Publications by authors named "Manish Kumar"

858 Publications

Biopurification of dairy farm wastewater through hybrid constructed wetland system: Groundwater quality and health implications.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 8:111426. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Discipline of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382355, India. Electronic address:

Groundwater is under heavily threat owing to enormous infilteration of dairy farm originated wastewater into it. The anoxic environment in the groundwater due to mixing of organic rich wastewater can produce significant alterations in the groundwater quality. It is therefore necessary to treat such wastewaters before discharging to surrounding areas. Therefore, in this study we evaluated a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) system(40 m area) consisting of three beds, i.e. Vertical (16 m) - Horizontal (18 m) - Vertical (6 m) connected in series for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater under typical high humid climate in northern India. Tropical perennial plant such as Arundo donax L. was grown on both vertical beds, whereas Hibiscus esculentus L. and Solanum melongena L. were grown on the horizontal bed of the system.The average purification of TSS, BOD, total N, and P was significant (p < 0.05) in HF bed and recorded as 92.2 ± 6.1, 95 ± 3.8, 83.6 ± 9.0and 86.1 ± 10.0% respectively.The average load of BOD, total N, and P in the influent and effluent was recorded (with no significant differences, p > 0.05) as 7.0 ± 7.17, 1.9 ± 0.7, 0.72 ± 0.5 g m dayand 0.3 ± 0.2, 0.3 ± 0.2 and 0.04 ± 0.01 g m day respectively.The average values of total biomass content of Arundo donax L. were differed significantly and recorded as 0.31 ± 0.06, 0.43 ± 0.17, and 0.43 ± 0.16 g g fresh wt. in control, VF-1, and VF-2 respectively. Therefore, the hybrid CW system can be efficiently used for the treatment of dairy farm wastewater with implications on groundwater and health. Future research may focus on performance analysis of upgraded combined anaerobic reactor and hybrid CW system planted with series of macrophytes for on-site treatment of high strength dairy farm wastewater in tropical regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111426DOI Listing
June 2021

Microplastics as an emerging source of particulate air pollution: A critical review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 28;418:126245. Epub 2021 May 28.

Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, Uttar Pradesh, India; CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403004, Goa, India. Electronic address:

Accumulation of plastic litter exerts pressure on the environment. Microplastics (MPs) pollution has become a universal challenge due to the overexploitation of plastic products and unsystematic dumping of plastic waste. Initial studies on MPs and their implications had been confined to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, but recent research has also focused on MPs in the air. Their impacts on urban air quality and atmospheric transport to pristine habitats have emerged to be a serious concern. However, the extent and the significance of impacts of airborne particulate matter (PM) MPs on human health are not clearly understood. Further, the influence of airborne MPs on indoor and outdoor air quality remains unknown. We highlight the human health impacts of airborne PM-MPs with a special focus on the occupational safety of the industry workers, their possible influence on Air Quality Index (AQI), their potential exposure, and accumulation in the canopy/arboreal, above-canopy and atmospheric (aerial) habitats. The present review emphasizes the data limitations and knowledge gaps on the atmospheric transport and contribution of particulate plastics to the worsening of overall urban air quality and throws critical perspectives on whether atmospheric MPs pollution is trivial or an actual matter of concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126245DOI Listing
May 2021

Integrated use of inverse and biotic ligand modelling for lake water quality resilience estimation: A case of Ramsar wetland, (Deepor Beel), Assam, India.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 7;200:111397. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Discipline of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, 382355, India. Electronic address:

The present study evaluates the vulnerability of the lake system (Deepor Beel) due to the combined exposure of toxic metals, major ions and mineral dissociation. The hydro-chemistry of the Deepor Beel lake reveals the dominance of carbonate weathering with strong evidences of ion-exchange reaction occurring throughout the monsoon season of 2014 and 2015. Through an integrated application of multivariate analysis, the occurrence of albite weathering was confirmed, although as an isolated incidence only, along-with substantial evidence of waste water intrusion from fertilizer industries. The moderate cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the soil, indicates the presence of illite, chlorite and kaolinite which provides a strong buffering action in terms of phosphorous and nutrient retention. However, occurrences of chemical waste in the form of bleaching powder (Ca(OCl)) are causing acidification of lake soil, which will trigger the release of phosphorous and may enhance the eutrophication level in near future. Through the simulations of Biotic Ligand (BL) model on ceriodaphnia dubia, it is being revealed, that the free availability of Ca in the lake water, provides a higher adsorptive competition for labile metal species especially for Cu and Zn. Additionally, the risk among children from drinking lake water, has increased by three to seven times in a duration of just one year. The present study is a pioneering work, which has evaluated the vulnerability of Deepor Beel lake by adopting a sequential assessment strategy of lake internal as well as external ecology. Our proposed methodology can be a used as a scientific basis for future assessment of the lake health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111397DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Antenatal Magnesium Sulfate on the Gut Function of Preterm (<32 weeks) Very Low Birth Weight Neonates: Experience from a Tertiary Institute in South India.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 05;67(2)

Department of Neonatology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: Antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is found to have various adverse effects in newborn, but the effect on preterm gut is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antenatal MgSO4 on preterm gut function by assessing the clinical outcomes and mesenteric blood flow.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study on all preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates born at a tertiary care center in South India from November 2016 to August 2017. Neonates with antenatal magnesium (Mg) exposure were compared with those with no exposure for various neonatal outcome variables like time to reach full feeds, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and other preterm complications, serial serum Mg levels and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) Doppler velocity measurements at two time points (24-48 h and 4-5 days after birth).

