Publications by authors named "Manish Kumar"

1,034 Publications

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Geochemical ratios mediated understanding of estuarine dynamics in submarine groundwater discharge prevalent basaltic aquifer.

Mar Pollut Bull 2022 Jun 21;181:113812. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Sustainability Cluster, School of Engineering, UPES, Dehradun, India. Electronic address:

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an integral pathway of hydrological cycle. The role of SGD as a mechanism for material transport from terrestrial to marine ecosystems has also been investigated, considering the large hydrological flux and a massive load of solutes is found to be carried as SGD to the coastal oceans. However, there are challenges in recognizing the process and delineating specific areas which are susceptible to SGD. Considering the unique geochemical signature of groundwaters found in varied lithology, this paper investigates the possibility of using geochemical ratios and their variability in coastal areas as a tracer for the identification of SGD. The Br/Cl ratio, prevalently used for identification of seawater-groundwater mixing is investigated. The study raises questions over the viability of Br/Cl as a tracer as Br rich groundwater in the SGD prevalent area may be a cause of elevated Br/Cl ratio in the coastal oceans. Furthermore, the peculiar observation of Fe enrichment in coastal seawater also indicated the influence of differential weathering on the subterranean estuarine (STE) sediments releasing Fe as the groundwater in the area is not enriched in groundwater. This observation is very important in the context of rising sea levels as a larger STE due to rising sea levels can cause higher mobilization of Fe in coastal oceans causing a direct influence on the coastal ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.113812DOI Listing
June 2022

Clinical and Echocardiographic Profile of Congenital Heart Diseases in the 0-12-Year Age Group in a Tertiary Care Medical Institute in Eastern India: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2022 Jun 20;14(6):e26114. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Cardiology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, IND.

Background This study aimed to determine the clinical and echocardiography profile of congenital heart diseases (CHDs) among admitted children as well as patients presenting to the outpatient department of the Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, which is a tertiary care and apex institute located in Bihar, India. Methodology A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from January 2019 to January 2021. In total, 200 patients aged 0-12 were enrolled in the study. The study design was exploratory, with a proforma drafted to study patients with features suggestive of CHDs. All pediatric echocardiography was performed by a trained cardiologist. Records were obtained from the departmental record-keeping register, and reports were available for analyzing the data. For data collection, cardiology and pediatric department registers were reviewed and all CHD data were collected. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results Of the 200 children with CHDs, 142 were diagnosed to have acyanotic heart disease (ACHD), while 58 had cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Among 200 cases of CHD, ventricular septal defect (VSD) constituted 62 cases comprising 31% of the total CHD cases and 44% of all ACHD cases. Atrial septal defect (ASD) was the second most common CHD comprising 23% of all CHD cases. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) constituted 23 cases accounting for 11.5% of all CHD cases. It was the most common CCHD. Based on the age at the time of presentation, 90 (45%) cases were diagnosed below one year of age. Congestive heart failure (CHF) was most common in ACHD comprising 30% compared to CCHD in which only 7% of cases had CHF. This finding was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Analyzing the symptoms of different CHDs, of both ACHDs and CCHDs, the common symptoms were fast breathing (38%). Conclusions Among ACHD patients, 31% VSD and 21% ASD were noted. In CCHD, TOF was the most common with 11.5% of cases. Respiratory tract conditions were the most common comorbidities encountered. Because this is one of the first studies conducted in Bihar in the pediatric age group, it can help know the prevalence of CHDs in this region and will be useful for developing policies by stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.26114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9208535PMC
June 2022

Polyphenolic Profiling, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities Revealed the Quality and Adaptive Behavior of Viola Species, a Dietary Spice in the Himalayas.

Molecules 2022 Jun 16;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Chemical Technology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176061, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Background: Himalayan Viola species (Banksha) are traditionally important herbs with versatile therapeutic benefits such as antitussive, analgesic, antipyretic, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancerous ones. The current investigation was focused on exploring polyphenolic profiles, antioxidant, and antimicrobial potentials of wild viola species at 15 gradient locations (375-1829 m).

Methods: Morphological, physiochemical, and proximate analyses were carried out as per WHO guidelines for plant drug standardization. Total polyphenolic and flavonoid content were carried out using gallic acid and rutin equivalent. UPLC-DAD was used to profile the targeted polyphenols (gallic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, -coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, quercetin, luteolin, caffeic acid, and epicatechin). Similarly, all samples were screened for antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Statistical analysis was used to correlate polyphenolic and targeted activities to assess Viola species adaptation behavior patterns.

Results: () and () were found abundantly at their respective sites. Among flowers and leaves, flowers of and showed higher total polyphenolic and flavonoid content (51.4 ± 1.13 mg GAE/g and 65.05 ± 0.85 mg RE/g, and 33.26 ± 0.62 mg GAE/g and 36.10 ± 1.41 mg RE/g, respectively). Furthermore, UPLC-DAD showed the uppermost content of -coumaric acid in flowers and ferulic acid in leaves, while rutin was significant in both the tissues.

