which were restored by reexpression of ATG5. While these cells could efficiently mount a type I interferon response to the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mimic poly(I·C), they were compromised in their inflammatory response to the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CSK4. Transcriptional activation and secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in these cells could be recovered by ATG5 expression, supporting the role of autophagy in the TLR2-induced inflammatory response. This study provides a key resource for understanding the effect of autophagy/ATG5 deficiency on the fibroblast proteome. Autophagy performs housekeeping functions for cells and maintains a functional mode by degrading damaged proteins and organelles and providing energy under starvation conditions. The process is tightly regulated by the evolutionarily conserved genes, of which is one such crucial mediator. Here, we have done a comprehensive quantitative proteome analysis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts that lack a functional autophagy pathway ( knockout). We observe that 14% of the identified cellular proteome is remodeled, and several proteins distributed across diverse cellular processes with functions in signaling, cell adhesion, development, and immunity show either higher or lower levels under autophagy-deficient conditions. These cells have lower levels of crucial immune proteins that are required to mount a protective inflammatory response. This study will serve as a valuable resource to determine the role of autophagy in modulating specific protein levels in cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00481-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832020PMC
November 2019

Membrane trafficking RNA interference screen identifies a crucial role of the clathrin endocytic pathway and ARP2/3 complex for Japanese encephalitis virus infection in HeLa cells.

J Gen Virol 2019 02 29;100(2):176-186. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1​Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is one of the leading global causes of virus-induced encephalitis. The infectious life-cycle of viruses is heavily dependent on the host membrane trafficking network. Here, we have performed a RNA-interference-based screen using a siRNA panel targeting 136 membrane trafficking proteins to identify the key regulators of JEV infection in HeLa cells. We identified 35 proteins whose siRNA depletion restricts JEV replication by over twofold. We observe that JEV infection in HeLa cells is largely dependent on components of the clathrin-mediated endocytic (CME) pathway. Proteins involved in actin-filament-based processes, specifically CDC42 and members of the ARP2/3 complex are crucial for establishment of infection. Pharmacological pertubations of actin polymerization, a small molecule inhibitor of actin nucleation by the ARP2/3 complex - CK-548 - and the inhibitor of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome proteins- Wiskostatin- inhibited JEV replication, highlighting the important role of the dynamic actin network. Other proteins involved in cargo-recognition for CME and endomembrane system organization were also validated as essential host factors for virus replication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001182DOI Listing
February 2019

Diphenyleneiodonium enhances oxidative stress and inhibits Japanese encephalitis virus induced autophagy and ER stress pathways.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 07 24;502(2):232-237. Epub 2018 May 24.

Vaccine & Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India. Electronic address:

Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), two widely used anti-oxidants, were employed to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) induced autophagy, stress responses and replication. DPI and NAC exerted opposite effects on ROS levels in JEV infected mouse neuronal cells (Neuro2a), mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human epithelial cells (HeLa). While NAC effectively quenched ROS, DPI enhanced ROS levels, suggesting that DPI induces oxidative stress in JEV infected cells. DPI treatment of JEV infected Neuro2a cells further blocked autophagy induction and activation of all three arms of the ER stress pathway, and, inhibited virus particle release. Autophagy induction in JEV infection has been previously shown to be linked to the activation of XBP1 and ATF6 ER stress sensors. Our data suggests that DPI mediated block of autophagy is a result of inhibition of ER stress responses and is not associated with an anti-oxidative effect. Since DPI has a wide inhibitory potential for all Flavin dependent enzymes, it is likely that the signalling pathways for ER stress and autophagy during JEV infection are modulated by DPI sensitive enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.05.149DOI Listing
July 2018

ATF3 negatively regulates cellular antiviral signaling and autophagy in the absence of type I interferons.

Sci Rep 2017 08 18;7(1):8789. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, 121001, India.

