Publications by authors named "Manish R Patel"

106 Publications

A Phase 1b Trial of Prexasertib in Combination with Standard-of-Care Agents in Advanced or Metastatic Cancer.

Target Oncol 2021 09 24;16(5):569-589. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: The checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) inhibitor prexasertib exhibited modest monotherapy antitumor activity in prior trials, suggesting that combination with chemotherapy or other targeted agents may be needed to maximize efficacy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the recommended phase II dose and schedule of prexasertib in combination with either cisplatin, cetuximab, pemetrexed, or 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced and/or metastatic cancer, and to summarize preliminary antitumor activity of these combinations.

Patients And Methods: This phase Ib, nonrandomized, open-label study comprised dose-escalation phase(s) with multiple sub-arms evaluating different prexasertib-drug combinations: Part A, prexasertib + cisplatin (n = 63); Part B, prexasertib + cetuximab (n = 41); Part C, prexasertib + pemetrexed (n = 3); Part D, prexasertib + 5-fluorouracil (n =8). Alternate dose schedules/regimens intended to mitigate toxicity and maximize dose exposure and efficacy were also explored in sub-parts.

Results: In Part A, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of prexasertib in combination with cisplatin (75 mg/m) was declared at 80 mg/m, with cisplatin administered on Day 1 and prexasertib on Day 2 of a 21-day cycle. The overall objective response rate (ORR) in Part A was 12.7%, and 28 of 55 evaluable patients (50.9%) had a decrease in target lesions from baseline. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events (AEs) in Part A were hematologic, with the most common being white blood cell count decreased/neutrophil count decreased, experienced by 73.0% (any grade) and 66.7% (grade 3 or higher) of patients. In Part B, an MTD of 70 mg/m was established for prexasertib administered in combination with cetuximab (500 mg /m), both administered on Day 1 of a 14-day cycle. The overall ORR in Part B was 4.9%, and 7 of 31 evaluable patients (22.6%) had decreased target lesions compared with baseline. White blood cell count decreased/neutrophil count decreased was also the most common treatment-related AE (56.1% any grade; 53.7% grade 3 or higher). In Parts A and B, hematologic toxicities, even with the addition of prophylactic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, resulted in frequent dose adjustments (> 60% of patients). In Part C, evaluation of prexasertib + pemetrexed was halted due to dose-limiting toxicities in two of the first three patients; MTD was not established. In Part D, the MTD of prexasertib in combination with 5-fluorouracil (label dose) was declared at 40 mg /m, both administered on Day 1 of a 14-day cycle. In Part D, overall ORR was 12.5%.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the proof-of-concept that prexasertib can be combined with cisplatin, cetuximab, and 5-fluorouracil. Schedule was a key determinant of the tolerability and feasibility of combining prexasertib with these standard-of-care agents. Reversible hematologic toxicity was the most frequent AE and was dose-limiting. Insights gleaned from this study will inform future combination strategies for the development of prexasertib and next-generation CHK1 inhibitors. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT02124148 (date of registration 28 April 2014).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-021-00835-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Integrated safety analysis of umbralisib, a dual PI3Kδ/CK1ε inhibitor, in relapsed/refractory lymphoid malignancies.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

TG Therapeutics, Inc., New York, New York, United States.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitors are active in lymphoid malignancies, though associated toxicities can limit their use. Umbralisib is a dual inhibitor of PI3Kδ and casein kinase-1ε (CK1ε). This study analyzed integrated comprehensive toxicity data from 4 open-label, phase 1 and 2 studies that included 371 adult patients (median age, 67 years) with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (follicular lymphoma [n = 147]; marginal zone lymphoma [n = 82]; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma/mantle cell lymphoma [n = 74]; chronic lymphocytic leukemia [n = 43]; and other [n = 25]) who were treated with recommended phase 2 dose of umbralisib 800 mg or higher once daily. At data cutoff, median duration of umbralisib treatment was 5.9 months (range, 0.1-75.1), and 107 patients (28.8%) received umbralisib for ≥12 months. Any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 366/371 patients (98.7%), with the most frequent being diarrhea (52.3%), nausea (41.5%), and fatigue (31.8%). Grade ≥3 TEAEs occurred in 189/371 of patients (50.9%), including neutropenia (11.3%), diarrhea (7.3%), and increased aminotransferases (5.7%). Treatment-emergent serious AEs occurred in 95/371 patients (25.6%). AEs of special interest were limited and included pneumonia (29/371 [7.8%]), noninfectious colitis (9/371 [2.4%]), and pneumonitis (4/371 [1.1%]). AEs led to discontinuation of umbralisib in 51 patients (13.7%). Four patients (1.1%) died due to AEs, none of which were deemed related to umbralisib. No cumulative toxicities were reported. The favorable long-term tolerability profile and low rates of immune-mediated toxicities support the potential use of umbralisib for the benefit of a broad population of patients with lymphoid malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005132DOI Listing
September 2021

Phase 1 Trial of ALRN-6924, a Dual Inhibitor of MDMX and MDM2, in Patients with Solid Tumors and Lymphomas Bearing Wild-Type .

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Purpose: We describe the first-in-human dose-escalation trial for ALRN-6924, a stabilized, cell-permeating peptide that disrupts p53 inhibition by MDM2 and MDMX to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in wild-type tumors.

Methods: Two schedules were evaluated for safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and anti-tumor effects in patients with solid tumors or lymphomas: In arm A, patients received ALRN-6924 by intravenous infusion once-weekly for 3 weeks every 28 days; arm B, was twice-weekly for 2 weeks every 21 days.

Results: Seventy-one patients were enrolled: 41 in arm A (0.16-4.4 mg/kg), 30 in arm B (0.32-2.7 mg/kg). ALRN-6924 showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and increased serum levels of MIC-1, a biomarker of p53 activation. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were gastrointestinal side effects, fatigue, anemia, and headache. In arm A, at 4.4 mg/kg, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were Grade 3 (G3) hypotension, G3 alkaline phosphatase elevation, G3 anemia, and G4 neutropenia in one patient each. At the maximum tolerated dose in arm A of 3.1 mg/kg, G3 fatigue was observed in one patient. No DLTs were observed in arm B. No G3/G4 thrombocytopenia was observed in any patient. Seven patients had infusion-related reactions; three discontinued treatment. In 41 efficacy-evaluable patients with wild-type disease across both schedules the disease control rate was 59%. Two patients had confirmed complete responses, two had confirmed partial responses, 20 had stable disease. Six patients were treated for >1 year. The recommended phase 2 dose was schedule A, 3.1 mg/kg.

Conclusion: ALRN-6924 was well tolerated and demonstrated anti-tumor activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0715DOI Listing
July 2021

Real-World Outcomes and Clinical Predictors of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Monotherapy in Advanced Lung Cancer.