Conclusions: The adaptive behavior of Viola species showed variability in morphological characters with the altitudes, while targeted polyphenols and activities were significant at mid-altitudes. This research helps in the selection of right chemotype for agrotechnological interventions and the development of nutraceutical products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123867DOI Listing
June 2022

Demand Ischemia as a Predictor of Mortality in Older Patients With Delirium.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 6;9:917252. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Medicine, Pat and Jim Calhoun Cardiology Center, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT, United States.

Introduction: The impact of demand ischemia on clinical outcomes in patients with delirium remains largely unexplored. This study aims to evaluate the effects of demand ischemia in older patients with delirium on in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) using the largest US inpatient care database, National Inpatient Sample (NIS).

Methods: We obtained data from the year 2010 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample (NIS). We used the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition-Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes to identify all the records with a primary or secondary diagnosis of delirium with or without demand ischemia and other clinical characteristics. We then compared in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) in patients with and without demand ischemia.

Results: We analyzed 232,137 records. Patients with demand ischemia had higher overall in-hospital mortality than those without demand ischemia (28 vs. 12%, < 0.001). After adjusting for clinical comorbidities and complications, demand ischemia was no longer associated with increased in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.96-1.35; = 0.141). However, further analysis with the exclusion of critically ill patients with non-cardiogenic shock or mechanical ventilation showed a significant association of demand ischemia with increased in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.13-1.71; = 0.002). Among non-critically ill survivors, patients with demand ischemia had a longer median LOS [4, (3-7) days] than those without demand ischemia [4, (2-6) days] ( < 0.001). However, the difference was not statistically significant after adjustment for covariates.

Conclusion/relevance: Demand ischemia did not affect mortality in critically sick patients. In non-critically ill patients, however, demand ischemia was significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality, likely due to the severity of the underlying acute illness. Measures aimed at mitigating risk factors that contribute to delirium and/or demand ischemia need to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.917252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9207259PMC
June 2022

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Glycaemic Control, Metabolic Status, Treatment Adherence, Quality of Life in Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Tertiary Care Hospital of Eastern India.

Maedica (Bucur) 2022 Mar;17(1):88-96

Department of Pharmacology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Many medical and social challenges have been noticed during lockdowns and restrictions in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. These restrictions had a profound impact on people's lifestyle and caused psychological distress. In the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, lifestyle modifications, such as nutritional intervention and proper physical activity, are important aspects. To study the effect of lockdown or self-imposed restrictions due to pandemic on glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus patients and the possible determinants, including diet, sleep, physical activity, psychological status and adherence to treatment. A comparative analysis of the glycaemic status and metabolic parameters (such as random blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, weight, hypoglycaemia and lipid profile), lifestyle and psychological changes and treatment adherence was done in 103 patients. Retrospective pre-lockdown data was collected from the clinical records and interviews (offline, online or by telephone). Prospective lockdown/restrictions data was questionnaire based. Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data and ANOVA for continuous data. The majority of patients were in the age group of 40-60 years. Most of them reported disturbance in their adherence to proper diet, physical activity, sleep and medication schedule. These differences of opinion were statistically significant (p <0.00001). There were more patients who reported stress and anxiety and this difference was statistically significant. Deterioration of glycaemic control and lipid profile was highly significant (p <0.00001). Mean body weight was increased by 6.67% at the end of the study and the difference was statistically significant. In patients with diabetes, pandemic-related restrictions had a profound impact on the glycaemic control, metabolic status, adherence to medication and quality of life. This highlights the need for a multidisciplinary approach in managing patients with diabetes, focusing on various issues, including prevalence of poor diet control, physical inactivity and psychological stress, via various awareness and counselling programs, preferably through online mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26574/maedica.2022.17.1.88DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168569PMC
March 2022

Microwave Induced Green Synthesis: Sustainable Technology for Efficient Development of Bioactive Pyrimidine Scaffolds.

Curr Med Chem 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

M.M College of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to be University), Mullana, Ambala-133207, Haryana, India.

Microwave radiation is used as a heating source during the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds. The heating mechanisms involved in microwave-induced synthesis include dipolar polarization and ionic conduction. This heating technology follows the green protocol as it involves the use of recyclable organic solvents during synthesis. The microwave heating approach offers a faster rate of reaction, easier work-up procedure, and higher product yield with purity and also reduces environmental pollution. So, microwave heating is applied as a sustainable technology for the efficient production of pyrimidine compounds as one of the heterocyclic moieties. Pyrimidine is a six-membered nitrogenous heterocyclic compound that plays a significant role due to several therapeutic applications. This moiety acts as an essential building block for generating drug candidates with diverse biological activities including anti-cancer (capecitabine), anti-thyroid (propylthiouracil), antihistaminic (pemirolast), antimalarial (pyrimethamine), antidiabetic (alloxan), antihypertensive (minoxidil), anti-inflammatory (octotiamine), antifungal (cyprodinil), antibacterial (sulfamethazine), etc. This review is focused on the synthesis of pyrimidine analogs under microwave irradiation technique and the study of their therapeutic potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867329666220622150013DOI Listing
June 2022

