Publications by authors named "Manfred Andratsch"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impaired mechanical, heat, and cold nociception in a murine model of genetic TACE/ADAM17 knockdown.

FASEB J 2019 03 26;33(3):4418-4431. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Division of Physiology, Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria; and.

TNF-α-converting enzyme, a member of the ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase) protease family and also known as ADAM17, regulates inflammation and regeneration in health and disease. ADAM17 targets are involved in pain development and hypersensitivity in animal models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, the role of ADAM17 in the pain pathway is largely unknown. Therefore, we used the hypomorphic ADAM17 (ADAM17) mouse model to investigate the importance of ADAM17 in nociceptive behavior, morphology, and function of primary afferent nociceptors. ADAM17 mice were hyposensitive to noxious stimulation, showing elevated mechanical thresholds as well as impaired heat and cold sensitivity. Despite these differences, skin thickness and innervation were comparable to controls. Although dorsal root ganglia of ADAM17 mice exhibited normal morphology of peptidergic and nonpeptidergic neurons, a small but significant reduction in the number of isolectin β-4-positive neurons was observed. Functional electrical properties of unmyelinated nociceptors showed differences in resting membrane potential, afterhyperpolarization, and firing patterns in specific subpopulations of sensory neurons in ADAM17 mice. However, spinal cord morphology and microglia activity in ADAM17 mice were not altered. Our data suggest that ADAM17 contributes to the processing of painful stimuli, with a complex mode of action orchestrating the function of neurons along the pain pathway.-Quarta, S., Mitrić, M., Kalpachidou, T., Mair, N., Schiefermeier-Mach, N., Andratsch, M., Qi, Y., Langeslag, M., Malsch, P., Rose-John, S., Kress, M. Impaired mechanical, heat, and cold nociception in a murine model of genetic TACE/ADAM17 knockdown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801901RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404580PMC
March 2019

Peripheral nerve regeneration and NGF-dependent neurite outgrowth of adult sensory neurons converge on STAT3 phosphorylation downstream of neuropoietic cytokine receptor gp130.

J Neurosci 2014 Sep;34(39):13222-33

Divisions of Physiology, and

After nerve injury, adult sensory neurons can regenerate peripheral axons and reconnect with their target tissue. Initiation of outgrowth, as well as elongation of neurites over long distances, depends on the signaling of receptors for neurotrophic growth factors. Here, we investigated the importance of gp130, the signaling subunit of neuropoietic cytokine receptors in peripheral nerve regeneration. After sciatic nerve crush, functional recovery in vivo was retarded in SNS-gp130(-/-) mice, which specifically lack gp130 in sensory neurons. Correspondingly, a significantly reduced number of free nerve endings was detected in glabrous skin from SNS-gp130(-/-) compared with control mice after nerve crush. Neurite outgrowth and STAT3 activation in vitro were severely reduced in cultures in gp130-deficient cultured neurons. Surprisingly, in neurons obtained from SNS-gp130(-/-) mice the increase in neurite length was reduced not only in response to neuropoietic cytokine ligands of gp130 but also to nerve growth factor (NGF), which does not bind to gp130-containing receptors. Neurite outgrowth in the absence of neurotrophic factors was partially rescued in gp130-deficient neurons by leptin, which activates STAT3 downstream of leptic receptor and independent of gp130. The neurite outgrowth response of gp130-deficient neurons to NGF was fully restored in the presence of leptin. Based on these findings, gp130 signaling via STAT3 activation is suggested not only to be an important regulator of peripheral nerve regeneration in vitro and in vivo, but as determining factor for the growth promoting action of NGF in adult sensory neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1209-13.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4172810PMC
September 2014

Deletion of interleukin-6 signal transducer gp130 in small sensory neurons attenuates mechanonociception and down-regulates TRPA1 expression.

