Publications by authors named "Manjri Raval"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Duration of Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Viral Shedding in Children With SARS-CoV-2: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Data.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 09;39(9):e249-e256

From the Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg.

Background: Children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are more likely to have mild or no symptoms compared with adults and may represent important vectors for transmitting the virus. Little is known about the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding in children with COVID-19.

Objective: To determine the average shedding times of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) via the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children.

Methods: We performed a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL databases for studies reporting real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) results in children with COVID-19, then extracted and synthesized data on duration of viral shedding from symptom onset in respiratory and gastrointestinal samples.

Results: Based on data compiled from 69 pediatric cases, the duration of viral shedding through the respiratory tract is up to 24 days from symptom onset with a mean of 11.1 ± 5.8 days. Of the children who underwent testing with stool PCR, rectal swab or anal swab, 86% returned a positive result. The mean duration of viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract was 23.6 ± 8.8 days from symptom onset. In 89% of cases, viral shedding via the gastrointestinal tract persisted after nasopharyngeal or throat swabs became negative, for as long as 4 weeks.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to systematically review the duration of respiratory and gastrointestinal viral shedding of SARS-CoV-2 in pediatric patients. These findings may have important implications for infection control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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September 2020

Salvage therapy for acute severe ulcerative colitis during pregnancy.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 8;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Gastroenterology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with an age of onset that affects young people during the peak of their reproductive years. Management of flares of disease during pregnancy can be complex and there are few case reports of pregnant women with acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC). We present the case of a 31-year-old pregnant woman who at 16 weeks gestation developed ASUC in the context of primary non-response to infliximab therapy. She subsequently underwent an emergency laparoscopic colectomy after failing to respond to hydrocortisone and cyclosporine salvage therapy. Her pregnancy was further complicated by HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated liver enzymes and Low Platelets) syndrome resulting in premature delivery at 27 weeks gestation. This case highlights the management issues involved in ASUC during pregnancy and the assessment of disease activity, use of salvage therapies, and provides a framework to approach this complex medical emergency.
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June 2018

Effects of testosterone treatment on body fat and lean mass in obese men on a hypocaloric diet: a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Med 2016 Oct 7;14(1):153. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Department of Medicine Austin Health, University of Melbourne, 145 Studley Road, Heidelberg, VIC, 3084, Australia.

Background: Whether testosterone treatment has benefits on body composition over and above caloric restriction in men is unknown. We hypothesised that testosterone treatment augments diet-induced loss of fat mass and prevents loss of muscle mass.

Methods: We conducted a randomised double-blind, parallel, placebo controlled trial at a tertiary referral centre. A total of 100 obese men (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m) with a total testosterone level of or below 12 nmol/L and a median age of 53 years (interquartile range 47-60) receiving 10 weeks of a very low energy diet (VLED) followed by 46 weeks of weight maintenance were randomly assigned at baseline to 56 weeks of 10-weekly intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (n = 49, cases) or matching placebo (n = 51, controls). The main outcome measures were the between-group difference in fat and lean mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and visceral fat area (computed tomography).

Results: A total of 82 men completed the study. At study end, compared to controls, cases had greater reductions in fat mass, with a mean adjusted between-group difference (MAD) of -2.9 kg (-5.7 to -0.2; P = 0.04), and in visceral fat (MAD -2678 mm; -5180 to -176; P = 0.04). Although both groups lost the same lean mass following VLED (cases -3.9 kg (-5.3 to -2.6); controls -4.8 kg (-6.2 to -3.5), P = 0.36), cases regained lean mass (3.3 kg (1.9 to 4.7), P < 0.001) during weight maintenance, in contrast to controls (0.8 kg (-0.7 to 2.3), P = 0.29) so that, at study end, cases had an attenuated reduction in lean mass compared to controls (MAD 3.4 kg (1.3 to 5.5), P = 0.002).

Conclusions: While dieting men receiving placebo lost both fat and lean mass, the weight loss with testosterone treatment was almost exclusively due to loss of body fat.

Trial Registration:, identifier NCT01616732 , registration date: June 8, 2012.
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October 2016

The effect of ethnicity on different ways of expressing cardiovascular treatment benefits and patient decision-making.

J Prim Health Care 2015 Mar 1;7(1):24-33. Epub 2015 Mar 1.

Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Introduction: The way information is presented to communicate risk and treatment benefit affects patients' understanding and perception of their risk and can influence their decisions.