Homogeneous hybrid droplet interface bilayers assembled from binary mixtures of DPhPC phospholipids and PB-b-PEO diblock copolymers.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2022 Jun 16;1864(10):183997. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Mechanical Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Electronic address:

Hybrid membranes built from phospholipids and amphiphilic block copolymers seek to capitalize on the benefits of both constituents for constructing biomimetic interfaces with improved performance. However, hybrid membranes have not been formed or studied using the droplet interface bilayer (DIB) method, an approach that offers advantages for revealing nanoscale changes in membrane structure and mechanics and offers a path toward assembling higher-order tissues. We report on hybrid droplet interface bilayers (hDIBs) formed in hexadecane from binary mixtures of synthetic diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) lipids and low molecular weight 1,2 polybutadiene-b-polyethylene oxide (PBPEO) amphiphilic block copolymers and use electrophysiology measurements and imaging to assess the effects of PBPEO in the membrane. This work reveals that hDIBs containing up to 15 mol% PBPEO plus DPhPC are homogeneously mixtures of lipids and polymers, remain highly resistive to ion transport, and are stable-including under applied voltage. Moreover, they exhibit hydrophobic thicknesses similar to DPhPC-only bilayers, but also have significantly lower values of membrane tension. These characteristics coincide with reduced energy of adhesion between droplets and the formation of alamethicin ion channels at significantly lower threshold voltages, demonstrating that even moderate amounts of amphiphilic block copolymers in a lipid bilayer provide a route for tuning the physical properties of a biomimetic membrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2022.183997DOI Listing
June 2022

Sonophotocatalytic Dye Degradation Using rGO-BiVO Composites.

Glob Chall 2022 Jun 2;6(6):2100132. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

School of Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Mandi Mandi Himachal Pradesh 175005 India.

Reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/bismuth vanadate BiVO composites are fabricated with varied rGO amounts (0, 1, 2, and 3 wt%) through the synergetic effects of ultrasonication, photoinduced reduction, and hydrothermal methods, and the materials are tested as tools for sonophotocatalytic methylene blue (MB) dye degradation. The effect of rGO content on the sonophotocatalytic dye degradation capabilities of the composites are explored. Characterization of the proposed materials is done through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy. The coexistence of BiVO and rGO is confirmed using Raman spectroscopy and XRD. TEM confirms the existence of interfaces between rGO and BiVO and XPS affirms the existence of varied elemental oxidation states. In order to investigate the charge carriers transportation, time-dependent photocurrent responses of BiVO and 2 wt%- rGO/BiVO are done under visible light irradiation. The sonophotocatalytic MB dye degradation in an aqueous medium displays promising enhancement with rGO doping in rGO/BiVO composite. The 2 wt%- rGO/BiVO sample exhibits ≈52% MB dye degradation efficiency as compared to pure BiVO4 (≈25%) in 180 min of the sonophotocatalysis experiment. Phytotoxicity analysis through germination index is done using vigna radiata seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gch2.202100132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9189135PMC
June 2022

Current Trends in Production, Morphology, and Real-World Environmental Applications of Biochar for the Promotion of Sustainability.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jun 13:127467. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Sustainability Cluster, School of Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007 India. Electronic address:

Biochar has sparked a lot of interest in recent years for various applications such as contaminant removal, carbon sequestration and soil amendment. However, laboratory scale studies dominates over the real-world applications. In this study, we first enumerated on the various ongoing uses of biochar along with adsorption mechanism; and then identified the most suitable source, and efficient method for biochar production; and finally proposed real-world practical applications of biochar as an additive to control diffuse micropollutant pollution along the highways and railway tracks; as well as the pollution through agricultural runoff. We demonstrated that directly or indirectly, biochar can definitely help to achieve all the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The study on the practical use of biochar is an emerging area, because a lot of research needs are there to realise the full-potential of biochar with ways of attaining sustainable development goals towards waste, energy and pollution management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127467DOI Listing
June 2022

Sewage surveillance for SARS-CoV-2: Molecular detection, quantification, and normalization factors.

Curr Opin Environ Sci Health 2022 Aug 10;28:100363. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Sustainability Cluster, School of Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248007, India.