Results: Out of 84 neonates, 56 neonates were exposed to antenatal Mg with a median cumulative maternal dose of 28 g and the rest 28 neonates had no exposure. The mean time to reach full feeds was the same in both groups (10.5 days). Feed intolerance episodes were similar in the first week of life between the exposed and unexposed groups (48.2% vs. 46.4%; p = 0.88). Univariate analysis revealed no difference between groups concerning rates of NEC (p = 0.17) or mortality (p = 0.39). There was no significant difference in SMA Doppler parameters and hypermagnesemia between the two groups.

Conclusion: Our study found no significant impact on postnatal feed tolerance and mesenteric blood flow among preterm VLBW neonates with antenatal MgSO4 exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmab040DOI Listing
May 2021

Functional implications of residues of the B' motif of geminivirus replication initiator protein in its helicase activity.

FEBS J 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Molecular Virology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Geminivirus replication initiator protein (Rep) is a multifunctional viral protein required for replication. During the process of viral replication, Rep acts as a site- and strand-specific endonuclease, ligase, ATPase and helicase. B' motif and β-hairpin loop of the geminivirus Rep are conserved and important for Rep mediated helicase activity required for viral replication. To dissect the roles of various amino acid residues of the B' motif and β-hairpin loop of the geminivirus Rep helicase in its process of unwinding DNA, we investigated eight conserved residues near the ATP active site or the ssDNA contact channel. Our strategy was to mutate these residues to alanines and investigate the effects of these mutations on various biochemical activities associated with DNA unwinding. We looked into the ATP binding, ATP hydrolysis, DNA binding, and DNA unwinding activities of the wild-type and mutant Rep proteins. These investigations showed four residues (Arg279, Asp280, Tyr287 and Pro290) affecting the DNA unwinding activity. A structural model analysis confirmed the B' loop and ssDNA binding loop to be connected through a β-hairpin structure, suggesting that changes on one loop might affect the other and that these residues function by acting in concert. Viral genomes containing Rep proteins having these mutations in the B' motif did not replicate in planta. Taken together, these results indicated all four residues to be implicated in helicase activity mediated by Rep and demonstrated the significance, for viral replication, of the B' motif and β-hairpin loop of the C-terminal region of the Rep protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.16053DOI Listing
June 2021

Depicting the seasonal and spatial sensitivity of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment on phytoplankton in the Bay of Bengal, India.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 3;169:112554. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Discipline of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar 382355, India. Electronic address:

High nutrient loading discharge into the oceans is an evolving threat to the marine biota at large, including the Bay of Bengal (BoB) which receives one of the highest inflows of nutrient fluxes from rivers like the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. Further, the complex riverine and deltaic formations are difficult to be quantified, hence satellite-based observation of chlorophyll and phytoplankton species can add more insight in the nutrient aggregation process. We evaluated the spatial sensitive zones in the BoB in terms of anthropogenic nutrients. Our study shows that coccolithophore population and chlorophyll a concentration can be an active indicator of flood mediated nutrient inflow into the oceans. SST illustrated weaker correlation with phytoplankton species during the monsoon owing to prevalence of cyclonic conditions and high nutrient concentration, however, the relationship is relatively stronger during the pre-monsoon when more stable oligotrophic conditions exist. Higher concentration of diatoms, cyanobacteria and chlorophytes in BOB compared to the Pacific Ocean indicates the ecological sensitivity and the resilience of the Bay of Bengal in terms of nutrient cycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112554DOI Listing
June 2021

Optoelectronic Properties of Chalcogenide Perovskites by Many-Body Perturbation Theory.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 1;12(22):5301-5307. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Chalcogenide perovskites have emerged as lead-free, stable photovoltaic materials, having promising optoelectronic properties. However, a detailed theoretical study on excitonic properties is rather demanding task due to the huge computational cost and, therefore, is hitherto unknown. Here, we report the excitonic properties of chalcogenide perovskites AZrS (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) using state-of-the-art hybrid density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory (within the framework of GW and BSE). We find the exciton binding energy () is larger than that of conventional halide perovskites. We also observe, by computing the electron-phonon coupling parameters, a more stable charge-separated polaronic state as compared to that of the bound exciton. The ionic contribution to dielectric screening is found to be negligible in this class of materials. On the basis of the direct band gap and the absorption coefficient, the estimated spectroscopic limited maximum efficiency is quite good when these materials are considered as promising environmentally friendly perovskites suitable for photovoltaics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01034DOI Listing
June 2021

Ellagic acid prevents 3-nitropropionic acid induced symptoms of Huntington's disease.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pharmacology, Amar Shaheed Baba Ajit Singh Jujhar Singh Memorial College of Pharmacy, Bela (Ropar), 140111, India.