Clin Med Insights Oncol 2021 31;15:11795549211004489. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Hematology, Oncology and Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have changed the treatment paradigm of advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of ICIs in a real-world patient population and to investigate the predictive factors associated with survival outcomes.

Methods: Medical records of patients with advanced lung cancer who started ICI monotherapy were reviewed for data collection. Treatment outcomes included objective response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were assessed. Multiple Cox regression models were fit to investigate the predictive factors for survival outcomes.

Results: We included 220 patients (median 66.5 years). Seventy-nine (35.9%) patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance-status (PS) score ⩾2. Median follow-up was 11.4 months. In NSCLC, median PFS was 3.8 months (4.7 months for first line and 3.7 months for subsequent line). Median OS was 12.4 months (15.6 months for first line therapy and 11.5 months for subsequent line). In SCLC, median PFS was 1.8 months, and median OS was 4.6 months. A quarter of patients developed irAEs. There was 1 disease flare among 17 patients with pre-existing autoimmune diseases. ECOG PS of 0 to 1 and body mass index (BMI) ⩾ 25 kg/m (but not occurrence of irAE) were independently associated with improved OS in NSCLC, with a hazard ratio of 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-0.59) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.44-0.87), respectively.

Conclusions: The clinical benefit of ICIs appears to persist in a real-world population of relatively older age, including those with poor PS and pre-existing autoimmune diseases. ECOG PS of 0 to 1 and BMI ⩾ 25 kg/m were independently associated with improved OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11795549211004489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237437PMC
March 2021

First-in-Human, Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Study of Biparatopic Anti-HER2 Antibody-Drug Conjugate MEDI4276 in Patients with HER2-positive Advanced Breast or Gastric Cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Aug 27;20(8):1442-1453. Epub 2021 May 27.

Florida Cancer Specialists/Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Sarasota, Florida.

MEDI4276 is a biparatopic tetravalent antibody targeting two nonoverlapping epitopes in subdomains 2 and 4 of the HER2 ecto-domain, with site-specific conjugation to a tubulysin-based microtubule inhibitor payload. MEDI4276 demonstrates enhanced cellular internalization and cytolysis of HER2-positive tumor cells This was a first-in-human, dose-escalation clinical trial in patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer or gastric cancer. MEDI4276 doses escalated from 0.05 to 0.9 mg/kg (60- to 90-minute intravenous infusion every 3 weeks). Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability; secondary endpoints included antitumor activity (objective response, progression-free survival, and overall survival), pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. Forty-seven patients (median age 59 years; median of seven prior treatment regimens) were treated. The maximum tolerated dose was exceeded at 0.9 mg/kg with two patients experiencing dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of grade 3 liver function test (LFT) increases, one of whom also had grade 3 diarrhea, which resolved. Two additional patients reported DLTs of grade 3 LFT increases at lower doses (0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg). The most common (all grade) drug-related adverse events (AEs) were nausea (59.6%), fatigue (44.7%), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased (42.6%), and vomiting (38.3%). The most common grade 3/4 drug-related AE was AST increased (21.3%). Five patients had drug-related AEs leading to treatment discontinuation. In the as-treated population, there was one complete response (0.5 mg/kg; breast cancer), and two partial responses (0.6 and 0.75 mg/kg; breast cancer)-all had prior trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1). MEDI4276 has demonstrable clinical activity but displays intolerable toxicity at doses >0.3 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0014DOI Listing
August 2021

First-in-human study of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of first-in-class fatty acid synthase inhibitor TVB-2640 alone and with a taxane in advanced tumors.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Apr 30;34:100797. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, 1100 Martin L. King Jr. Boulevard, Nashville, TN 37203 United States.

Background: We conducted a first-in-human dose-escalation study with the oral FASN inhibitor TVB-2640 to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), as monotherapy and with a taxane.

Methods: This completed open-label outpatient study was conducted at 11 sites in the United States and United Kingdom. Patients with previously-treated advanced metastatic solid tumors and adequate performance status and organ function were eligible. TVB-2640 was administered orally daily until PD. Dose escalation initially followed an accelerated titration design that switched to a standard 3 + 3 design after Grade 2 toxicity occurred. Disease-specific cohorts were enrolled at the MTD. Statistical analyses were primarily descriptive. Safety analyses were performed on patients who received at least 1 dose of study drug. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02223247).

Findings: The study was conducted from 21 November 2013 to 07 February 2017. Overall, 136 patients received TVB-2640, 76 as monotherapy (weight-based doses of 60 mg/m to 240 mg/m and flat doses of 200 and 250 mg) and 60 in combination, (weight-based doses of 60 mg/m to 100 mg/m and flat dose of 200 mg) (55 paclitaxel, 5 docetaxel). DLTs with TVB-2640 were reversible skin and ocular effects. The MTD/RP2D was 100 mg/m. The most common TEAEs (n,%) with TVB-2640 monotherapy were alopecia (46; 61%), PPE syndrome (35; 46%), fatigue (28; 37%), decreased appetite (20; 26%), and dry skin (17; 22%), and with TVB-2640+paclitaxel were fatigue (29 ; 53%), alopecia (25; 46%), PPE syndrome (25; 46%), nausea (22; 40%), and peripheral neuropathy (20; 36%). One fatal case of drug-related pneumonitis occurred with TVB-2640+paclitaxel; no other treatment-related deaths occurred. Target engagement (FASN inhibition) and inhibition of lipogenesis were demonstrated with TVB-2640. The disease control rate (DCR) with TVB-2640 monotherapy was 42%; no patient treated with monotherapy had a complete or partial response (CR or PR). In combination with paclitaxel, the PR rate was 11% and the DCR was 70%. Responses were seen across multiple tumor types, including in patients with KRAS NSCLC, ovarian, and breast cancer.

Interpretation: TVB-2640 demonstrated potent FASN inhibition and a predictable and manageable safety profile, primarily characterized by non-serious, reversible adverse events affecting skin and eyes. Further investigation of TVB-2640 in patients with solid tumors, particularly in KRAS lung, ovarian, and breast cancer, is warranted.

Funding: This trial was funded by 3-V Biosciences, Inc. (now known as Sagimet Biosciences Inc.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040281PMC
April 2021

Pirtobrutinib in relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies (BRUIN): a phase 1/2 study.

Lancet 2021 Mar;397(10277):892-901

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Covalent Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitors are efficacious in multiple B-cell malignancies, but patients discontinue these agents due to resistance and intolerance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pirtobrutinib (working name; formerly known as LOXO-305), a highly selective, reversible BTK inhibitor, in these patients.

Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell malignancies were enrolled in a first-in-human, multicentre, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of the BTK inhibitor pirtobrutinib. The primary endpoint was the maximum tolerated dose (phase 1) and overall response rate (ORR; phase 2). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03740529.