The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater systems provides a primary indication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout communities worldwide. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (dd-PCR) or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) administration of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewaters provides a reliable and efficient technology for gathering secondary local-level public health data. Often the accuracy of prevalence estimation is hampered by many methodological issues connected with wastewater surveillance. Still, more studies are needed to use and create efficient approaches for deciphering the actual SARS-CoV-2 indication from noise in the specimens/samples. Nearly 39-65% of positive patients and asymptomatic carriers expel the virus through their faeces however, only ∼6% of the infected hosts eject it through their urine. COVID-19 positive patients can shed the remnants of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA virus within the concentrations ∼10-10 copies/L. However, it can decrease up to 10 copies/L in wastewaters due to dilution. Environmental virology and microbiology laboratories play a significant role in the identification and analysis of SARS-CoV-2 ribonucleic acid (RNA) in waste and ambient waters worldwide. Virus extraction or recovery from the wastewater (However, due to lack of knowledge, established procedures, and integrated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approaches, the novel coronavirus RNA investigation for estimating current illnesses and predicting future outbreaks is insufficient and/or conducted inadequately. The present manuscript is a technical review of the various methods and factors considered during the identification of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material in wastewaters and/or sludge, including tips and tricks to be taken care of during sampling, virus concentration, normalization, PCR inhibition, and trend line smoothening when compared with clinically active/positive cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coesh.2022.100363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9170178PMC
August 2022

A comprehensive review on recent advancements in biodegradation and sustainable management of biopolymers.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 9;307:119600. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Recent years have seen upsurge in plastic manufacturing and its utilization in various fields, such as, packaging, household goods, medical applications, and beauty products. Due to various adverse impacts imposed by synthetic plastics on the health of living well-being and the environment, the biopolymers have been emerged out an alternative. Although, the biopolymers such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are entirely degradable. However, the other polymers, such as poly (lactic acid) (PLA) are only partially degradable and often not biosynthesized. Biodegradation of the polymers using microorganisms is considered an effective bioremediation approach. Biodegradation can be performed in aerobic and anaerobic environments. In this context, the present review discusses the biopolymer production, their persistence in the environment, aerobic biodegradation, anaerobic biodegradation, challenges associated with biodegradation and future perspectives. In addition, this review discusses the advancement in the technologies associated with biopolymer production, biodegradation, and their biodegradation standard in different environmental settings. Furthermore, differences in the degradation condition in the laboratory as well as on-site are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119600DOI Listing
August 2022

Fluorofoldamer-Based Salt- and Proton-Rejecting Artificial Water Channels for Ultrafast Water Transport.

Nano Lett 2022 Jun 8;22(12):4831-4838. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710072, China.

Here, we report on a novel class of fluorofoldamer-based artificial water channels (AWCs) that combines excellent water transport rate and selectivity with structural simplicity and robustness. Produced by a facile one-pot copolymerization reaction under mild conditions, the best-performing channel (AWC ) is an n-CH-decorated foldamer nanotube with an average channel length of 2.8 nm and a pore diameter of 5.2 Å. AWC demonstrates an ultrafast water conduction rate of 1.4 × 10 HO/s per channel, outperforming the archetypal biological water channel, aquaporin 1, while excluding salts (i.e., NaCl and KCl) and protons. Unique to this class of channels, the inwardly facing C(sp2)-F atoms being the most electronegative in the periodic table are proposed as being critical to enabling the ultrafast and superselective water transport properties by decreasing the channel's cavity and enhancing the channel wall smoothness via reducing intermolecular forces with water molecules or hydrated ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01137DOI Listing
June 2022

Successful management of impaled ice-pick stab injury of the suprarenal aorta - lessons learnt.

Trauma Case Rep 2022 Aug 24;40:100663. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of General Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160012, India.

Penetrating injury of the aorta is rare and lethal. The reported mortality rate is very high. Few patients survive and present to the hospital. Some of these injuries are salvageable if treated in a timely and aggressive manner. Here we present a case of penetrating injury of the aorta with impalement of the ice-pick, which was successfully managed with laparotomy and primary repair of the aortic injury after adequate resuscitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcr.2022.100663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9157008PMC
August 2022

Improvement of Hand Hygiene Compliance Using the Plan-Do-Study-Act Method: Quality Improvement Project From a Tertiary Care Institute in Bihar, India.

Cureus 2022 Jun 2;14(6):e25590. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Pediatrics, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, IND.