Mitochondrial abnormalities and redox imbalance are major pathogenic factors in progression of Huntington's disease (HD), manifested clinically by affective, motor, cognitive, and psychiatric incompetence. Antioxidants behold much promise in mitigation of several pathological facets in HD. Ellagic acid (EA) is a naturally derived polyphenol acknowledged for potent neuroprotective abilities that enabled its significance amongst popular brain tonics. The present study is aimed to examine the outcome of EA pre-treatment in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) rat prototype of HD. Separate rat groups were pre-treated with EA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) for 21 days and 3-NP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was given for 14 days alongside to induce symptoms of HD. The physical/motor functions (narrow beam paradigm, footprint study, hanging-wire assessment) and cognitive abilities using elevated plus maze and novel object recognition task were evaluated. Entire brain was isolated and succinate dehydrogenase activity and parameters of oxido-nitrosative stress were assessed in mitochondrial fraction. 3-NP accrued oxido-nitrosative stress and significant decrease in succinate dehydrogenase activity caused motor and cognitive deficits in rats. EA pre-treatment resurrected succinate dehydrogenase activity in 3-NP treated rats that indicated preservation of mitochondrial function. A significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitrite levels and increase in glutathione and catalase activity by EA in 3-NP treated rats was noted. EA protected the rats against 3-NP triggered cognitive insufficiency and motor disturbances. It can be inferred that ellagic acid protects against 3-NP induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxido-nitrosative stress in the brain. EA supplements or nutraceuticals might possess protective potential against symptoms of HD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02106-1DOI Listing
June 2021

The COVID-19 Data Portal: accelerating SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research through rapid open access data sharing.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic will be remembered as one of the defining events of the 21st century. The rapid global outbreak has had significant impacts on human society and is already responsible for millions of deaths. Understanding and tackling the impact of the virus has required a worldwide mobilisation and coordination of scientific research. The COVID-19 Data Portal (https://www.covid19dataportal.org/) was first released as part of the European COVID-19 Data Platform, on April 20th 2020 to facilitate rapid and open data sharing and analysis, to accelerate global SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research. The COVID-19 Data Portal has fortnightly feature releases to continue to add new data types, search options, visualisations and improvements based on user feedback and research. The open datasets and intuitive suite of search, identification and download services, represent a truly FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) resource that enables researchers to easily identify and quickly obtain the key datasets needed for their COVID-19 research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab417DOI Listing
May 2021

Revisiting regulatory roles of replication protein A in plant DNA metabolism.

Planta 2021 May 28;253(6):130. Epub 2021 May 28.

Molecular Virology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Main Conclusion: This review provides insight into the roles of heterotrimeric RPA protein complexes encompassing all aspects of DNA metabolism in plants along with specific function attributed by individual subunits. It highlights research gaps that need further attention. Replication protein A (RPA), a heterotrimeric protein complex partakes in almost every aspect of DNA metabolism in eukaryotes with its principle role being a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, thereby providing stability to single-stranded (ss) DNA. Although most of our knowledge of RPA structure and its role in DNA metabolism is based on studies in yeast and animal system, in recent years, plants have also been reported to have diverse repertoire of RPA complexes (formed by combination of different RPA subunit homologs arose during course of evolution), expected to be involved in plethora of DNA metabolic activities. Here, we have reviewed all studies regarding role of RPA in DNA metabolism in plants. As combination of plant RPA complexes may vary largely depending on number of homologs of each subunit, next step for plant biologists is to develop specific functional methods for detailed analysis of biological roles of these complexes, which we have tried to formulate in our review. Besides, complete absence of any study regarding regulatory role of posttranslational modification of RPA complexes in DNA metabolism in plants, prompts us to postulate a hypothetical model of same in light of information from animal system. With our review, we envisage to stimulate the RPA research in plants to shift its course from descriptive to functional studies, thereby bringing a new angle of studying dynamic DNA metabolism in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03641-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Viral pores are everywhere.

Mol Cell 2021 05;81(10):2061-2063

Laboratory of Host-Pathogen Dynamics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Jones et al. (2021) and Zhang et al. (2021) reveal by cryo-EM the oligomeric crown-like structure formed by a membrane-associated Chikungunya virus replication protein that gates the export of newly synthesized viral RNA from viral replication organelles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.04.025DOI Listing
May 2021

Foldamer-based ultrapermeable and highly selective artificial water channels that exclude protons.

Nat Nanotechnol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan, China.