J Neurosci 2014 Jul;34(30):9845-56

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Division of Physiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria,

Glycoprotein 130 (gp130) is the signal transducing receptor subunit for cytokines of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family, and it is expressed in a multitude of cell types of the immune and nervous system. IL-6-like cytokines are not only key regulators of innate immunity and inflammation but are also essential factors for the differentiation and development of the somatosensory system. Mice with a null mutation of gp130 in primary nociceptive afferents (SNS-gp130(-/-)) are largely protected from hypersensitivity to mechanical stimuli in mouse models of pathological pain. Therefore, we set out to investigate how neuronal gp130 regulates mechanonociception. SNS-gp130(-/-) mice revealed reduced mechanosensitivity to high mechanical forces in the von Frey assay in vivo, and this was associated with a reduced sensitivity of nociceptive primary afferents in vitro. Together with these findings, transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) mRNA expression was significantly reduced in DRG from SNS-gp130(-/-) mice. This was also reflected by a reduced number of neurons responding with calcium transients to TRPA1 agonists in primary DRG cultures. Downregulation of Trpa1 expression was predominantly discovered in nonpeptidergic neurons, with the deficit becoming evident during stages of early postnatal development. Regulation of Trpa1 mRNA expression levels downstream of gp130 involved the classical Janus kinase family-signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway. Our results closely link proinflammatory cytokines to the expression of TRPA1, both of which have been shown to contribute to hypersensitive pain states. We suggest that gp130 has an essential role in mechanonociception and in the regulation of TRPA1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5161-13.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107403PMC
July 2014

Sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced nociceptor excitation and ongoing pain behavior in mice and humans is largely mediated by S1P3 receptor.

J Neurosci 2013 Feb;33(6):2582-92

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Division of Physiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

The biolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an essential modulator of innate immunity, cell migration, and wound healing. It is released locally upon acute tissue injury from endothelial cells and activated thrombocytes and, therefore, may give rise to acute post-traumatic pain sensation via a yet elusive molecular mechanism. We have used an interdisciplinary approach to address this question, and we find that intradermal injection of S1P induced significant licking and flinching behavior in wild-type mice and a dose-dependent flare reaction in human skin as a sign of acute activation of nociceptive nerve terminals. Notably, S1P evoked a small excitatory ionic current that resulted in nociceptor depolarization and action potential firing. This ionic current was preserved in "cation-free" solution and blocked by the nonspecific Cl(-) channel inhibitor niflumic acid and by preincubation with the G-protein inhibitor GDP-β-S. Notably, S1P(3) receptor was detected in virtually all neurons in human and mouse DRG. In line with this finding, S1P-induced neuronal responses and spontaneous pain behavior in vivo were substantially reduced in S1P(3)(-/-) mice, whereas in control S1P(1) floxed (S1P(1)(fl/fl)) mice and mice with a nociceptor-specific deletion of S1P(1)(-/-) receptor (SNS-S1P(1)(-/-)), neither the S1P-induced responses in vitro nor the S1P-evoked pain-like behavior was altered. Therefore, these findings indicate that S1P evokes significant nociception via G-protein-dependent activation of an excitatory Cl(-) conductance that is largely mediated by S1P(3) receptors present in nociceptors, and point to these receptors as valuable therapeutic targets for post-traumatic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4479-12.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6619173PMC
February 2013

Oncostatin M induces heat hypersensitivity by gp130-dependent sensitization of TRPV1 in sensory neurons.

Mol Pain 2011 Dec 23;7:102. Epub 2011 Dec 23.