Background Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are the most severe complications of intensive care stay, especially in pediatric patients. Proper hand hygiene (HH) is the cheapest, simplest, but often neglected method to prevent HAIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated and promoted a standardized recommendation for HH. Both the WHO and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend the use of soap and water for handwashing whenever there is visible dirt on the hands. In all other situations, an alcohol-based hand rub is an effective alternative. The quality improvement (QI) methodology has been widely followed in many countries to improve basic and advanced healthcare systems. The QI strategy follows the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) method. Methodology This quasi-experimental (pre- and post-intervention), prospective, QI study was conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric intensive care unit of the pediatrics department in a tertiary care hospital in Bihar, India. A QI team was formed. The study was divided into four phases. WHO charts for assessing HH compliance were used for observation and data collection. The EQUATOR Checklist (Squire Checklist) was used to accurately report the QI work. Epi Info™ (version 7.2.5) was used for statistical analysis. The chi-square test was used to measure the statistical difference between pre- and post-intervention HH compliance (proportions). Results In the pre-intervention phase, a total of 106 HH opportunities were observed. The HH compliance at this stage was 40.6%. The QI team conducted several meetings, and a root cause analysis was performed with the help of the Fishbone diagram. It was decided to target three probable causes, namely, (a) less awareness, (b) inconvenient locations of hand rub dispensers, and (c) forgetfulness. The QI team decided to run three PDSA cycles. In the last phase, 212 HH opportunities were observed with a compliance percentage of 69.8%. There was a significant improvement when data of pre- and post-intervention HH compliance were compared in all categories of healthcare workers (HCWs), except doctors, where the improvement was not statistically significant. When the cumulative data of all subtypes of HCWs were analyzed, there was a significant improvement (p < 0.0001). Run charts and box plots were used for the easy depiction of the results. Conclusions Adopting proper HH methods remains the most effective way of preventing nosocomial infections, especially in intensive care units. We used the WHO model of HH in our study. The pre-intervention HH compliance was 40.6%. QI methodology using root cause analysis and implementation of three PDSA cycles were used to increase the HH compliance percentage. Post-intervention HH compliance increased to 69.8% and the effect was sustained. The study highlights the usefulness of the QI methodology in bringing small but important changes in clinical practice for better patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9162031PMC
June 2022

Nanostructured block copolymer muscles.

Nat Nanotechnol 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

High-performance actuating materials are necessary for advances in robotics, prosthetics and smart clothing. Here we report a class of fibre actuators that combine solution-phase block copolymer self-assembly and strain-programmed crystallization. The actuators consist of highly aligned nanoscale structures with alternating crystalline and amorphous domains, resembling the ordered and striated pattern of mammalian skeletal muscle. The reported nanostructured block copolymer muscles excel in several aspects compared with current actuators, including efficiency (75.5%), actuation strain (80%) and mechanical properties (for example, strain-at-break of up to 900% and toughness of up to 121.2 MJ m). The fibres exhibit on/off rotary actuation with a peak rotational speed of 450 r.p.m. Furthermore, the reported fibres demonstrate multi-trigger actuation (heat and hydration), offering switchable mechanical properties and various operating modes. The versatility and recyclability of the polymer fibres, combined with the facile fabrication method, opens new avenues for creating multifunctional and recyclable actuators using block copolymers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-022-01133-0DOI Listing
June 2022

Socioeconomic and health-related inequalities in major depressive symptoms among older adults: a Wagstaff's decomposition analysis of data from the LASI baseline survey, 2017-2018.

BMJ Open 2022 Jun 1;12(6):e054730. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Survey Research & Data Analytics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Objectives: To find out the association between socioeconomic and health status and depression among older adults and explore the contributing factors in the socioeconomic and health-related inequalities in late-life depression.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted using large representative survey data.

Setting And Participants: Data for this study were derived from the baseline wave of the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India conducted during 2017-2018. The effective sample size was 30 888 older adults aged 60 years and above.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: The outcome variable in this study was depression among older adults. Descriptive statistics along with bivariate analysis was conducted to report the preliminary results. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and Wagstaff's decomposition were used to fulfil the objectives of the study.

Results: There was a significant difference for the prevalence of depression (4.3%; p<0.05) among older adults from poor (11.2%) and non-poor categories (6.8%). The value of the Concentration Index was -0.179 which also confirms that the major depression was more concentrated among poor older adults. About 38.4% of the socioeconomic and health-related inequality was explained by the wealth quintile for major depression among older adults. Moreover, about 26.6% of the inequality in major depression was explained by psychological distress. Self-rated health (SRH), difficulty in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) contributed 8.7%, 3.3% and 4.8% to the inequality, respectively. Additionally, region explained about 23.1% of inequality followed by life satisfaction (11.2) and working status (9.8%) for major depression among older adults.

Conclusions: Findings revealed large socioeconomic and health-related inequalities in depression in older adults which were especially pronounced by poor household economy, widowhood, poor SRH, ADL and IADL difficulty, and psychological distress. In designing prevention programmes, detection and management of older adults with depression should be a high priority, especially for those who are more vulnerable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054730DOI Listing
June 2022

Mobilization of contaminants: Potential for soil remediation and unintended consequences.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 29;839:156373. Epub 2022 May 29.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water and Waste Management, Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285 Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Guangjin-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea; International Research Centre of Nanotechnology for Himalayan Sustainability (IRCNHS), Shoolini University, Solan 173212, Himachal Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Land treatment has become an essential waste management practice. Therefore, soil becomes a major source of contaminants including organic chemicals and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) which enter the food chain, primarily through leaching to potable water sources, plant uptake, and animal transfer. A range of soil amendments are used to manage the mobility of contaminants and subsequently their bioavailability. Various soil amendments, like desorbing agents, surfactants, and chelating agents, have been applied to increase contaminant mobility and bioavailability. These mobilizing agents are applied to increase the contaminant removal though phytoremediation, bioremediation, and soil washing. However, possible leaching of the mobilized pollutants during soil washing is a major limitation, particularly when there is no active plant uptake. This leads to groundwater contamination and toxicity to plants and soil biota. In this context, the present review provides an overview on various soil amendments used to enhance the bioavailability and mobility of organic and inorganic contaminants, thereby facilitating increased risk when soil is remediated in polluted areas. The unintended consequences of the mobilization methods, when used to remediate polluted sites, are discussed in relation to the leaching of mobilized contaminants when active plant growth is absent. The toxicity of targeted and non-targeted contaminants to microbial communities and higher plants is also discussed. Finally, this review work summarizes the existing research gaps in various contaminant mobilization approaches, and prospects for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156373DOI Listing
September 2022