Findings: 323 patients were treated with pirtobrutinib across seven dose levels (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, 250 mg, and 300 mg once per day) with linear dose-proportional exposures. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached. The recommended phase 2 dose was 200 mg daily. Adverse events in at least 10% of 323 patients were fatigue (65 [20%]), diarrhoea (55 [17%]), and contusion (42 [13%]). The most common adverse event of grade 3 or higher was neutropenia (32 [10%]). There was no correlation between pirtobrutinib exposure and the frequency of grade 3 treatment-related adverse events. Grade 3 atrial fibrillation or flutter was not observed, and grade 3 haemorrhage was observed in one patient in the setting of mechanical trauma. Five (1%) patients discontinued treatment due to a treatment-related adverse event. In 121 efficacy evaluable patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) treated with a previous covalent BTK inhibitor (median previous lines of treatment 4), the ORR with pirtobrutinib was 62% (95% CI 53-71). The ORR was similar in CLL patients with previous covalent BTK inhibitor resistance (53 [67%] of 79), covalent BTK inhibitor intolerance (22 [52%] of 42), BTK C481-mutant (17 [71%] of 24) and BTK wild-type (43 [66%] of 65) disease. In 52 efficacy evaluable patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) previously treated with covalent BTK inhibitors, the ORR was 52% (95% CI 38-66). Of 117 patients with CLL, SLL, or MCL who responded, all but eight remain progression-free to date.

Interpretation: Pirtobrutinib was safe and active in multiple B-cell malignancies, including patients previously treated with covalent BTK inhibitors. Pirtobrutinib might address a growing unmet need for alternative therapies for these patients.

Funding: Loxo Oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00224-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Updated Integrated Analysis of the Efficacy and Safety of Entrectinib in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Fusion-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 04 1;39(11):1253-1263. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, INSERM, CRCM, APHM, Marseille, France.

Purpose: Genetic rearrangements of the tyrosine receptor kinase ROS proto-oncogene 1 () are oncogenic drivers in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We report the results of an updated integrated analysis of three phase I or II clinical trials (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2) of the ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, entrectinib, in fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: The efficacy-evaluable population included adults with locally advanced or metastatic fusion-positive NSCLC with or without CNS metastases who received entrectinib ≥ 600 mg orally once per day. Co-primary end points were objective response rate (ORR) assessed by blinded independent central review and duration of response (DoR). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), intracranial ORR, intracranial DoR, intracranial PFS, and safety.

Results: In total, 161 patients with a follow-up of ≥ 6 months were evaluable. The median treatment duration was 10.7 months (IQR, 6.4-17.7). The ORR was 67.1% (n = 108, 95% CI, 59.3 to 74.3), and responses were durable (12-month DoR rate, 63%, median DoR 15.7 months). The 12-month PFS rate was 55% (median PFS 15.7 months), and the 12-month OS rate was 81% (median OS not estimable). In 24 patients with measurable baseline CNS metastases by blinded independent central review, the intracranial ORR was 79.2% (n = 19; 95% CI, 57.9 to 92.9), the median intracranial PFS was 12.0 months (95% CI, 6.2 to 19.3), and the median intracranial DoR was 12.9 months (12-month rate, 55%). The safety profile in this updated analysis was similar to that reported in the primary analysis, and no new safety signals were found.

Conclusion: Entrectinib continued to demonstrate a high level of clinical benefit for patients with fusion-positive NSCLC, including patients with CNS metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078299PMC
April 2021

Water heavily fractionated as it ascends on Mars as revealed by ExoMars/NOMAD.

Sci Adv 2021 Feb 10;7(7). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Granada, Spain.

Isotopic ratios and, in particular, the water D/H ratio are powerful tracers of the evolution and transport of water on Mars. From measurements performed with ExoMars/NOMAD, we observe marked and rapid variability of the D/H along altitude on Mars and across the whole planet. The observations (from April 2018 to April 2019) sample a broad range of events on Mars, including a global dust storm, the evolution of water released from the southern polar cap during southern summer, the equinox phases, and a short but intense regional dust storm. In three instances, we observe water at very high altitudes (>80 km), the prime region where water is photodissociated and starts its escape to space. Rayleigh distillation appears the be the driving force affecting the D/H in many cases, yet in some instances, the exchange of water reservoirs with distinctive D/H could be responsible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc8843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875534PMC
February 2021

A phase 2 trial of trifluridine/tipiracil plus nivolumab in patients with heavily pretreated microsatellite-stable metastatic colorectal cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 02 5;10(4):1183-1190. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute and Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to be poorly immunogenic, with limited treatment options. In MSS CRC xenograft models, trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) plus programed death 1 inhibitors resulted in synergistic antitumor activity and increased tumor immunogenicity. This phase 2 study evaluated FTD/TPI plus nivolumab in patients with MSS metastatic CRC.

Methods: This single-arm, safety lead-in study used a Simon's two-stage design (enrolling 6 patients in the safety lead-in, proceeding to stage 2 if ≥2 of the first 15 patients achieved a partial or complete response per immune-related response criteria [irRC] within 6 months). Patients with histologically proven MSS mCRC, and disease progression after ≥2 prior chemotherapy regimens received FTD/TPI (35 mg/m twice daily; days 1-5 and 8-12 every 28 days) plus nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks).

Results: Between August 2016 and January 2017, 18 patients (50% men; median age 56.5 years) were enrolled; 72% had colon cancer and 56% had KRAS mutations. All patients received treatment (median, 2.5 cycles [range, 1-8]). No dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the study. The most frequent adverse events (AEs) of any cause and grade were nausea (67%), diarrhea (61%), and neutropenia (50%); 13 patients (72%) experienced grade ≥3 AEs. No patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. No patient achieved a tumor response (either per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] or irRC), and the study did not progress to the second stage. Stable disease was achieved in 8 patients per irRC and in 10 patients per RECIST. Median progression-free survival was 2.2 months (95% CI, 1.8-6.0 months) per irRC and 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.8-5.1 months) per RECIST.

Conclusion: Patients with refractory MSS metastatic CRC failed to experience clinical benefit with FTD/TPI plus nivolumab, although safety data in this population indicated tolerability and feasibility of this combination.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02860546.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926002PMC
February 2021

Preclinical Evaluation and Phase Ib Study of Prexasertib, a CHK1 Inhibitor, and Samotolisib (LY3023414), a Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 25;27(7):1864-1874. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: Prexasertib, a checkpoint kinase 1 inhibitor (CHK1), exhibited modest monotherapy antitumor activity in previous studies. Preclinical data were generated to support the clinical combination of prexasertib + samotolisib, a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor.