The outstanding capacity of aquaporins (AQPs) for mediating highly selective superfast water transport has inspired recent development of supramolecular monovalent ion-excluding artificial water channels (AWCs). AWC-based bioinspired membranes are proposed for desalination, water purification and other separation applications. While some recent progress has been made in synthesizing AWCs that approach the water permeability and ion selectivity of AQPs, a hallmark feature of AQPs-high water transport while excluding protons-has not been reproduced. We report a class of biomimetic, helically folded pore-forming polymeric foldamers that can serve as long-sought-after highly selective ultrafast water-conducting channels with performance exceeding those of AQPs (1.1 × 10 water molecules per second for AQP1), with high water-over-monovalent-ion transport selectivity (~10 water molecules over Cl ion) conferred by the modularly tunable hydrophobicity of the interior pore surface. The best-performing AWC reported here delivers water transport at an exceptionally high rate, namely, 2.5 times that of AQP1, while concurrently rejecting salts (NaCl and KCl) and even protons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-021-00915-2DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel lincRNA identified in buffalo oocytes with protein binding characteristics could hold the key for oocyte competence.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Animal Biotechnology Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India.

Studying the maternal oocyte-specific genes, in farm animals is a significant step towards delineating the underlying mechanisms that regulate oocyte quality, early embryonic development and survival. With the creation of buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library, it has raised new questions which need to be answered. The present study has characterized one of the ESTs selected from the library and highlighted its importance in the oocyte quality. The selected EST was made full length by RLM-RACE and four transcript variants were identified. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the novelty of full-length transcript along with conserved intergenic nature. The largest transcript was identified as long intergenic noncoding RNA based upon coding potential calculator output. The expression analysis at different hours of oocyte maturation showed a significant variation in developmentally competent oocytes to that of incompetent ones. Along with this, the transcript was also found to have protein binding ability which was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The protein used in the experiment was isolated from oocyte and cumulus cells via sonication. A novel lincRNA has been reported here that might have an important role in maturation of oocytes, inferred from its relative gene expression study and protein binding characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06388-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Human telomerase is directly regulated by non-telomeric TRF2-G-quadruplex interaction.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(7):109154

Integrative and Functional Biology Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi 110025, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India; GNR Knowledge Centre for Genome and Informatics, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi 110025, India; CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi 110025, India. Electronic address:

Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) remains suppressed in most normal somatic cells. Resulting erosion of telomeres leads eventually to replicative senescence. Reactivation of hTERT maintains telomeres and triggers progression of >90% of cancers. However, any direct causal link between telomeres and telomerase regulation remains unclear. Here, we show that the telomere-repeat-binding-factor 2 (TRF2) binds hTERT promoter G-quadruplexes and recruits the polycomb-repressor EZH2/PRC2 complex. This is causal for H3K27 trimethylation at the hTERT promoter and represses hTERT in cancer as well as normal cells. Two highly recurrent hTERT promoter mutations found in many cancers, including ∼83% glioblastoma multiforme, that are known to destabilize hTERT promoter G-quadruplexes, showed loss of TRF2 binding in patient-derived primary glioblastoma multiforme cells. Ligand-induced G-quadruplex stabilization restored TRF2 binding, H3K27-trimethylation, and hTERT re-suppression. These results uncover a mechanism of hTERT regulation through a telomeric factor, implicating telomere-telomerase molecular links important in neoplastic transformation, aging, and regenerative therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109154DOI Listing
May 2021

Imaging-based resistance assay using enhanced luminescence-tagged Pseudomonas syringae reveals a complex epigenetic network in plant defense signaling pathways.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Texas State University, Biology, 601 University Dr, San Marcos, Texas, United States, 78666;

High-throughput resistance assays in plants have a limited selection of suitable pathogens. In this study, we developed a Pseudomonas syringae strain chromosomally tagged with the NanoLuc (NL) luciferase from the deep-sea shrimp Oplophorus gracilirostris, a bioluminescent marker significantly brighter than the conventional firefly luciferase. Our reporter strain tagged with NL was over 100 times brighter than P. syringae tagged with the LuxCDABE operon from Photorhabdus luminescens, one of the existing luciferase-based strains. In planta-imaging was improved by using the surfactant Silwet L-77, particularly at a lower reporter concentration. Using this imaging system, over 30 epigenetic mutants were analyzed for their resistance traits since the defense signaling pathway is known to be epigenetically regulated. SWC1, a defense-related chromatin remodeling complex, was found to be a positive defense regulator, which supported one of two earlier conflicting reports. Compromises in DNA methylation in the CG context led to enhanced resistance against virulent Pst. DCLs and AGOs, important in the biogenesis and exerting the effector function of small RNAs, respectively, showed modest but distinct requirements for ETI and basal resistance to Pst. In addition, the transcriptional expression of an epigenetic component was found to be a significant predictor of its immunity contribution. In summary, this study showcased how a high-throughput resistance assay enabled by a pathogen strain with an improved luminescent reporter could provide insightful knowledge on complex defense signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-12-20-0351-TADOI Listing
May 2021

Traditional System Versus DNA Barcoding in Identification of Bamboo Species: A Systematic Review.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

CSIR-National Environmental and Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nagpur, 440 020, India.