Stringent regulation of antiviral signaling and cellular autophagy is critical for the host response to virus infection. However, little is known how these cellular processes are regulated in the absence of type I interferon signaling. Here, we show that ATF3 is induced following Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, and regulates cellular antiviral and autophagy pathways in the absence of type I interferons in mouse neuronal cells. We have identified new targets of ATF3 and show that it binds to the promoter regions of Stat1, Irf9, Isg15 and Atg5 thereby inhibiting cellular antiviral signaling and autophagy. Consistent with these observations, ATF3-depleted cells showed enhanced antiviral responses and induction of robust autophagy. Furthermore, we show that JEV replication was significantly reduced in ATF3-depleted cells. Our findings identify ATF3 as a negative regulator of antiviral signaling and cellular autophagy in mammalian cells, and demonstrate its important role in JEV life cycle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08584-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562757PMC
August 2017

A screen for novel hepatitis C virus RdRp inhibitor identifies a broad-spectrum antiviral compound.

Sci Rep 2017 07 19;7(1):5816. Epub 2017 Jul 19.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Center, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Faridabad, India.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global pathogen and infects more than 185 million individuals worldwide. Although recent development of direct acting antivirals (DAA) has shown promise in HCV therapy, there is an urgent need for the development of more affordable treatment options. We initiated this study to identify novel inhibitors of HCV through screening of compounds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) diversity dataset. Using cell-based assays, we identified NSC-320218 as a potent inhibitor against HCV with an EC of 2.5 μM and CC of 75 μM. The compound inhibited RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity of all six major HCV genotypes indicating a pan-genotypic effect. Limited structure-function analysis suggested that the entire molecule is necessary for the observed antiviral activity. However, the compound failed to inhibit HCV NS5B activity in vitro, suggesting that it may not be directly acting on the NS5B protein but could be interacting with a host protein. Importantly, the antiviral compound also inhibited dengue virus and hepatitis E virus replication in hepatocytes. Thus, our study has identified a broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutic agent against multiple viral infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04449-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517564PMC
July 2017

Japanese encephalitis virus activates autophagy through XBP1 and ATF6 ER stress sensors in neuronal cells.

J Gen Virol 2017 May 23;98(5):1027-1039. Epub 2017 May 23.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, Haryana, India.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy are key cellular responses to RNA virus infection. Recent studies have shown that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced autophagy negatively influences virus replication in mouse neuronal cells and embryonic fibroblasts, and delays virus-induced cell death. Here, we evaluated the role of ER stress pathways in inducing autophagy during JEV infection. We observed that JEV infection of neuronal cells led to activation of all three sensors of ER stress mediated by eIF2α/PERK, IRE1/XBP1 and ATF6. The kinetics of autophagy induction as monitored by levels of SQSTM1 and LC3-II paralleled activation of ER stress. Inhibition of the eIF2α/PERK pathway by siRNA-mediated depletion of proteins and by the PERK inhibitor had no effect on autophagy and JEV replication. However, depletion of XBP1 and ATF6, alone or in combination, prevented autophagy induction and significantly enhanced JEV-induced cell death. JEV-infected cells depleted of XBP1 or ATF6 showed reduced transcription of ER chaperones, ERAD components and autophagy genes, resulting in reduced protein levels of the crucial autophagy effectors ATG3 and BECLIN-1. Conversely, pharmacological induction of ER stress in JEV-infected cells further enhanced autophagy and reduced virus titres. Our study thus demonstrates that a crucial link exists between the ER stress pathways and autophagy in virus-infected cells, and that these processes are highly regulated during virus infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000792DOI Listing
May 2017

GRP78 Is an Important Host Factor for Japanese Encephalitis Virus Entry and Replication in Mammalian Cells.