Patients And Methods: Prexasertib + samotolisib was first evaluated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, MDA-MB-231 orthotopic xenograft tumors, and TNBC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. In the phase Ib trial, following dose escalation, the initial expansion arm (E1, solid tumors) explored prexasertib 105 mg/m intravenously every 14 days + samotolisib 200 mg orally twice daily. Subsequent expansion arms evaluated samotolisib 150 mg twice daily in patients carrying mutations (E2, solid tumors) or with TNBC (E3). Safety and antitumor activity were assessed.

Results: Prexasertib + samotolisib inhibited cell proliferation in TNBC lines and primary tumor growth in the MDA-MB-231 model. Prexasertib + samotolisib exhibited synergistic or additive effects in 30 of 38 PDX single-mouse (" = 1") models, and provided rationale for clinical evaluation. In the phase Ib study, 53 patients were enrolled (escalation, = 13; E1, = 9; E2, = 15; and E3, = 16). No dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) were observed during escalation; however, DLT-equivalent toxicities were observed in E1, leading to samotolisib dose reduction (150 mg twice daily) in E2/E3. Common treatment-related adverse events were leukopenia/neutropenia (94.3%), thrombocytopenia (62.3%), and nausea (52.8%). During escalation, 2 patients achieved partial response for an overall response rate (ORR) of 15.4%, and ORRs were 13.3% for E2 () and 25% for E3 (TNBC).

Conclusions: Prexasertib + samotolisib showed antitumor activity in preclinical models and preliminary efficacy in heavily pretreated patients. The clinical combination was associated with toxicity, suggesting supportive measures may be required. However, these data may inform future trials using other CHK1 and PI3K pathway inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3242DOI Listing
April 2021

4Ei-10 interdiction of oncogenic cap-mediated translation as therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2021 06 23;39(3):636-643. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

In order to suppress 5' cap-mediated translation a highly available inhibitor of the interaction between the 5' mRNA cap and the eIF4E complex has been developed. 4Ei-10 is a member of the class of ProTide compounds and has elevated membrane permeability and is a strong active chemical antagonist for eIF4E. Once taken up by cells it is converted by anchimeric activation of the lipophilic 2-(methylthio) ethyl protecting group and after that Hint1 P-N bond cleavage to N-(p-chlorophenoxyethyl) guanosine 5'-monophosphate (7-Cl-Ph-Ethyl-GMP). Using this powerful interaction, it has been demonstrated that 4Ei-10 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth. In addition, treatment of NSCLC cells with 4Ei-10 results in suppression of translation and diminished expression of a cohort of cellular proteins important to maintaining the malignant phenotype and resisting apoptosis such as Bcl-2, survivin, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Finally, as a result of targeting the translation of anti-apoptotic proteins, NSCLC cells are synergized to be more sensitive to the existing anti-neoplastic treatment gemcitabine currently used in NSCLC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01036-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and immune-related adverse event associations in avelumab-treated patients.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 11;8(2)

Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Adverse events (AEs) of special interest that arise during treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors, including immune-related AEs (irAEs), have been reported to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. We analyzed patients treated with avelumab from the JAVELIN Solid Tumor and Merkel 200 trials, examining the association between AEs and efficacy while adjusting for confounding factors such as treatment duration and event order.

Methods: We analyzed efficacy and safety data from 1783 patients treated with the programmed death ligand 1 inhibitor avelumab who were enrolled in expansion cohorts of the JAVELIN Solid Tumor and Merkel 200 trials. To analyze the association between irAEs and efficacy with regard to survival, we used a time-dependent Cox model with time-varying indicators for irAEs, as well as multistate models that accounted for competing risks and time inhomogeneity.

Results: 295 patients (16.5%) experienced irAEs and 454 patients (25.5%) experienced infusion-related reactions. There was a reduced risk of death in patients who experienced irAEs compared with those who did not (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.85) using the time-dependent Cox model. The multistate model did not suggest that the occurrence of irAEs could predict response; however, it predicted a higher chance of irAEs occurring after a response. No association was observed between response and infusion-related reactions.

Conclusions: Patients who experience irAEs showed improved survival. Although irAEs are not predictors for response to immune checkpoint inhibitors, increased vigilance for irAEs is needed after treatment with avelumab.

Trial Registration Numbers: NCT01772004 and NCT02155647.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682456PMC
November 2020

Phase I Basket Study of Taselisib, an Isoform-Selective PI3K Inhibitor, in Patients with -Mutant Cancers.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 01 4;27(2):447-459. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Hospital, New York, New York.

Purpose: Somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (), which encodes the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3K, are found in multiple human cancers. While recurrent mutations in helical, regulatory, and kinase domains lead to constitutive PI3K pathway activation, other mutations remain uncharacterized. To further evaluate their clinical actionability, we designed a basket study for patients with -mutant cancers with the isoform-specific PI3K inhibitor taselisib.

Patients And Methods: Patients were enrolled on the basis of local mutation testing into one of 11 histology-specific cohorts and treated with taselisib at 6 or 4 mg daily until progression. Tumor DNA from baseline and progression (when available) was sequenced using a next-generation sequencing panel. Exploratory analyses correlating genomic alterations with treatment outcomes were performed.

Results: A total of 166 patients with -mutant cancers were enrolled. The confirmed response rate was 9%. Activity varied by tumor type and mutant allele, with confirmed responses observed in head and neck squamous (15.4%), cervical (10%), and other cancers, plus in tumors containing helical domain mutations. Genomic analyses identified mutations potentially associated with resistance to PI3K inhibition upfront ( and ) and postprogression through reactivation of the PI3K pathway (, and ). Higher rates of dose modification occurred at higher doses of taselisib, indicating a narrow therapeutic index.

Conclusions: Taselisib had limited activity in the tumor types tested and is no longer in development. This genome-driven study improves understanding of the activity, limitations, and resistance mechanisms of using PI3K inhibitors as monotherapy to target -mutant tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-2657DOI Listing
January 2021

Avelumab as second-line therapy for metastatic, platinum-treated urothelial carcinoma in the phase Ib JAVELIN Solid Tumor study: 2-year updated efficacy and safety analysis.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 10;8(2)

Florida Cancer Specialists/Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Sarasota, Florida, USA.

Background: Anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death 1 antibodies have shown clinical activity in platinum-treated metastatic urothelial carcinoma, resulting in regulatory approval of several agents, including avelumab (anti-PD-L1). We report ≥2-year follow-up data for avelumab treatment and exploratory subgroup analyses in patients with urothelial carcinoma.

Methods: Patients with previously treated advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma, pooled from two cohorts of the phase Ib JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial, received avelumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or withdrawal. End points included best overall response and progression-free survival (PFS) per RECIST V.1.1, overall survival (OS) and safety. Post hoc analyses included objective response rates (ORRs) in subgroups defined by established high-risk/poor-prognosis characteristics and association between time to response and outcome.