Energy feasibility and life cycle assessment of sludge pretreatment methods for advanced anaerobic digestion.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Aug 21;357:127345. Epub 2022 May 21.

Environmental Hydrology Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India. Electronic address:

Energy sustainability is one of the critical parameters to be studied for the successful application of pretreatment processes. This study critically analyzes the energy efficiency of different energy-demanding sludge pretreatment techniques. Conventional thermal pretreatment of sludge (∼5% total solids, TS) produced 244 mL CH/gTS, which could result in a positive energy balance of 2.6 kJ/kg TS. However, microwave pretreatment could generate only 178 mL CH/gTS with a negative energy balance of -15.62 kJ/kg TS. In CAMBI process, the heat requirements can be compensated using exhaust gases and hot water from combined heat and power, and electricity requirements are managed by the use of cogeneration. The study concluded that <100 ℃ pretreatment effectively enhances the efficiency of anaerobic digestion and shows positive energy balance over microwave and ultrasonication. Moreover, microwave pretreatment has the highest global warming potential than thermal and ultrasonic pretreatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127345DOI Listing
August 2022

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BMJ Case Rep 2022 05 20;15(5). Epub 2022 May 20.

Radiodiagnosis, Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2022-249691DOI Listing
May 2022

Exploring the Role of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems in Drug Delivery: Challenges, Issues, Applications and Recent Advances.

Curr Drug Deliv 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak - 124001, Haryana, India.

Nanotechnology has attracted researchers around the globe owing to the small size and targeting properties of the drug delivery vectors. The interest in self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) has shown an exponential increase from the formulator's point of view. SNEDDS have shown wide applicability in terms of controlled and targeted delivery of various types of drugs. They chemically consist of oil, surfactants and co-surfactants that decrease the emulsion particle size to the range of <100 nm. However, stability issues such as drug precipitation during storage, incompatibility of ingredients in shell, decrease their application for the long run and these issues have been highlighted in this paper. The current review throws limelight on the biological aspects and process parameters. In addition, the process of absorption from GI is also discussed in detail. SNEDDS have been utilized as a treatment option for various diseases like cancer, diabetes, ocular and pulmonary diseases. Along with this, the authors highlight the advances involving in vivo and in vitro lipolysis studies on SNEDDS, also highlighting recent innovations in this field, such as novel combinations of drug-free solid SNEDDS + solid dispersions, lipid-modified chitosan containing mucoadhesive SNEDDS, pH-sensitive SNEDDS and several others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201819666220519125003DOI Listing
May 2022

Role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in boosting the phytoremediation of stressed soils: Opportunities, challenges, and prospects.

Chemosphere 2022 Sep 17;303(Pt 1):134954. Epub 2022 May 17.

Environmental Biotechnology and Genomics Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-NEERI), Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440020, Maharashtra, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201002, India. Electronic address:

Soil is considered as a vital natural resource equivalent to air and water which supports growth of the plants and provides habitats to microorganisms. Changes in soil properties, productivity, and, inevitably contamination/stress are the result of urbanisation, industrialization, and long-term use of synthetic fertiliser. Therefore, in the recent scenario, reclamation of contaminated/stressed soils has become a potential challenge. Several customized, such as, physical, chemical, and biological technologies have been deployed so far to restore contaminated land. Among them, microbial-assisted phytoremediation is considered as an economical and greener approach. In recent decades, soil microbes have successfully been used to improve plants' ability to tolerate biotic and abiotic stress and strengthen their phytoremediation capacity. Therefore, in this context, the current review work critically explored the microbial assisted phytoremediation mechanisms to restore different types of stressed soil. The role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their potential mechanisms that foster plants' growth and also enhance phytoremediation capacity are focussed. Finally, this review has emphasized on the application of advanced tools and techniques to effectively characterize potent soil microbial communities and their significance in boosting the phytoremediation process of stressed soils along with prospects for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134954DOI Listing
September 2022

Neuroprotective Effects of Theobromine in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion rat model of cerebral hypoperfusion.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Pharmacology, Swift School of Pharmacy, Ghaggar Sarai, Rajpura, Punjab, India.