Division of Physiology, Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Oncostatin M (OSM) is a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family and regulates eg. gene activation, cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. OSM binds to a receptor complex consisting of the ubiquitously expressed signal transducer gp130 and the ligand binding OSM receptor subunit, which is expressed on a specific subset of primary afferent neurons. In the present study, the effect of OSM on heat nociception was investigated in nociceptor-specific gp130 knock-out (SNS-gp130-/-) and gp130 floxed (gp130fl/fl) mice.Subcutaneous injection of pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of OSM into the hind-paw of C57BL6J wild type mice significantly reduced paw withdrawal latencies to heat stimulation. In contrast to gp130fl/fl mice, OSM did not induce heat hypersensitivity in vivo in SNS-gp130-/- mice. OSM applied at the receptive fields of sensory neurons in in vitro skin-nerve preparations showed that OSM significantly increased the discharge rate during a standard ramp-shaped heat stimulus. The capsaicin- and heat-sensitive ion channel TRPV1, expressed on a subpopulation of nociceptive neurons, has been shown to play an important role in inflammation-induced heat hypersensitivity. Stimulation of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons with OSM resulted in potentiation of capsaicin induced ionic currents. In line with these recordings, mice with a null mutation of the TRPV1 gene did not show any signs of OSM-induced heat hypersensitivity in vivo.The present data suggest that OSM induces thermal hypersensitivity by directly sensitizing nociceptors via OSMR-gp130 receptor mediated potentiation of TRPV1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-8069-7-102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3275481PMC
December 2011

Genetic evidence for involvement of neuronally expressed S1P₁ receptor in nociceptor sensitization and inflammatory pain.

PLoS One 2011 Feb 17;6(2):e17268. Epub 2011 Feb 17.

Division of Physiology, Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a key regulator of immune response. Immune cells, epithelia and blood cells generate high levels of S1P in inflamed tissue. However, it is not known if S1P acts on the endings of nociceptive neurons, thereby contributing to the generation of inflammatory pain. We found that the S1P₁ receptor for S1P is expressed in subpopulations of sensory neurons including nociceptors. Both S1P and agonists at the S1P₁ receptor induced hypersensitivity to noxious thermal stimulation in vitro and in vivo. S1P-induced hypersensitivity was strongly attenuated in mice lacking TRPV1 channels. S1P and inflammation-induced hypersensitivity was significantly reduced in mice with a conditional nociceptor-specific deletion of the S1P₁ receptor. Our data show that neuronally expressed S1P₁ receptors play a significant role in regulating nociceptor function and that S1P/S1P₁ signaling may be a key player in the onset of thermal hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia associated with inflammation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017268PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3040773PMC
February 2011

A key role for gp130 expressed on peripheral sensory nerves in pathological pain.

J Neurosci 2009 Oct;29(43):13473-83

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Division of Physiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key mediator of inflammation. Inhibitors of IL-6 or of its signal transducing receptor gp130 constitute a novel class of anti-inflammatory drugs, which raise great hopes for improved treatments of painful inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-6 and gp130 may enhance pain not only indirectly through their proinflammatory actions but also through a direct action on nociceptors (i.e., on neurons activated by painful stimuli). We found indeed that the IL-6/gp130 ligand-receptor complex induced heat hypersensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. This process was mediated by activation of PKC-delta via Gab1/2/PI(3)K and subsequent regulation of TRPV1, a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels. To assess the relevance of this direct pain promoting effect of IL-6, we generated conditional knock-out mice, which lack gp130 specifically in nociceptors, and tested them in models of inflammatory and tumor-induced pain. These mice showed significantly reduced levels of inflammatory and tumor-induced pain but no changes in immune reactions or tumor growth. Our results uncover the significance of gp130 expressed in peripheral pain sensing neurons in the pathophysiology of major clinical pain disorders and suggest their use as novel pain relieving agents in inflammatory and tumor pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1822-09.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664994PMC
October 2009

Role of sphingosine kinase 1 in allergen-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and hyperresponsiveness.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009 Nov 8;124(5):933-41.e1-9. Epub 2009 Aug 8.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Immunologic processes might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a fatal condition characterized by progressive pulmonary arterial remodeling, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Experimental allergen-driven lung inflammation evoked morphologic and functional vascular changes that resembled those observed in patients with PAH. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) is the main pulmonary contributor to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) synthesis, a modulator of immune and vascular functions.

Objective: We sought to investigate the role of SphK1 in allergen-induced lung inflammation.

Methods: SphK1-deficient mice and C57Bl/6 littermates (wild-type [WT] animals) were subjected to acute or chronic allergen exposure.