Results: 249 patients received avelumab; efficacy was assessed in 242 postplatinum patients. Median follow-up was 31.9 months (range 24-43), and median treatment duration was 2.8 months (range 0.5-42.8). The confirmed ORR was 16.5% (95% CI 12.1% to 21.8%; complete response in 4.1% and partial response in 12.4%). Median duration of response was 20.5 months (95% CI 9.7 months to not estimable). Median PFS was 1.6 months (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7 months) and the 12-month PFS rate was 16.8% (95% CI 11.9% to 22.4%). Median OS was 7.0 months (95% CI 5.9 to 8.5 months) and the 24-month OS rate was 20.1% (95% CI 15.2% to 25.4%). In post hoc exploratory analyses, avelumab showed antitumor activity in high-risk subgroups, including elderly patients and those with renal insufficiency or upper tract disease; ORRs were numerically lower in patients with liver metastases or low albumin levels. Objective response achieved by 3 months versus later was associated with longer OS (median not reached (95% CI 18.9 months to not estimable) vs 7.1 months (95% CI 5.2 to 9.0 months)). Safety findings were consistent with previously reported 6-month analyses.

Conclusions: After ≥2 years of follow-up, avelumab showed prolonged efficacy and acceptable safety in patients with platinum-treated advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma, including high-risk subgroups. Survival appeared longer in patients who responded within 3 months. Long-term safety findings were consistent with earlier reports with avelumab treatment in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549450PMC
October 2020

Phase 1 study of mTORC1/2 inhibitor sapanisertib (TAK-228) in advanced solid tumours, with an expansion phase in renal, endometrial or bladder cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 11 11;123(11):1590-1598. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Drug Development Unit, 250 25th Ave., North Nashville, TN, 37203, USA.

Background: This Phase 1 dose-escalation/expansion study assessed safety/tolerability of sapanisertib, an oral, highly selective inhibitor of mTORC1/mTORC2, in advanced solid tumours.

Methods: Eligible patients received increasing sapanisertib doses once daily (QD; 31 patients), once weekly (QW; 30 patients), QD for 3 days on/4 days off QW (QD × 3dQW; 33 patients) or QD for 5 days on/2 days off QW (QD × 5dQW; 22 patients). In expansion cohorts, 82 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), endometrial or bladder cancer received sapanisertib 5 mg QD (39 patients), 40 mg QW (26 patients) or 30 mg QW (17 patients).

Results: Maximum tolerated doses of sapanisertib were 6 mg QD, 40 mg QW, 9 mg QD × 3dQW and 7 mg QD × 5dQW. Frequent dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included hyperglycaemia, maculo-papular rash (QD), asthenia and stomatitis (QD × 3dQW/QD × 5dQW); expansion phase doses of 5 mg QD and 30 mg QW were selected based on tolerability beyond the DLT evaluation period. One patient with RCC achieved complete response; nine experienced partial responses (RCC: seven patients; carcinoid tumour/endometrial cancer: one patient each). Sapanisertib pharmacokinetics were time-linear and supported multiple dosing. Pharmacodynamic findings demonstrated treatment-related reductions in TORC1/2 biomarkers.

Conclusions: Sapanisertib demonstrated a manageable safety profile, with preliminary antitumour activity observed in RCC and endometrial cancer.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01058707.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01041-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686313PMC
November 2020

Immunologic and tumor responses of pegilodecakin with 5-FU/LV and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Invest New Drugs 2021 02 10;39(1):182-192. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX, USA.

Background Treatment options for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited and checkpoint blockade inhibitors have been disappointing in this disease. Pegilodecakin has demonstrated single agent anti-tumor activity in immune-sensitive tumors. Phase 1 and preclinical data indicate synergy of pegilodecakin with 5-FU and platins. We assessed the safety and activity of pegilodecakin+FOLFOX in patients with PDAC. Methods IVY (NCT02009449) was an open-label phase 1b trial in the United States. Here we report on all enrolled patients from cohort C. Heavily pretreated patients were treated with pegilodecakin (self-administered subcutaneously daily at 2.5, 5, or 10 μg/kg) + 5-flurouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), dosed per manufacturers prescribing information, until tumor progression. Eligible patients had measurable disease per immune-related response criteria (irRC), were ≥ 18 years of age, and had ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were evaluated for primary(safety) and secondary (tumor response per irRC) endpoints. Results From 5 August 2014-12 July 2016, 39 patients enrolled in cohort C. All patients were evaluable for safety. In this advanced population, regimen had manageable toxicities with no immune-related adverse events (irAEs) greater than grade 1. The most common grade 3/4/5 TEAEs were thrombocytopenia (21[53.8%] of 39) and anemia (17[43.6%] of 39). In evaluable PDAC patients, the best overall response of pegilodecakin+FOLFOX was 3(14%) with CRs in 2(9%) patients. Conclusions Pegilodecakin+FOLFOX had an acceptable tolerability profile in PDAC, with no substantial irAEs seen, and promising efficacy with the combination yielding a 2-year OS of 24% (95% CI 10-42). These data led to the phase 3 study with pegilodecakin+FOLFOX as second-line therapy of PDAC (SEQUOIA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01000-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Andecaliximab (GS-5745) Plus Gemcitabine and Nab-Paclitaxel in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Results from a Phase I Study.

Oncologist 2020 11 17;25(11):954-962. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Riverside Peninsula Cancer Institute, Riverside Cancer Care Center, Newport News, Virginia, USA.

Background: Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression in the tumor microenvironment is implicated in multiple protumorigenic processes. Andecaliximab (GS-5745), a monoclonal antibody targeting MMP9 with high affinity and selectivity, was evaluated in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Patients And Methods: This phase I study was completed in two parts: part A was a dose-finding, monotherapy phase that enrolled patients with advanced solid tumors, and part B examined andecaliximab in combination with chemotherapy in specific patient cohorts. In the cohort of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 36), andecaliximab 800 mg every 2 weeks was administered in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel. Patients were treated until unacceptable toxicity, withdrawal of consent, disease progression, or death. Efficacy, safety, and biomarker assessments were performed.

Results: Andecaliximab combined with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel appeared to be well tolerated and did not demonstrate any unusual toxicities in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were fatigue (75.0%), alopecia (55.6%), peripheral edema (55.6%), and nausea (50.0%). Median progression-free survival was 7.8 months (90% confidence interval, 6.9-11.0) with an objective response rate of 44.4% and median duration of response of 7.6 months. Maximal andecaliximab target binding, defined as undetectable, andecaliximab-free MMP9 in plasma, was observed.