Cerebral hypoperfusion (CH) is a common underlying mechanism of dementia disorders linked to aberrations in the neurovascular unit. Hemodynamic disturbances adversely affect cellular energy homeostasis that triggers a sequence of events leading to irrevocable damage to the brain and neurobehavioral discrepancies. Theobromine is a common ingredient of many natural foods consumed by a large population worldwide. Theobromine has shown health benefits in several studies, attributed to regulation of calcium homeostasis, phosphodiesterase, neurotransmission, and neurotrophins. The current study evaluated the neuroprotective potential of theobromine against CH in the permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) prototype. Wistar rats were distributed in Sham-operated (S), S + T100, CH, CH + T50, and CH + T100 groups. Animals received permanent BCCAO or Sham treatment on day 1. Theobromine (50, 100 mg/kg) was given orally in animals subjected to BCCAO for 14 days daily. CH caused neurological deficits (12-point scale), motor dysfunction, and memory impairment in rats. Treatment with theobromine significantly attenuated neurological deficits and improved sensorimotor functions and memory in rats with CH. In biochemistry investigation of the entire brain, findings disclosed reduction in brain oxidative stress, inflammatory intermediaries (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and - 6, nuclear factor-κB), markers of cell demise (lactate dehydrogenase, caspase-3), acetylcholinesterase activity, and improvement in γ-aminobutyric acid quantity in rats that were given theobromine for 14 days daily after CH. Histopathological analysis substantiated attenuation of neurodegenerative changes by theobromine. The findings of this study indicated that theobromine could improve neurological scores, sensorimotor abilities, and memory in CH prototype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-022-00995-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Mammary-Digital-Nail Syndrome With Orofacial Changes.

Indian Pediatr 2022 05;59(5):431

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh.

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May 2022

Study on Chemotypic Variability of Coleus forskohlii Briq., Samples Collected from Different Phytogeographical Locations of India and Evaluation of Its Inhibitory Potential.

J Chromatogr Sci 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Pharmacognosy Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226001, India.

Coleus forskohlii Briq. is an important medicinal herb, endowed with a wide range of medicinal properties against the variety of ailments. Seven germplasm of C. forskohlii collected from different phyto-geographical locations and identification of elite chemotype was performed with the help of high performance thin layer chromatography. Data of soil analysis correlated with the bioactive compounds and inhibitory potential of the species. Quantification of forskolin and its isomer (iso-forskolin) content were done in all the collected samples of C. forskohlii, which revealed a wide range of variations, varying from 1.15-0.004% and 0.0091 to 0.1077% per dry weights basic, respectively. Variation in the bioactive content may be due to the soil nature and environmental factors. Soil analysis of collected samples demonstrated that there is significant variation in available NPK and micronutrient content and may be reasoned for existing chemotypic variability. In vitro biological activity (antioxidant and antidiabetic) analyses were performed, which reveals that germplasms have a high amount of forskolin and iso-forskolin, both show more activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of elicitors and precursors on the production of bioactive compounds and identification of best elite germplasm among the populations, to provide basic lead to the industry for commercial exploitability including its location-specific commercial cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmac033DOI Listing
April 2022

Role of magnetization on catalytic pathways of non-oxidative methane activation on neutral iron carbide clusters.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 May 18;24(19):11668-11679. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhopal 462 066, India.

Methane has emerged as a promising fuel due to its abundance and clean combustion properties. It is also a raw material for various value-added chemicals. However, the conversion of methane to other chemicals such as olefins, aromatics, and hydrocarbons is a difficult task. In recent years, ionic iron carbide clusters have been explored as potential catalysts for efficient direct methane conversion. Herein, we have investigated the gas-phase methane conversion process on various neutral iron carbide clusters with different Fe:C ratios using density functional theory. Reaction pathways were studied on mononuclear and trinuclear iron carbide clusters in the three lowest energy spin multiplicity channels. Three descriptors - methane binding energy, the effective energy barrier for C-H bond activation, and the effective energy required for methyl radical evolution - were chosen to identify the best catalyst among the clusters considered. Isomers of FeC (FeC-iso) and FeC (FeC-iso) are recognized as being the most promising catalysts among all the clusters considered here because they require the least methyl radical evolution energy, a step that is crucial in methane conversion to higher hydrocarbon but also requires the most energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp05769cDOI Listing
May 2022

Direct and indirect role of Fe doping in NiOOH monolayer for water oxidation catalysis.

Chemphyschem 2022 May 1:e202200085. Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhopal, 462 066, India.

Water oxidation activity of pristine NiOOH is greatly enhanced by doping it with Fe. However, the precise role of Fe is still being debated. Using a first-principles DFT+U approach, we investigate the direct and indirect roles of Fe in enhancing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of NiOOH monolayers. Considering two Mars-Van-Krevelen mechanisms of OER based on the source of O-O bond formation, we show that a mechanism involving the coupling of lattice oxygen is generally more favorable than water nucleophilic attack on lattice oxygen. On doping with Fe, the overpotential of NiOOH is reduced by 0.33 V, in excellent agreement with experimental findings. Introducing Fe at active sites results in different potential determining steps (PDS) in the two mechanisms. The Ni sites in pristine and Fe-doped NiOOH have the same PDS regardless of the mechanism. The Fe sites not only have the lowest overpotential but also decrease the overpotential for Ni sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.202200085DOI Listing
May 2022

Neuroprotective Effect of Piclamilast-Induced Post-Ischemia Pharmacological Treatment in Mice.