Bamboo, a gramineous plant belonging to the family Poaceae, comprises of 1575 species from 116 genera across the globe. It has the ability to grow and evolve on degraded land and hence, can be utilized in the various applications as an alternative for plastic and wood. DNA barcoding, a long genomic sequence, identifies barcode region which shows species-specific nucleotide differences. This technology is considered as advanced molecular technique utilized for characterization and classification of the various species by applying distinctive molecular markers. Recent investigations revealed the potential application of various barcode regions such as matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS2, in identification of many bamboo species from different genus. In this review we comprehensively discussed the relevance of DNA barcoding as a tool in classification/identification of various bamboo species. We highlighted the methodology, how this advance technology overcomes the challenges associated with traditional methods along with prospects for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12033-021-00337-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Curcumin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in the Management of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus: Application of Central Composite Design.

Assay Drug Dev Technol 2021 May-Jun;19(4):262-279. Epub 2021 May 17.

M. M. College of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be) University, Mullana, Haryana, India.

In vitro F p in vitro
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/adt.2021.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Distinguishing between household headship with and without power and its association with subjective well-being among older adults: an analytical cross-sectional study in India.

BMC Geriatr 2021 05 12;21(1):304. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Mathematical Demography and Statistics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400088, India.

Background: The status of household headship accorded to the older members of the family is often symbolic and seldom vested with some control over resources. The increased dependency and diminished ability to contribute to household economy are major factors that lead to a decline in the respect accorded to older people and their status in the family. The present study aimed to understand the distinction between the functional and nominal household headship status of older adults based on their decision-making power and examine how it is associated with their subjective well-being.

Method: The present research used data from the 'Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India' (BKPAI) which is nationally representative. The survey was conducted in 2011, across seven states of India. Descriptive statistics along with percentage distribution were calculated for subjective well-being over explanatory variables. For finding the association between subjective well-being over explanatory variables, binary logistic regression model was used.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 68 years [CI: 67.8-68.2]. About 5 % of older adults had nominal while 95% had functional headship status. The prevalence of low subjective well-being (LSWB) was significantly higher among older adults with nominal headship status (58%) than functional headship status (23%). After controlling for several other variables, older adults with nominal headship status were 59% significantly more likely to have low subjective well-being than individuals with functional headship status (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.31). Further, older adults with psychological distress, chronic morbidity, poor self-reported health, no community involvement and no one to trust on were at higher risk of LSWB than their counterparts.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults who do not have a household headship with power with active participation in household decision-making as well as those who have no involvement in social activities or have poor health conditions need to be given more attention. Thus, to keep a large proportion of older population gainfully engaged, their care and support should be ensured via providing appropriate services that would enhance their roles and responsibilities and overall wellbeing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02256-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114520PMC
May 2021

Comparative Evaluation of and Calcium Hydroxide Mix as an Obturating Material in Deciduous Molars: An Study.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020 Nov-Dec;13(6):617-621

Department of Dentistry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Aim And Objectives: To evaluate clinical and radiographic efficacy of a mix of ( extract) and calcium hydroxide as an obturating material in primary molars and to compare these findings with commercially available iodoform with calcium hydroxide paste (metapex).

Materials And Methods: The present study was conducted on sixty children age group 4-7 years requiring multiple visit pulpectomy for their primary molars. The teeth selected were randomly divided into two groups. One group received Metapex and other group received extract with calcium hydroxide as an obturating material. Clinical and radiographic evaluation were done between both the groups.

Results: There was no significant difference in the clinical and radiographic success rate between both the groups.

Conclusion: extract with calcium hydroxide can be used as an obturating material in primary molars.

How To Cite This Article: Agarwal S, Gupta S, Tandon S, Comparative Evaluation of and Calcium Hydroxide Mix as an Obturating Material in Deciduous Molars: An Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2020;13(6):617-621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060936PMC
May 2021

Functional link convolutional neural network for the classification of diabetes mellitus.

Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2021 May 8:e3496. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Bennett University, Noida, India.

Diabetes is a faction of metabolic ailments distinguished by hyperglycemia which is the consequence of a defect, in the action of insulin, insulin secretion, or both and producing various abnormalities in the human body. In recent years, the utilization of intelligent systems has been expanded in disease classification and numerous researches have been proposed. In this research article, a variant of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that is, Functional Link Convolutional Neural Network (FLCNN) is proposed for the diabetes classification. The main goal of this article is to find the potential of a computationally less complex deep learning network like FLCNN and applied the proposed technique on a real dataset of diabetes for classification. This article also presents the comparative studies where various other machine learning techniques are implemented and outcomes are compared with the proposed FLCNN network. The performance of each classification techniques have been evaluated based on standard measures and also validated with a non-parametric statistical test such as Friedman. Data for modeling diabetes classification is collected from Bombay Medical Hall, Upper Bazar, Ranchi, India. Accuracy achieve by the proposed classifier is more than 90% which is closer to the other state-of-the-art implemented classifiers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cnm.3496DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparative proteomics and variations in extracellular matrix of Candida tropicalis biofilm in response to citral.