J Virol 2017 03 28;91(6). Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia with potential to become a global pathogen. Here, we identify glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) as an important host protein for virus entry and replication. Using the plasma membrane fractions from mouse neuronal (Neuro2a) cells, mass spectroscopy analysis identified GRP78 as a protein interacting with recombinant JEV envelope protein domain III. GRP78 was found to be expressed on the plasma membranes of Neuro2a cells, mouse primary neurons, and human epithelial Huh-7 cells. Antibodies against GRP78 significantly inhibited JEV entry in all three cell types, suggesting an important role of the protein in virus entry. Depletion of GRP78 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly blocked JEV entry into Neuro2a cells, further supporting its role in virus uptake. Immunofluorescence studies showed extensive colocalization of GRP78 with JEV envelope protein in virus-infected cells. This interaction was also confirmed by immunoprecipitation studies. Additionally, GRP78 was shown to have an important role in JEV replication, as treatment of cells post-virus entry with subtilase cytotoxin that specifically cleaved GRP78 led to a substantial reduction in viral RNA replication and protein synthesis, resulting in significantly reduced extracellular virus titers. Our results indicate that GRP78, an endoplasmic reticulum chaperon of the HSP70 family, is a novel host factor involved at multiple steps of the JEV life cycle and could be a potential therapeutic target. Recent years have seen a rapid spread of mosquito-borne diseases caused by flaviviruses. The flavivirus family includes West Nile, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, and Zika viruses, which are major threats to public health with potential to become global pathogens. JEV is the major cause of viral encephalitis in several parts of Southeast Asia, affecting a predominantly pediatric population with a high mortality rate. This study is focused on identification of crucial host factors that could be targeted to cripple virus infection and ultimately lead to development of effective antivirals. We have identified a cellular protein, GRP78, that plays a dual role in virus entry and virus replication, two crucial steps of the virus life cycle, and thus is a novel host factor that could be a potential therapeutic target.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02274-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331813PMC
March 2017

Japanese encephalitis virus invasion of cell: allies and alleys.

Rev Med Virol 2016 Mar 23;26(2):129-41. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Center, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, NCR Biotech Science Cluster, Faridabad, India.

The mosquito-borne flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), is the leading cause of virus-induced encephalitis globally and a major public health concern of several countries in Southeast Asia, with the potential to become a global pathogen. The virus is neurotropic, and the disease ranges from mild fever to severe hemorrhagic and encephalitic manifestations and death. The early steps of the virus life cycle, binding, and entry into the cell are crucial determinants of infection and are potential targets for the development of antiviral therapies. JEV can infect multiple cell types; however, the key receptor molecule(s) still remains elusive. JEV also has the capacity to utilize multiple endocytic pathways for entry into cells of different lineages. This review not only gives a comprehensive update on what is known about the virus attachment and receptor system (allies) and the endocytic pathways (alleys) exploited by the virus to gain entry into the cell and establish infection but also discusses crucial unresolved issues. We also highlight common themes and key differences between JEV and other flaviviruses in these contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.1868DOI Listing
March 2016

Neutralization of Japanese Encephalitis Virus by heme-induced broadly reactive human monoclonal antibody.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 6;5:16248. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

INSERM, UMR S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic domain-III of JEV E glycoprotein. These JEV-reactive antibodies exhibited neutralizing activity against recently dominant JEV genotypes. This study opens new therapeutic options for Japanese encephalitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep16248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635365PMC
November 2015

Cytoplasmic translocation of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein and its binding to viral RNA during Japanese encephalitis virus infection inhibits virus replication.