Conclusion: Andecaliximab in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel demonstrates a favorable safety profile and clinical activity in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Implications For Practice: The combination of andecaliximab, a novel, first-in-class inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 9, with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma provided a median progression-free survival of 7.8 months and objective response rate of 44.4%. The majority of systemic biomarkers related to matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity and immune suppression increased at 2 months, whereas biomarkers related to tumor burden decreased. Although this study demonstrates promising results with andecaliximab plus chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, andecaliximab was not associated with a survival benefit in a phase III study in patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648353PMC
November 2020

Surface Warming During the 2018/Mars Year 34 Global Dust Storm.

Geophys Res Lett 2020 May 6;47(9):e2019GL083936. Epub 2020 May 6.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology Pasadena CA USA.

The impact of Mars's 2018 Global Dust Storm (GDS) on surface and near-surface air temperatures was investigated using an assimilation of Mars Climate Sounder observations. Rather than simply resulting in cooling everywhere from solar absorption (average surface radiative flux fell 26 W/m), the globally averaged result was a 0.9-K surface warming. These diurnally averaged surface temperature changes had a novel, highly nonuniform spatial structure, with up to 16-K cooling/19-K warming. Net warming occurred in low thermal inertia regions, where rapid nighttime radiative cooling was compensated by increased longwave emission and scattering. This caused strong nightside warming, outweighing dayside cooling. The reduced surface-air temperature gradient closely coupled surface and air temperatures, even causing local dayside air warming. Results show good agreement with Mars Climate Sounder surface temperature retrievals. Comparisons with the 2001 GDS and free-running simulations show that GDS spatial structure is crucial in determining global surface temperature effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019GL083936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375149PMC
May 2020

Phase 1 Study to Evaluate the Effect of the Investigational Anticancer Agent Sapanisertib on the QTc Interval in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2020 10 2;9(7):876-888. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

The aim of this phase 1 study was to determine the effects of sapanisertib on the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval in patients with advanced solid tumors. Adult patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled to receive a single sapanisertib 40-mg dose. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and electrocardiogram readings were recorded at baseline and up to 48 hours after dosing. Patients could continue to receive sapanisertib 30 mg once weekly in 28-day cycles for up to 12 months. The primary objective was to characterize the effect of a single dose of sapanisertib (40 mg) on the QT interval. Secondary objectives were to evaluate safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics. Following a single sapanisertib 40-mg dose in 44 patients, the maximum least squares mean (upper bound of 1-sided 95% confidence interval) changes from time-matched baseline were 7.1 milliseconds (11.4 milliseconds) for individual rate-corrected QT interval at 24 hours after dosing, and 1.8 milliseconds (5.6 milliseconds) for Fridericia-corrected QTc at 1 hour post-dose. There was no sapanisertib plasma concentration-dependent increase in the change from time-matched baseline individual rate-corrected QTc interval or Fridericia-corrected QTc. The most common adverse events following sapanisertib 30 mg once-weekly dosing were nausea (80%), fatigue (61%), vomiting (57%), and decreased appetite (45%). A single sapanisertib 40 mg dose did not produce clinically relevant effects on QTc interval in patients with advanced solid tumors. The safety profile of sapanisertib 30 mg once weekly was favorable, and no new safety signals were observed (NCT02197572, clinicaltrials.gov).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586797PMC
October 2020

Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells as a Cellular Carrier for Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Expressing Interferon-β in Preclinical Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Transl Oncol 2020 Jul 15;13(7):100782. Epub 2020 May 15.

University of Minnesota, Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Transplantation, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Oncolytic viruses have demonstrated efficacy in numerous tumor models including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One limitation of viral therapy for metastatic lung cancer is that systemic administration can be hindered by complement and antiviral immunity. Thus, we investigated whether ex vivo-infected blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) could be used to deliver VSV-IFNβ in preclinical models of NSCLC. BOECs were obtained from human donors or C57/Bl6 mice. VSV was engineered to produce GFP or IFNβ. Human and murine BOECs could be infected by VSV-GFP and VSV-IFNβ. Infected BOECs resulted in killing of NSCLC cells in vitro and shielded VSV-IFNβ from antibody neutralization. Mouse BOECs localized to lungs of mice bearing syngeneic LM2 lung tumors, and infected murine BOECs reduced tumor burden in this model. In an immune-deficient A549 xenograft model, mice treated with VSV-IFNβ-infected human BOECs exhibited superior antitumor activity and survival of mice (n = 10, P < .05 compared to VSV-IFNβ alone). We conclude that BOECs can be used as a carrier for delivery of oncolytic VSV-IFNβ. This may be an effective strategy for clinical translation of oncolytic virotherapy for patients with metastatic NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2020.100782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231872PMC
July 2020

Phase I Study of TAK-659, an Investigational, Dual SYK/FLT3 Inhibitor, in Patients with B-Cell Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 07 23;26(14):3546-3556. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: TAK-659 is an investigational, dual SYK/FLT3 inhibitor with preclinical activity in B-cell malignancy models. This first-in-human, dose-escalation/expansion study aimed to determine the safety, tolerability, MTD/recommended phase II dose (RP2D), and preliminary efficacy of TAK-659 in relapsed/refractory solid tumors and B-cell lymphomas.

Patients And Methods: Patients received continuous, once-daily oral TAK-659, 60-120 mg in 28-day cycles, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The study applied an accelerated dose-escalation design to determine the MTD and RP2D. In the expansion phase, patients with lymphoma were enrolled in five disease cohorts at the MTD.

Results: Overall, 105 patients were enrolled [dose escalation, = 36 (solid tumors, = 19; lymphoma, = 17); expansion, = 69]. The MTD was 100 mg once daily. TAK-659 absorption was fast ( ∼2 hours) with a long terminal half-life (∼37 hours). Exposure generally increased with dose (60-120 mg), with moderate variability. The most common treatment-related adverse events were generally asymptomatic and reversible elevations in clinical laboratory values. Among 43 response-evaluable patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 8 (19%) achieved a complete response (CR) with an overall response rate (ORR) of 28% [23% intent-to-treat (ITT)]. Responses were seen in both and transformed disease and appeared independent of cell-of-origin classification. Among 9 response-evaluable patients with follicular lymphoma, 2 (22%) achieved CR with an ORR of 89% (57% ITT).

Conclusions: TAK-659 has single-agent activity in patients with B-cell lymphoma. Further studies of the drug in combination, including an evaluation of the biologically optimal and safest long-term dose and schedule, are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3239DOI Listing
July 2020

Deep and Prolonged Response to Aurora A Kinase Inhibitor and Subsequently to Nivolumab in MYCL1-Driven Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Case Report and Literature Review.