Protoplasma 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Molecular Biology & Proteomics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, 247667, Uttarakhand, India.

Candida tropicalis is an opportunistic human pathogen with an ability to cause superficial as well as systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The formation of biofilm by C. tropicalis can cause dreadful and persistent infections which are difficult to treat due to acquired resistance. Presently, available anti-Candida drugs exhibit a high frequency of resistance, low specificity and toxicity at a higher dosage. In addition, the discovery of natural or synthetic anti-Candida drugs is slow paced and often does not pass clinical trials. Citral, a monoterpene aldehyde, has shown effective antimicrobial activities against various microorganisms. However, only few studies have elaborated the action of citral against the biofilm of C. tropicalis. In the present work, the aim was to study the fungicidal effect, differential expression of proteome and changes in extracellular matrix in response to the sub-lethal concentration (16 µg/mL) of citral. The administration of citral on C. tropicalis biofilm leads to a fungicidal effect. Furthermore, the differential expression of proteome has revealed twenty-five proteins in C. tropicalis biofilm, which were differentially expressed in the presence of citral. Among these, amino acid biosynthesis (Met6p, Gln1p, Pha2p); nucleotide biosynthesis (Xpt1p); carbohydrate metabolism (Eno1p, Fba1p, Gpm1p); sterol biosynthesis (Mvd1p/Erg19p, Hem13p); energy metabolism (Dnm1p, Coa1p, Ndk1p, Atp2p, Atp4p, Hts1p); oxidative stress (Hda2p, Gre22p, Tsa1p, Pst2p, Sod2p) and biofilm-specific (Adh1p, Ape1p, Gsp1p) proteins were identified. The overexpression of oxidative stress-related proteins indicates the response of biofilm cell to combating oxidative stress during citral treatment. Moreover, the upregulation of Adh1p is of particular interest because it subsidizes the biofilm inhibition through ethanol production as a cellular response. The augmented expression of Mvd1p/Erg19p signifies the effect of citral on ergosterol biosynthesis. The presence of citral has also shown an increment in hexosamine and ergosterol component in extracellular matrix of C. tropicalis biofilm. Hence, it is indicated that the cellular response towards citral acts through multifactorial processes. This study will further help in the interpretation of the effect of citral on C. tropicalis biofilm and development of novel antifungal agents against these potential protein targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01658-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Are microplastics destabilizing the global network of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem services?

Environ Res 2021 07 29;198:111243. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, UK. Electronic address:

Plastic has created a new man-made ecosystem called plastisphere. The plastic pieces including microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) have emerged as a global concern due to their omnipresence in ecosystems and their ability to interact with the biological systems. Nevertheless, the long-term impacts of MPs on biotic and abiotic resources are not completely understood, and existing evidence suggests that MPs are hazardous to various keystones species of the global biomes. MP-contaminated ecosystems show reduced floral and faunal biomass, productivity, nitrogen cycling, oxygen-generation and carbon sequestration, suggesting that MPs have already started affecting ecological biomes. However, not much is known about the influence of MPs towards the ecosystem services (ESs) cascade and its correlation with the biodiversity loss. MPs are perceived as a menace to the global ecosystems, but their possible impacts on the provisional, regulatory, and socio-economic ESs have not been extensively studied. This review investigates not only the potentiality of MPs to perturb the functioning of terrestrial and aquatic biomes, but also the associated social, ecological and economic repercussions. The possible long-term fluxes in the ES network of terrestrial and aquatic niches are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111243DOI Listing
July 2021

Liposome-based measurement of light-driven chloride transport kinetics of halorhodopsin.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Aug 27;1863(8):183637. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address:

We report a simple and direct fluorimetric vesicle-based method for measuring the transport rate of the light-driven ions pumps as specifically applied to the chloride pump, halorhodopsin, from Natronomonas pharaonis (pHR). Previous measurements were cell-based and methods to determine average single channel permeability challenging. We used a water-in-oil emulsion method for directional pHR reconstitution into two different types of vesicles: lipid vesicles and asymmetric lipid-block copolymer vesicles. We then used stopped-flow experiments combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to determine per protein Cl- transport rates. We obtained a Cl transport rate of 442 (±17.7) Cl/protein/s in egg phosphatidyl choline (PC) lipid vesicles and 413 (±26) Cl/protein/s in hybrid block copolymer/lipid (BCP/PC) vesicles with polybutadine-polyethylene oxide (PBPEO) on the outer leaflet and PC in the inner leaflet at a photon flux of 1450 photons/protein/s. Normalizing to a per photon basis, this corresponds to 0.30 (±0.07) Cl/photon and 0.28 (±0.04) Cl/photon for pure PC and BCP/PC hybrid vesicles respectively, both of which are in agreement with recently reported turnover of ~500 Cl/protein/s from flash photolysis experiments and with voltage-clamp measurements of 0.35 (±0.16) Cl/photon in pHR-expressing oocytes as well as with a pHR quantum efficiency of ~30%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2021.183637DOI Listing
August 2021

TLR4 and TLR9 polymorphism: Probable role in susceptibility among the population of Bihar for Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

Innate Immun 2021 Apr 28:1753425920965658. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.