PLoS One 2014 29;9(12):e114931. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science & Technology Institute, Gurgaon, India.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome containing a single open reading frame flanked by the 5'- and 3'-non-coding regions (NCRs). The virus genome replicates via a negative-sense RNA intermediate. The NCRs and their complementary sequences in the negative-sense RNA are the sites for assembly of the RNA replicase complex thereby regulating the RNA synthesis and virus replication. In this study, we show that the 55-kDa polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) interacts in vitro with both the 5'-NCR of the positive-sense genomic RNA--5NCR(+), and its complementary sequence in the negative-sense replication intermediate RNA--3NCR(-). The interaction of viral RNA with PTB was validated in infected cells by JEV RNA co-immunoprecipitation and JEV RNA-PTB colocalization experiments. Interestingly, we observed phosphorylation-coupled translocation of nuclear PTB to cytoplasmic foci that co-localized with JEV RNA early during JEV infection. Our studies employing the PTB silencing and over-expression in cultured cells established an inhibitory role of PTB in JEV replication. Using RNA-protein binding assay we show that PTB competitively inhibits association of JEV 3NCR(-) RNA with viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5 protein), an event required for the synthesis of the plus-sense genomic RNA. cAMP is known to promote the Protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated PTB phosphorylation. We show that cells treated with a cAMP analogue had an enhanced level of phosphorylated PTB in the cytoplasm and a significantly suppressed JEV replication. Data presented here show a novel, cAMP-induced, PTB-mediated, innate host response that could effectively suppress JEV replication in mammalian cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0114931PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4278868PMC
September 2015

Japanese encephalitis virus replication is negatively regulated by autophagy and occurs on LC3-I- and EDEM1-containing membranes.

Autophagy 2014 Sep 16;10(9):1637-51. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre; Translational Health Science and Technology Institute; Gurgaon, Haryana India.

Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway that has diverse physiological functions and plays crucial roles in several viral infections. Here we examine the role of autophagy in the life cycle of JEV, a neurotropic flavivirus. JEV infection leads to induction of autophagy in several cell types. JEV replication was significantly enhanced in neuronal cells where autophagy was rendered dysfunctional by ATG7 depletion, and in Atg5-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), resulting in higher viral titers. Autophagy was functional during early stages of infection however it becomes dysfunctional as infection progressed resulting in accumulation of misfolded proteins. Autophagy-deficient cells were highly susceptible to virus-induced cell death. We also observed JEV replication complexes that are marked by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and dsRNA colocalized with endogenous LC3 but not with GFP-LC3. Colocalization of NS1 and LC3 was also observed in Atg5 deficient MEFs, which contain only the nonlipidated form of LC3. Viral replication complexes furthermore show association with a marker of the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway, EDEM1 (ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase α-like 1). Our data suggest that virus replication occurs on ERAD-derived EDEM1 and LC3-I-positive structures referred to as EDEMosomes. While silencing of ERAD regulators EDEM1 and SEL1L suppressed JEV replication, LC3 depletion exerted a profound inhibition with significantly reduced RNA levels and virus titers. Our study suggests that while autophagy is primarily antiviral for JEV and might have implications for disease progression and pathogenesis of JEV, nonlipidated LC3 plays an important autophagy independent function in the virus life cycle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/auto.29455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4206540PMC
September 2014

Japanese encephalitis virus expands regulatory T cells by increasing the expression of PD-L1 on dendritic cells.

Eur J Immunol 2014 May 24;44(5):1363-74. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, UMR S 1138, Paris, France; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR S 1138, Paris, France; Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Université Paris Descartes, UMR S 1138, Paris, France.

The mechanisms underlying Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) pathogenesis need to be thoroughly explored to delineate therapeutic approaches. It is believed that JEV manipulates the innate and adaptive compartments of the host's immune system to evade immune response and cross the blood-brain barrier. The present study was thus designed to investigate the functional modulation of DCs after exposure to JEV and to assess the consequences on CD4(+) T-lymphocyte functions. Human monocyte-derived DCs were either infected with 1 MOI of live virus, UV-inactivated virus, or were mock-infected. Replication-competent JEV induced a significant increase in the expression of maturation markers 48 h postinfection, along with that of programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; also called B7-H1 and CD274). JEV-infected DCs expanded the Treg cells in allogenic mixed lymphocyte reactions. The expansion of Treg cells by JEV-infected DCs was significantly reduced upon blocking PD-L1 using an antagonist. In addition, JEV-infected DCs significantly altered the proliferation and reduced the polarization of Th cells toward the Th1-cell phenotype. The results, for the first time, suggest that JEV evades the host's immune system by modulating the crosstalk between DCs and T lymphocytes via the PD-L1 axis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201343701DOI Listing
May 2014

Japanese encephalitis virus infects neuronal cells through a clathrin-independent endocytic mechanism.