Results: After 4 weeks of systemic ovalbumin sensitization and local airway challenge, airway responsiveness increased less in SphK1(-/-) compared with WT mice, whereas pulmonary vascular responsiveness was greatly increased and did not differ between strains. Acute lung inflammation led to an increase in eosinophils and mRNA expression for S1P phosphatase 2 and S1P lyase in lungs of WT but not SphK1(-/-) mice. After repetitive allergen exposure for 8 weeks, airway responsiveness was not augmented in SphK1(-/-) or WT mice, but pulmonary vascular responsiveness was increased in both strains, with significantly higher vascular responsiveness in SphK1(-/-) mice compared with that seen in WT mice. Increased vascular responsiveness was accompanied by remodeling of the small and intra-acinar arteries.

Conclusion: : The data support a role for SphK1 and S1P in allergen-induced airway inflammation. However, SphK1 deficiency increased pulmonary vascular hyperresponsiveness, which is a component of PAH pathobiology. Moreover, we show for the first time the dissociation between inflammation-induced remodeling of the airways and pulmonary vasculature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2009.06.034DOI Listing
November 2009

Endogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) requires TNF receptor type 2 to generate heat hyperalgesia in a mouse cancer model.

J Neurosci 2008 May;28(19):5072-81

Division of Physiology, Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Innsbruck Medical University, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

To provide a tool to investigate the mechanisms inducing and maintaining cancer-related pain and hyperalgesia, a soft tissue tumor/metastasis model was developed that is applicable in C57BL/6J wild-type and transgenic mice. We show that the experimental tumor-induced heat hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization were prevented by systemic treatment with the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) antagonist etanercept. In naive mice, exogenous TNFalpha evoked heat hyperalgesia in vivo and sensitized nociceptive nerve fibers to heat in vitro. TNFalpha enhanced the expression of the nociceptor-specific heat transducer ion channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and increased the amplitudes of capsaicin and heat-activated ionic currents via p38/MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase and PKC (protein kinase C). Deletion of the tumor necrosis factor receptor type 2 (TNFR2) gene attenuated heat hyperalgesia and prevented TRPV1 upregulation in tumor-bearing mice, whereas TNFR1 gene deletion played a minor role. We propose endogenous TNFalpha as a key player in cancer-related heat hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization that generates TRPV1 upregulation and sensitization via TNFR2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4476-07.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6670746PMC
May 2008

TGF-beta signaling and its effect on glutaminase expression in LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007 Sep 27;293(3):F846-53. Epub 2007 Jun 27.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Innsbruck Medical University, Fritz-Pregl-Strasse 3, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

During systemic acidosis, renal proximal tubular cells exhibit enhanced rates of bicarbonate and ammonium ion synthesis and undergo extensive hypertrophy. The former adaptations are accomplished, in part, by increased expression of glutaminase (GA). LLC-PK(1)-FBPase+ cells, a gluconeogenic line of porcine kidney cells, exhibit a rapid activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and a two- to threefold increase in GA mRNA when transferred to acidic medium (pH 6.9). Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent activator of MAPK and Smad signaling cascades, also causes extensive renal hypertrophy. Thus the potential role of TGF-beta in the renal response to metabolic acidosis was investigated. Western blot analyses established that in LLC-PK(1)-FBPase+ cells, TGF-beta activated the ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Smad1/5/8 pathways, but not the JNK and Smad2/3 pathways. Addition of TGF-beta to cells cultured in normal medium (pH 7.4) produced a steady increase in GA mRNA, resulting in a twofold induction after 18 h. Western blot analysis indicated that treatment with either TGF-beta or acidic medium resulted in an increased level of fibronectin. However, the effects of the two treatments on both GA mRNA and fibronectin levels occurred with different time courses and were additive. In addition, the rates of ammonia production were decreased slightly by addition of TGF-beta. Finally, a GA-luciferase reporter construct, which is activated 3.5-fold by treatment with acidic medium, is not affected by TGF-beta. Therefore, TGF-beta and metabolic acidosis activate some of the same signaling pathways in LLC-PK(1)-FBPase+ cells, but produce separate effects on GA expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00139.2007DOI Listing
September 2007

Effects of constitutively active and dominant negative MAPK kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6 on the pH-responsive increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA.