Genetic variations in the host TLRs genes play an important role in susceptibility and/or resistance to visceral leishmaniasis by altering the host-pathogen interaction. In this study, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of TLR4 (Asp299Gly, Thr399Ile) and TLR-9 (T-1237C), with susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis. A bi-directional PCR amplification of specific alleles technique was used to characterize the distribution of TLR4 (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and TLR9 (T-1237C) polymorphisms. A total of 60 samples were randomly selected from confirmed visceral leishmaniasis patients and 24 endemic healthy volunteers. The samples were genotyped and allele frequencies were determined. We observed that TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genotypes were more frequent in visceral leishmaniasis patients (10% and 15% respectively) compared to controls (4.2% and 8.3% respectively). However, the differences were not significant in TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile alleles and genotypes. In the case of TLR9, we observed the frequency of T1237C genotype was higher in visceral leishmaniasis patients (43.3%) than in healthy controls (33.3%). Statistically significant differences were observed in TLR9 T1237C alleles and genotypes. We concluded that TLR9 T1237C, but not TLR4, gene polymorphisms can be regarded as contributors to visceral leishmaniasis susceptibility among the Indian population of Bihar state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425920965658DOI Listing
April 2021

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell line (IGIBi007-A) from a patient with a novel acromesomelic dysplasia, PRKG2 type (AMDP).

Stem Cell Res 2021 May 19;53:102340. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Genomics and Molecular Medicine Division, CSIR - Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad 201002, India; Division of Investigations of Human Pathology by Application Genomics and Stem Cells (iHPSCs-AG), India. Electronic address:

Biallelic PRKG2 (Protein Kinase, cGMP dependent Type-2) mutations cause a novel acromesomelic dysplasia PRKG2 type. We report generation of induced pluripotent stem cell line from lymphoblastoid cell lines of the patient carrying the reported frameshift mutation (p.Asn164Lysfs*2). The derived iPSC line exhibits all the features of pluripotency, free of major genetic alterations due to reprogramming process and has the capability to differentiate into three germ layers. This iPSC cell line may provide an opportunity to investigate the effect of PRKG2 mutations upon FGF (fibroblast-growth-factor) induced MAPK signalling involved in chondrocyte proliferation in-vitro and may aid in possible therapeutic screening of novel biomolecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2021.102340DOI Listing
May 2021

Gastric Lavage for Prevention of Feeding Intolerance in Neonates Delivered Through Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Indian Pediatr 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neonatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India. Correspondence to: Dr Sriparna Basu, Professor, Department of Neonatology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand 249203, India.

Background: The role of gastric lavage in neonates delivered through meconium-stained amniotic fluid remains unclear.

Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of gastric lavage, compared to no- gastric lavage, on the incidences of feeding intolerance, respiratory distress, meconium aspiration syndrome, time to establish breastfeeding, hospitalization and procedure-related complications in late-preterm and term neonates delivered through meconium-stained amniotic fluid.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources And Selection Criteria: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and other databases were searched for randomized controlled trials and quasi randomized controlled trials using search terms: neonate OR newborn infant, meconium OR meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and lavage OR gastric lavage from inception to May 2020. Data were pooled in RevMan and analyzed in GRADE.

Results: Pooled effects (9 randomized controlled trials, number=3668), showed a significant reduction in the incidence of feeding intolerance (relative risk 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58,0.85, I2=0) after gastric lavage. No difference was observed for the incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome (4 studies) or procedure-related complications (7 studies). Only one study reporting the proportion of neonates with low oxygenation (SpO2<85%), did not find any significant difference. No study evaluated the effects of gastric lavage on respiratory distress, breastfeeding, and hospitalization.

Conclusions: Low-quality evidence supported the role of gastric lavage for the prevention of feeding intolerance in late-preterm and term neonates born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Applicability of results was limited by the high risk-of-bias. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials with important patient outcomes are needed before recommending the practice of gastric lavage.
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April 2021

Characterizing the transcripts of Leptospira CRISPR I-B array and its processing with endoribonuclease LinCas6.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 16;182:785-795. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039, Assam, India. Electronic address:

In Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, the CRISPR-Cas I-B locus possesses a CRISPR array between the two independent cas-operons. Using the reverse transcription-PCR and the in vitro endoribonuclease assay with Cas6 of Leptospira (LinCas6), we account that the CRISPR is transcriptionally active and is conventionally processed. The LinCas6 specifically excises at one site within the synthetic cognate repeat RNA or the repeats of precursor-CRISPR RNA (pre-crRNA) in the sense direction. In contrast, the antisense repeat RNA is cleaved at multiple sites. LinCas6 functions as a single turnover endoribonuclease on its repeat RNA substrate, where substitution of one of predicted active site residues (His38) resulted in reduced activity. This study highlights the comprehensive understanding of the Leptospira CRISPR array transcription and its processing by LinCas6 that is central to RNA-mediated CRISPR-Cas I-B adaptive immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.066DOI Listing
April 2021

Low-dose versus conventional-dose prednisolone for nephrotic syndrome relapses: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Chacha Nehru Bal Chikitsalaya, Delhi, India.