Case Rep Oncol Med 2020 6;2020:8026849. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St SE, MMC 480, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is one of the most aggressive solid tumors, and the prognosis has not improved significantly in 25 years. Despite a recent understanding of the genomic aberrations seen in SCLC, these insights have not led to any breakthroughs in treatment. We present a patient with SCLC harboring a novel MYCL1 fusion protein who experienced a prolonged disease course due to the use of Aurora A kinase inhibitor and subsequently nivolumab. MYC family genes are master regulators of several cellular pathways including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and recently have been shown to be involved in tumor immune evasion. Large studies have shown that a significant proportion of patients with SCLC have amplification or overexpression of MYC family genes. Preclinical data have exposed vulnerability of MYC-driven tumors to Aurora kinase inhibitors, bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitors, and recently to immune checkpoint blockers. Further studies using these agents with selective enrolling of patients with MYC-altered tumors are warranted to exploit these vulnerabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8026849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7166265PMC
April 2020

Phase I study of imalumab (BAX69), a fully human recombinant antioxidized macrophage migration inhibitory factor antibody in advanced solid tumours.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 09 12;86(9):1836-1848. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics (Phase 1 Program), The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Aim: Preclinical evidence suggests that oxidized macrophage migration inhibitory factor (oxMIF) may be involved in carcinogenesis. This phase 1 study (NCT01765790) assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and antitumour activity of imalumab, an oxMIF inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer using '3 + 3' dose escalation.

Methods: In Schedule 1, patients with solid tumours received doses from 1 to 50 mg/kg IV every 2 weeks. In Schedule 2, patients with metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung, or ovarian cancer received weekly doses of 10 or 25 mg/kg IV (1 cycle = 28 days). Treatment continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, dose-limiting toxicity, or withdrawal of consent.

Results: Fifty of 68 enrolled patients received imalumab. The most common treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) included fatigue (10%) and vomiting (6%); four grade 3 serious TRAEs (two patients) occurred. The dose-limiting toxicity was allergic alveolitis (one patient, 50 mg/kg every 2 weeks). The maximum tolerated and biologically active doses were 37.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks and 10 mg/kg weekly, respectively. Of 39 assessed patients, 13 had stable disease (≥4 months in 8 patients).

Conclusions: Imalumab had a maximum tolerated dose of 37.5 mg/kg every 2 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumours, with a biologically active dose of 10 mg/kg weekly. Further investigation will help define the role of oxMIF as a cancer treatment target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444762PMC
September 2020

Nutrition Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Outpatients With Advanced Head and Neck Cancer.

Nutr Clin Pract 2020 Dec 5;35(6):1129-1137. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

This pilot study evaluated nutrition status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes among outpatients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Data were collected from 19 patients (18 males, 1 female) during 3 time points: once before chemoradiotherapy (CRT) initiation and 1 and 3 months after CRT. Nutrition status was evaluated using the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). Malnutrition was defined as PG-SGA stage B (moderate/suspected malnutrition) or stage C (severely malnourished). HRQOL was assessed through the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its HNC-specific module (QLQ-H&N35). We found that well-nourished patients reported having fewer issues with pain, fatigue, appetite loss, chewing, sticky saliva, coughing, and social eating than those categorized as malnourished (P < .05). The association between the global quality-of-life score and PG-SGA score was statistically significant but weak in strength (r = -0.37, P = .012). Although PG-SGA identified 70% as either moderately or severely malnourished before treatment initiation, the mean body mass index was in the overweight category (29 ± 5 kg/m ). Compared with pretreatment, patients reported more severe problems with chewing, swallowing, sticky saliva, dry mouth, speech, social eating, and taste and smell sensations at 1-month follow-up, although issues with dry mouth persisted 3 months post treatment (P = .003). In conclusion, malnourished patients reported having worse HRQOL symptoms compared with well-nourished patients. Routine nutrition and psychosocial assessment through PG-SGA and EORTC tools might help identify patients in need of nutrition and psychosocial care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483147PMC
December 2020

Repression of oncogenic cap-mediated translation by 4Ei-10 diminishes proliferation, enhances chemosensitivity and alters expression of malignancy-related proteins in mesothelioma.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2020 02 23;85(2):425-432. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Activated cap-dependent translation promotes cancer by stimulating translation of mRNAs encoding malignancy-promoting proteins. The nucleoside monophosphate Protide, 4Ei-10, undergoes intracellular uptake and conversion by Hint1 to form 7-Cl-Ph-Ethyl-GMP. 7-Cl-Ph-Ethyl-GMP is an analog of cap and inhibits protein translation by binding and sequestering eIF4E thus blocking eIF4E from binding to the mRNA cap. The effects of inhibiting translation initiation by disruption of the eIF4F complex with 4Ei-10 were examined in malignant mesothelioma (MM). In a cell-free assay system, formation of the eIF4F complex was disabled in response to exposure to 4Ei-10. Treatment of MM with 4Ei-10 resulted in decreased cell proliferation, increased sensitivity to pemetrexed and altered expression of malignancy-related proteins. In light of these findings, suppression of translation initiation by small molecule inhibitors like 4Ei-10 alone or in combination with pemetrexed represents an encouraging strategy meriting further evaluation in the treatment of MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-020-04029-9DOI Listing
February 2020

Adenosine Signaling Is Prognostic for Cancer Outcome and Has Predictive Utility for Immunotherapeutic Response.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 05 17;26(9):2176-2187. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Translational Medicine, Research and Early Development, Oncology R&D, AstraZeneca, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: There are several agents in early clinical trials targeting components of the adenosine pathway including A2AR and CD73. The identification of cancers with a significant adenosine drive is critical to understand the potential for these molecules. However, it is challenging to measure tumor adenosine levels at scale, thus novel, clinically tractable biomarkers are needed.

Experimental Design: We generated a gene expression signature for the adenosine signaling using regulatory networks derived from the literature and validated this in patients. We applied the signature to large cohorts of disease from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and cohorts of immune checkpoint inhibitor-treated patients.

Results: The signature captures baseline adenosine levels ( = 0.92, = 0.018), is reduced after small-molecule inhibition of A2AR in mice ( = -0.62, = 0.001) and humans (reduction in 5 of 7 patients, 70%), and is abrogated after A2AR knockout. Analysis of TCGA confirms a negative association between adenosine and overall survival (OS, HR = 0.6, < 2.2e) as well as progression-free survival (PFS, HR = 0.77, = 0.0000006). Further, adenosine signaling is associated with reduced OS (HR = 0.47, < 2.2e) and PFS (HR = 0.65, = 0.0000002) in CD8 T-cell-infiltrated tumors. Mutation of TGFβ superfamily members is associated with enhanced adenosine signaling and worse OS (HR = 0.43, < 2.2e). Finally, adenosine signaling is associated with reduced efficacy of anti-PD1 therapy in published cohorts (HR = 0.29, = 0.00012).

Conclusions: These data support the adenosine pathway as a mediator of a successful antitumor immune response, demonstrate the prognostic potential of the signature for immunotherapy, and inform patient selection strategies for adenosine pathway modulators currently in development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-2183DOI Listing
May 2020

Entrectinib in ROS1 fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: integrated analysis of three phase 1-2 trials.