Neurochem Res 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Pharmacology Department, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 41522, Egypt.

Various studies have evidenced the neuroprotective role of PDE4 inhibitors. However, whether PDE4 inhibitor, Piclamilast pharmacological post-treatment is protective during cerebral ischemia reperfusion-induced injury remains unknown. Therefore, this study design included testing the hypothesis that Piclamilast administered at the beginning of a reperfusion phase (Piclamilast pPost-trt) shows protective effects and explores & probes underlying downstream mechanisms. Swiss albino male mice were subjected to global ischemic and reperfusion injury for 17 min. The animals examined cerebral infarct size, biochemical parameters, inflammatory mediators, and motor coordination. For memory, assessment mice were subjected to morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Histological changes were assessed using HE staining. Piclamilast pPost-trt significantly reduced I/R injury-induced deleterious effects on biochemical parameters of oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters, infarct size, and histopathological changes, according to the findings. These neuroprotective effects of pPost-trt are significantly abolished by pre-treatment with selective CREB inhibitor, 666-15. Current study concluded that induced neuroprotective benefits of Piclamilast Post-trt, in all probability, maybe mediated through CREB activation. Hence, its neuroprotective effects can be further explored in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-022-03609-wDOI Listing
April 2022

Harnessing blue energy with COF membranes.

Nat Nanotechnol 2022 Jun;17(6):564-566

McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-022-01118-zDOI Listing
June 2022

The Association of Serum Magnesium Levels and QT Interval with Neurological Outcomes After Targeted Temperature Management.

Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag 2022 Apr 22. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Division of Cardiology, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

Targeted temperature management (TTM) is associated with corrected QT (QTc) prolongation and decrease in serum magnesium (Mg) levels that may lead to recurrent ventricular arrhythmia and poor neurological outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between QTc interval and Mg levels during TTM with neurological outcomes. We reviewed the electrocardiograms of 366 patients who underwent TTM during the induction, maintenance, and rewarming phase after cardiac arrest. We reviewed the association of change in QTc interval, and Mg levels with neurological outcomes. In total, 71.3% of the patients had a significant increase in QTc interval defined as >60 ms or any QTc >500 ms during TTM. Poor neurological outcome was associated with persistent prolongation of QTc after rewarming (507 vs. 483 ms,  = 0.046) and higher Mg levels at presentation (2.08 ± 0.41 mg/dL,  = 0.014). Supplemental Mg did not have any significant change in their QTc. Patients with prolonged QTc during TTM should be promptly evaluated for QTc-prolonging factors given its association with worse neurological outcomes. The inverse correlation between Mg levels and poor neurological outcomes deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ther.2021.0038DOI Listing
April 2022

Inactivation Mechanism and Efficacy of Grape Seed Extract for Human Norovirus Surrogate.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2022 05 25;88(9):e0224721. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigngrid.35403.31, Urbana, Illinois, USA.

Proper disinfection of harvested food and water is critical to minimize infectious disease. Grape seed extract (GSE), a commonly used health supplement, is a mixture of plant-derived polyphenols. Polyphenols possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, but antiviral effects are not well-known. Here we show that GSE outperformed chemical disinfectants (e.g., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. GSE induced virus aggregation, a process that correlated with a decrease in virus titers. This aggregation and disinfection were not reversible. Molecular docking simulations indicate that polyphenols potentially formed hydrogen bonds and strong hydrophobic interactions with specific residues in viral capsid proteins. Together, these data suggest that polyphenols physically associate with viral capsid proteins to aggregate viruses as a means to inhibit virus entry into the host cell. Plant-based polyphenols like GSE are an attractive alternative to chemical disinfectants to remove infectious viruses from water or food. Human noroviruses are major food- and waterborne pathogens, causing approximately 20% of all cases of acute gastroenteritis cases in developing and developed countries. Proper sanitation or disinfection are critical strategies to minimize human norovirus-caused disease until a reliable vaccine is created. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a mixture of plant-derived polyphenols used as a health supplement. Polyphenols are known for antimicrobial, antifungal, and antibiofilm activities, but antiviral effects are not well-known. In studies presented here, plant-derived polyphenols outperformed chemical disinfectants (i.e., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. Based on data from molecular assays and molecular docking simulations, the current model is that the polyphenols in GSE bind to the Tulane virus capsid, an event that triggers virion aggregation. It is thought that this aggregation prevents Tulane virus from entering host cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aem.02247-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9088358PMC
May 2022
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