Aim: To assess the effect of ethnicity on patient preferences for different ways of expressing risk and treatment benefits.

Methods: Using tailored questionnaires, we surveyed Ma¯ori , Pacific and Indian peoples of known CVD risk to assess format preferences encouraging them to take medication or assist their understanding of possible treatment benefits. Statistical analysis determined any association of ethnicity with patient preferences.

Results: Of the 376 participants, 50% identified as New Zealand (NZ) European; 15% Maori ; 25% Pacific and 10% Indian ethnicity. Patients preferred positive framing of risk (66%). Relative risk was the format reported as most encouraging to take medication and to understand risk, with natural frequencies least preferable, although Pacific people significantly preferred natural frequencies (p<0.0001) compared with other ethnic groups. The majority (55%) preferred pictures to numbers for explaining risk. Ma¯ori , Pacific and Indian participants significantly preferred 100-people chart formats over bar graphs compared with NZ Europeans/Others (p=0.002). Most (68%) preferred doctors to give their opinion on taking medication instead of explaining risks using numbers and/or pictures. Pacific and Indian peoples significantly preferred doctors to make decisions on treatment compared to NZ European/Other and Ma¯ori participants (p<0.0001).

Discussion: Ethnic differences in patient preferences for communication formats and decision-making should be considered when tailoring effective communication in primary care. However, individual preferences cannot be presumed and a combination of methods should routinely be used.
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March 2015

Immigrant and non-immigrant women's experiences of maternity care: a systematic and comparative review of studies in five countries.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2014 Apr 29;14:152. Epub 2014 Apr 29.

Judith Lumley Centre, La Trobe University, 215 Franklin Street, Melbourne VIC 3000, Australia.

Background: Understanding immigrant women's experiences of maternity care is critical if receiving country care systems are to respond appropriately to increasing global migration. This systematic review aimed to compare what we know about immigrant and non-immigrant women's experiences of maternity care.

Methods: Medline, CINAHL, Health Star, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for the period 1989-2012. First, we retrieved population-based studies of women's experiences of maternity care (n = 12). For countries with identified population studies, studies focused specifically on immigrant women's experiences of care were also retrieved (n = 22). For all included studies, we extracted available data on experiences of care and undertook a descriptive comparison.

Results: What immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care proved similar: safe, high quality, attentive and individualised care, with adequate information and support. Immigrant women were less positive about their care than non-immigrant women. Communication problems and lack of familiarity with care systems impacted negatively on immigrant women's experiences, as did perceptions of discrimination and care which was not kind or respectful.

Conclusion: Few differences were found in what immigrant and non-immigrant women want from maternity care. The challenge for health systems is to address the barriers immigrant women face by improving communication, increasing women's understanding of care provision and reducing discrimination.
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April 2014

Breastfeeding information in pharmacology textbooks: a content analysis.

Breastfeed Rev 2013 Jul;21(2):31-7

Mother & Child Health Research, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC.

Women often need to take medicines while breastfeeding and pharmacists need to provide accurate information in order to avoid undue caution about the compatibility of medicines and breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to review information provided about breastfeeding in commonly used pharmacology textbooks. We asked 15 Australian universities teaching pharmacy courses to provide a list of recommended pharmacology textbooks in 2011. Ten universities responded, generating a list of 11 textbooks that we analysed for content relating to breastfeeding. Pharmacology textbooks outline the mechanisms of actions of medicines and their use: however, only a small emphasis is placed on the safety/compatibility of medicines for women during breastfeeding. Current pharmacology textbooks recommended by Australian universities have significant gaps in their coverage of medicine use in breastfeeding. Authors of textbooks should address this gap, so academic staff can recommend texts with the best lactation content.
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July 2013

Breastfeeding--evidence based guidelines for the use of medicines.

Aust Fam Physician 2011 Sep;40(9):684-90

Breastfeeding Education and Support Services, Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria.

Background: General practitioners may consider prescribing medicines for breastfeeding women during the postpartum period. Most medicines can be used safely during breastfeeding at the recommended dose, however there are exceptions that necessitate caution.

Objective: This article provides an evidence based review of medicines used for common situations and their compatibility with breastfeeding.

Discussion: Breastfeeding women typically use relatively few medicines, and generally these are compatible with breastfeeding. If other medicines are required, information on their safety during breastfeeding can be accessed from pharmacy departments at maternity hospitals or from online resources.
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September 2011