Lancet Oncol 2020 02 11;21(2):261-270. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Ignyta, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: Recurrent gene fusions, such as ROS1 fusions, are oncogenic drivers of various cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Up to 36% of patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC have brain metastases at the diagnosis of advanced disease. Entrectinib is a ROS1 inhibitor that has been designed to effectively penetrate and remain in the CNS. We explored the use of entrectinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: We did an integrated analysis of three ongoing phase 1 or 2 trials of entrectinib (ALKA-372-001, STARTRK-1, and STARTRK-2). The efficacy-evaluable population included adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with locally advanced or metastatic ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC who received entrectinib at a dose of at least 600 mg orally once per day, with at least 12 months' follow-up. All patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2, and previous cancer treatment (except for ROS1 inhibitors) was allowed. The primary endpoints were the proportion of patients with an objective response (complete or partial response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) and duration of response, and were evaluated by blinded independent central review. The safety-evaluable population for the safety analysis included all patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the three trials who received at least one dose of entrectinib (irrespective of dose or duration of follow-up). These ongoing studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02097810 (STARTRK-1) and NCT02568267 (STARTRK-2), and EudraCT, 2012-000148-88 (ALKA-372-001).

Findings: Patients were enrolled in ALKA-372-001 from Oct 26, 2012, to March 27, 2018; in STARTRK-1 from Aug 7, 2014, to May 10, 2018; and in STARTRK-2 from Nov 19, 2015 (enrolment is ongoing). At the data cutoff date for this analysis (May 31, 2018), 41 (77%; 95% CI 64-88) of 53 patients in the efficacy-evaluable population had an objective response. Median follow-up was 15·5 monhts (IQR 13·4-20·2). Median duration of response was 24·6 months (95% CI 11·4-34·8). In the safety-evaluable population, 79 (59%) of 134 patients had grade 1 or 2 treatment-related adverse events. 46 (34%) of 134 patients had grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events, with the most common being weight increase (ten [8%]) and neutropenia (five [4%]). 15 (11%) patients had serious treatment-related adverse events, the most common of which were nervous system disorders (four [3%]) and cardiac disorders (three [2%]). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Entrectinib is active with durable disease control in patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC, and is well tolerated with a manageable safety profile, making it amenable to long-term dosing in these patients. These data highlight the need to routinely test for ROS1 fusions to broaden therapeutic options for patients with ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Ignyta/F Hoffmann-La Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30690-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811790PMC
February 2020

Randomized Phase II Study of Paclitaxel plus Alisertib versus Paclitaxel plus Placebo as Second-Line Therapy for SCLC: Primary and Correlative Biomarker Analyses.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 02 23;15(2):274-287. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Introduction: We assessed the Aurora A kinase inhibitor, alisertib, plus paclitaxel (henceforth referred to as alisertib/paclitaxel) as second-line treatment for SCLC.

Methods: In this double-blind study, patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC were stratified by relapse type (sensitive versus resistant or refractory) and brain metastases and randomized 1:1 to alisertib/paclitaxel or placebo plus paclitaxel (henceforth referred to as placebo/paclitaxel) in 28-day cycles. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Associations of c-Myc expression in tumor tissue (prespecified) and genetic alterations in circulating tumor DNA (retrospective) with clinical outcome were evaluated.

Results: A total of 178 patients were enrolled (89 in each arm). The median PFS was 3.32 months with alisertib/paclitaxel versus 2.17 months with placebo/paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, 95% confidence limit [CI]: 0.557-1.067, p = 0.113 in the intent-to-treat population versus HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.509-0.985, p = 0.038 with corrected analysis applied). Among 140 patients with genetic alternations, patients with cell cycle regulator mutations (cyclin-dependent kinase 6 gene [CDK6], retinoblastoma-like 1 gene [RBL1], retinoblastoma-like 2 gene [RBL2], and retinoblastoma 1 gene [RB1]) had significantly improved PFS with alisertib/paclitaxel versus with placebo/paclitaxel (3.68 versus 1.80 months, respectively [HR = 0.395, 95% CI: 0.239-0.654, p = 0.0003]), and overall survival (7.20 versus 4.47 months, respectively [HR = 0.427, 95% CI: 0.259-0.704, p = 0.00085]). A subset of patients with c-Myc expression showed significantly improved PFS with alisertib/paclitaxel. The incidence of grade 3 or higher drug-related adverse events was 67% (58 patients) with alisertib/paclitaxel versus 22% (25 patients) with placebo/paclitaxel. Twelve patients (14%) versus 11 (12%) died on study, including four versus zero treatment-related deaths.

Conclusions: Efficacy signals were seen with alisertib/paclitaxel in relapsed or refractory SCLC. c-Myc expression and mutations in cell cycle regulators may be potential predictive biomarkers of alisertib efficacy; further prospective validations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.013DOI Listing
February 2020

Phase I study of the anti-endothelin B receptor antibody-drug conjugate DEDN6526A in patients with metastatic or unresectable cutaneous, mucosal, or uveal melanoma.

Invest New Drugs 2020 06 5;38(3):844-854. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, PPLC, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background Endothelin B receptor (ETR) is involved in melanoma pathogenesis and is overexpressed in metastatic melanoma. The antibody-drug conjugate DEDN6526A targets ETR and is comprised of the humanized anti-ETR monoclonal antibody conjugated to the anti-mitotic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). Methods This Phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and anti-tumor activity of DEDN6526A (0.3-2.8 mg/kg) given every 3 weeks (q3w) in patients with metastatic or unresectable cutaneous, mucosal, or uveal melanoma. Results Fifty-three patients received a median of 6 doses of DEDN6526A (range 1-49). The most common drug-related adverse events (>25% across dose levels) were fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, diarrhea, alopecia, and chills. Three patients in dose-escalation experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (infusion-related reaction, increased ALT/AST, and drug-induced liver injury). Based on cumulative safety data across all dose levels, the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) for DEDN6526A was 2.4 mg/kg intravenous (IV) q3w. The pharmacokinetics of antibody-conjugated MMAE and total antibody were dose-proportional at doses ranging from 1.8-2.8 mg/kg. A trend toward faster clearance was observed at doses of 0.3-1.2 mg/kg. There were 6 partial responses (11%) in patients with metastatic cutaneous or mucosal melanoma, and 17 patients (32%) had prolonged stable disease ≥6 months. Responses were independent of BRAF mutation status but did correlate with ETR expression. Conclusion DEDN6526A administered at the RP2D of 2.4 mg/kg q3w had an acceptable safety profile and showed evidence of anti-tumor activity in patients with cutaneous, mucosal, and uveal melanoma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01522664.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00832-1DOI Listing
June 2020
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