Background: Reduction of steroid exposure in relapses of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) is under-researched.

Methods: In this randomized controlled non-inferiority trial, 1-12-year-old children with relapse of SSNS were randomized to receive prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day (low dose) or 2 mg/kg/day (standard dose) until disease remission or day 15, whichever was earlier. Therapy was switched to 2 mg/kg/day in children in low-dose group not in remission by day 15. Primary outcome was days to remission, and secondary outcome being pattern of subsequent relapse(s) over 1 year. Estimating time to remission of 8 ± 2.5 days with standard-dose therapy, non-inferiority margin of 2 days, 90% power, and α-0.05, 60 patients were randomized.

Results: Of the 60 children (30 in each group) enrolled, 4 (one in low-dose group) failed remission by day 15. Time to remission was comparable between low-dose and standard-dose groups [9.0 ± 2.2 vs. 8.6 ± 2.2 days; mean difference (95% CI) 0.4 (- 0.79 to 1.59) days; p = 0.49], thus establishing non-inferiority of low dose. Median time to subsequent relapse was 86 (IQR 74.8, 97.2) and 150 (IQR 59.0, 240.9) days, in low- versus standard-dose groups, respectively (log rank p = 0.39). In follow-up, proportion of children having relapses, frequency of relapses, proportion with frequent relapse/steroid dependent (FR/SD), and cumulative corticosteroid dose taken were comparable between groups.

Conclusions: This study shows that time to achieve remission after treatment of a relapse with low-dose prednisolone is non-inferior to that after treatment with conventional dose in children with SSNS. The proportion of children achieving remission, further course, and pattern of relapses was comparable between both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-05048-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Chd8 regulates X chromosome inactivation in mouse through fine-tuning control of Xist expression.

Commun Biol 2021 Apr 15;4(1):485. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

EMBL-Rome, Epigenetics and Neurobiology Unit, Monterotondo, Italy.

Female mammals achieve dosage compensation by inactivating one of their two X chromosomes during development, a process entirely dependent on Xist, an X-linked long non-coding RNA (lncRNA). At the onset of X chromosome inactivation (XCI), Xist is up-regulated and spreads along the future inactive X chromosome. Contextually, it recruits repressive histone and DNA modifiers that transcriptionally silence the X chromosome. Xist regulation is tightly coupled to differentiation and its expression is under the control of both pluripotency and epigenetic factors. Recent evidence has suggested that chromatin remodelers accumulate at the X Inactivation Center (XIC) and here we demonstrate a new role for Chd8 in Xist regulation in differentiating ES cells, linked to its control and prevention of spurious transcription factor interactions occurring within Xist regulatory regions. Our findings have a broader relevance, in the context of complex, developmentally-regulated gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01945-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050208PMC
April 2021

Emerging Pathogenic Unit of Vesicle-Cloaked Murine Norovirus Clusters is Resistant to Environmental Stresses and UV Disinfection.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 15;55(9):6197-6205. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052, United States.

An individual virion was long believed to act as an independent infectious unit in virology, until the recent discovery of vesicle-cloaked virus clusters which has greatly challenged this central paradigm. Vesicle-cloaked virus clusters (also known as viral vesicles) are phospholipid-bilayer encapsulated fluid sacs that contain multiple virions or multiple copies of viral genomes. Norovirus is a global leading causative agent of gastroenteritis, and the reported prevalence of vesicle-cloaked norovirus clusters in stool has raised concerns whether the current disinfection, sanitation, and hygiene practices can effectively control environmental pollution by these pathogenic units. In this study, we have demonstrated that vesicle-cloaked murine norovirus (MNV-1) clusters were highly persistent under temperature variation (i.e., freeze-thaw) and they were partially resistant to detergent decomposition. MNV-1 vesicles were 1.89-3.17-fold more infectious in vitro than their free virus counterparts. Most importantly, MNV-1 vesicles were up to 2.16-times more resistant to UV disinfection than free MNV-1 at a low viral load in vitro. Interestingly, with the increase of the viral load, free MNV-1 and MNV-1 vesicles showed equivalent resistance to UV disinfection. We show that the increased multiplicity of infection provided by vesicles is in part responsible for these attributes. Our study, for the first time, sheds light on the environmental behavior of vesicle-cloaked virus clusters as unique emerging pathogenic units. Our study highlights the need to revisit current paradigms of disinfection, sanitation, and hygiene practices for protecting public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c01763DOI Listing
May 2021