J Virol 2013 Jan 10;87(1):148-62. Epub 2012 Oct 10.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Research Centre, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne pathogenic flavivirus responsible for acute viral encephalitis in humans. The cellular entry of JEV is poorly characterized in terms of molecular requirements and pathways. Here we present a systematic study of the internalization mechanism of JEV in fibroblasts and neuroblastoma cells. To verify the roles of distinct pathways of cell entry, we used fluorescently labeled virus particles, a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), and dominant-negative (DN) mutants of regulatory proteins involved in endocytosis. Our study demonstrates that JEV infects fibroblasts in a clathrin-dependent manner, but it deploys a clathrin-independent mechanism to infect neuronal cells. The clathrin-independent pathway requires dynamin and plasma membrane cholesterol. Virus binding to neuronal cells leads to rapid actin rearrangements and an intact and dynamic actin cytoskeleton, and the small GTPase RhoA plays an important role in viral entry. Immunofluorescence analysis of viral colocalization with endocytic markers showed that JEV traffics through Rab5-positive early endosomes and that release of the viral nucleocapsid occurs at the level of the early and not the late endosomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01399-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3536362PMC
January 2013

The ORF3 protein of hepatitis E virus delays degradation of activated growth factor receptors by interacting with CIN85 and blocking formation of the Cbl-CIN85 complex.

J Virol 2010 Apr 3;84(8):3857-67. Epub 2010 Feb 3.

Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute self-limiting disease that is endemic in developing countries. Previous studies suggested that the ORF3 protein (pORF3) of HEV is required for infection in vivo and is likely to modulate the host response. Our previous work showed that pORF3 localizes to early and recycling endosomes and causes a delay in the postinternalization trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to late endosomes/lysosomes. Here we report that pORF3 also delays the trafficking and degradation of activated hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and delineate the mechanistic details of these effects. A mutant ORF3 protein, which does not localize to endosomes, also showed similar effects on growth factor receptor trafficking, making this effect independent of the endosomal localization of pORF3. The ORF3 protein was found to interact with CIN85, a multidomain adaptor protein implicated in the Cbl-mediated downregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases. This interaction competed with the formation of the growth factor receptor-Cbl-CIN85 complex, resulting in the reduced ubiquitination of CIN85 and trafficking of the growth factor receptor complex toward late endosomes/lysosomes. We propose that through its effects on growth factor receptor trafficking, pORF3 prolongs endomembrane growth factor signaling and promotes cell survival to contribute positively to viral replication and pathogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01994-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2849493PMC
April 2010

Virus entry paradigms.

Amino Acids 2011 Nov 15;41(5):1147-57. Epub 2009 Oct 15.

Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi, India.

Viruses, despite being relatively simple in structure and composition, have evolved to exploit complex cellular processes for their replication in the host cell. After binding to their specific receptor on the cell surface, viruses (or viral genomes) have to enter cells to initiate a productive infection. Though the entry processes of many enveloped viruses is well understood, that of most non-enveloped viruses still remains unresolved. Recent studies have shown that compared to direct fusion at the plasma membrane, endocytosis is more often the preferred means of entry into the target cell. Receptor-mediated endocytic pathways such as the dynamin-dependent clathrin and caveolar pathways are well characterized as viral entry portals. However, many viruses are able to utilize multiple uptake pathways. Fluid phase uptake, though relatively non-specific in terms of its cargo, potentially aids viral infection by its ability to intersect with the endocytic pathway. In fact, many viruses despite using specialized pathways for entry are still able to generate productive infection via fluid phase uptake. Macropinocytosis, a major fluid uptake pathway found in epithelial cells and fibroblasts, is stimulated by growth factor receptors. Many viruses can induce these signaling cascades in cells leading to macropinocytosis. Though endocytic trafficking is utilized by both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, key differences lie in the way membranes are traversed to deposit the viral genome at its site of replication. This review will discuss recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of viral entry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-009-0363-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7088018PMC
November 2011

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are required for cellular binding of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 capsid protein and for viral infection.