J Biol Chem 2006 Feb 30;281(5):2982-8. Epub 2005 Nov 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523-1870, USA.

Metabolic acidosis is partially compensated by a pronounced increase in renal catabolism of glutamine. This adaptive response is sustained, in part, through increased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Previous inhibitor studies suggested that the pH-responsive increase in PEPCK mRNA in LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells is mediated by a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). These cells express high levels of the upstream kinase MAPK kinase (MKK) 3 but relatively low levels of the alternative upstream kinase MKK6. To firmly establish the role of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, clonal lines of LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells that express constitutively active (ca) and dominant negative (dn) forms of MKK3 and MKK6 from a tetracycline-responsive promoter were developed. Western blot analyses confirmed that 0.5 microg/ml doxycycline was sufficient to block transcription and that removal of doxycycline led to pronounced and sustained expression of the caMKKs and dnMKKs. Expression of caMKK6 (but not caMKK3) caused an increase in phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and an increase in the level of PEPCK mRNA that closely mimicked the effect of treatment with acidic medium (pH 6.9, 10 mm HCO3-). Only caMKK6 activated transcription of a PEPCK-luciferase reporter construct. Co-expression of both dnMKKs blocked the increases in phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PEPCK mRNA. The latter effect closely mimicked that of the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. The expression of either dnMKK3 or dnMKK6 was less effective than co-expression of both dnMKKs. Thus, the pH-responsive increase in PEPCK mRNA in the kidney is mediated by the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and involves activation of MKK3 and/or MKK6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M510084200DOI Listing
February 2006

Active internalization of the Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein PAF in sensitive aspergilli.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2003 Nov;47(11):3598-601

Department of Molecular Biology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

The Penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein PAF inhibits the growth of various filamentous fungi. In this study, PAF was found to localize to the cytoplasm of sensitive aspergilli by indirect immunofluorescence staining. The internalization process required active metabolism and ATP and was prevented by latrunculin B, suggesting an endocytotic mechanism.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC253792PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aac.47.11.3598-3601.2003DOI Listing
November 2003

p38 MAPK mediates acid-induced transcription of PEPCK in LLC-PK(1)-FBPase(+) cells.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2002 Oct;283(4):F678-88

Department of Physiology, University of Innsbruck, Austria.

LLC-PK(1)-FBPase(+) cells are a gluconeogenic and pH-responsive renal proximal tubule-like cell line. On incubation with acidic medium (pH 6.9), LLC-PK(1)-FBPase(+) cells exhibit an increased rate of ammonia production as well as increases in glutaminase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels and enzyme activities. The increase in PEPCK mRNA is due to an enhanced rate of transcription that is initiated in response to intracellular acidosis. The involvement of known MAPK activities (ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, p38) in the associated signal transduction pathway was examined by determining the effects of specific MAPK activators and inhibitors on basal and acid-induced PEPCK mRNA levels. Transfer of LLC-PK(1)-FBPase(+) cultures to acidic medium resulted in specific phosphorylation, and thus activation, of p38 and of activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), respectively. Anisomycin (AI), a strong p38 activator, increased PEPCK mRNA to levels comparable to those observed with acid stimulation. AI also induced a time-dependent phosphorylation of p38 and ATF-2. SB-203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, blocked both acid- and AI-induced PEPCK mRNA levels. Western blot analyses revealed that the SB-203580-sensitive p38alpha isoform is strongly expressed. The octanucleotide sequence of the cAMP-response element-1 site of the PEPCK promotor is a perfect match to the consensus element for binding ATF-2. The specificity of ATF-2 binding was proven by ELISA. We conclude that the SB-203580-sensitive p38alpha-ATF-2 signaling pathway is a likely mediator of the pH-responsive induction of PEPCK mRNA levels in renal LLC-PK(1)-FBPase(+) cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00097.2002DOI Listing
October 2002