J Virol 2009 Dec 7;83(24):12714-24. Epub 2009 Oct 7.

Virology Research Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV), a nonenveloped RNA virus, is the causative agent of hepatitis E. The mode by which HEV attaches to and enters into target cells for productive infection remains unidentified. Open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of HEV encodes its major capsid protein, pORF2, which is likely to have the determinants for virus attachment and entry. Using an approximately 56-kDa recombinant pORF2 that can self-assemble as virus-like particles, we demonstrated that cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), specifically syndecans, play a crucial role in the binding of pORF2 to Huh-7 liver cells. Removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by enzymatic (heparinase) or chemical (sodium chlorate) treatment of cells or competition with heparin, heparan sulfate, and their oversulfated derivatives caused a marked reduction in pORF2 binding to the cells. Syndecan-1 is the most abundant proteoglycan present on these cells and, hence, plays a key role in pORF2 binding. Specificity is likely to be dictated by well-defined sulfation patterns on syndecans. We show that pORF2 binds syndecans predominantly via 6-O sulfation, indicating that binding is not entirely due to random electrostatic interactions. Using an in vitro infection system, we also showed a marked reduction in HEV infection of heparinase-treated cells. Our results indicate that, analogous to some enveloped viruses, a nonenveloped virus like HEV may have also evolved to use HSPGs as cellular attachment receptors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00717-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786843PMC
December 2009

Molecular biology and pathogenesis of hepatitis E virus.

J Biosci 2008 Nov;33(4):451-64

Virology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi 110 067, India.

The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small RNA virus and the etiological agent for hepatitis E, a form of acute viral hepatitis. The virus has a feco-oral transmission cycle and is transmitted through environmental contamination, mainly through drinking water. Recent studies on the isolation of HEV-like viruses from animal species also suggest zoonotic transfer of the virus. The absence of small animal models of infection and efficient cell culture systems has precluded virological studies on the replication cycle and pathogenesis of HEV. A vaccine against HEV has undergone successful clinical testing and diagnostic tests are available. This review describes HEV epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, molecular virology and the host response to HEV infection. The focus is on published literature in the past decade.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12038-008-0064-1DOI Listing
November 2008

Arf6-independent GPI-anchored protein-enriched early endosomal compartments fuse with sorting endosomes via a Rab5/phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase-dependent machinery.

Mol Biol Cell 2006 Aug 7;17(8):3689-704. Epub 2006 Jun 7.

National Centre for Biological Sciences, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bangalore 560065, India.

In the process of internalization of molecules from the extracellular milieu, a cell uses multiple endocytic pathways, consequently generating different endocytic vesicles. These primary endocytic vesicles are targeted to specific destinations inside the cell. Here, we show that GPI-anchored proteins are internalized by an Arf6-independent mechanism into GPI-anchored protein-enriched early endosomal compartments (GEECs). Internalized GPI-anchored proteins and the fluid phase are first visualized in GEECs that are acidic, primary endocytic structures, negative for early endosomal markers, Rab4, Rab5, and early endosome antigen (EEA)1. They subsequently acquire Rab5 and EEA1 before homotypic fusion with other GEECs, and heterotypic fusion with endosomes containing cargo from the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. Although, the formation of GEECs is unaffected by inhibition of Rab5 GTPase and phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) activity, their fusion with sorting endosomes is dependent on both activities. Overexpression of Rab5 reverts PI3K inhibition of fusion, providing evidence that Rab5 effectors play important roles in heterotypic fusion between the dynamin-independent GEECs and clathrin- and dynamin-dependent sorting endosomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e05-10-0980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1525230PMC
August 2006
-->