Publications by authors named "Mandy Paul"

9 Publications

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Maturation-Dependent Differences in the Re-innervation of the Denervated Dentate Gyrus by Sprouting Associational and Commissural Mossy Cell Axons in Organotypic Tissue Cultures of Entorhinal Cortex and Hippocampus.

Front Neuroanat 2021 28;15:682383. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Dr. Senckenberg Anatomy, Neuroscience Center, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Sprouting of surviving axons is one of the major reorganization mechanisms of the injured brain contributing to a partial restoration of function. Of note, sprouting is maturation as well as age-dependent and strong in juvenile brains, moderate in adult and weak in aged brains. We have established a model system of complex organotypic tissue cultures to study sprouting in the dentate gyrus following entorhinal denervation. Entorhinal denervation performed after 2 weeks postnatally resulted in a robust, rapid, and very extensive sprouting response of commissural/associational fibers, which could be visualized using calretinin as an axonal marker. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of maturation on this form of sprouting and compared cultures denervated at 2 weeks postnatally with cultures denervated at 4 weeks postnatally. Calretinin immunofluorescence labeling as well as time-lapse imaging of virally-labeled (AAV2-hSyn1-GFP) commissural axons was employed to study the sprouting response in aged cultures. Compared to the young cultures commissural/associational sprouting was attenuated and showed a pattern similar to the one following entorhinal denervation in adult animals . We conclude that a maturation-dependent attenuation of sprouting occurs also , which now offers the chance to study, understand and influence maturation-dependent differences in brain repair in these culture preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2021.682383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194403PMC
May 2021

Crossed Entorhino-Dentate Projections Form and Terminate With Correct Layer-Specificity in Organotypic Slice Cultures of the Mouse Hippocampus.

Front Neuroanat 2021 11;15:637036. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Dr. Senckenberg Anatomy, Neuroscience Center, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

The entorhino-dentate projection, i.e., the perforant pathway, terminates in a highly ordered and laminated fashion in the rodent dentate gyrus (DG): fibers arising from the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) terminate in the middle molecular layer, whereas fibers arising from the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) terminate in the outer molecular layer of the DG. In rats and rabbits, a crossed entorhino-dentate projection exists, which originates from the entorhinal cortex (EC) and terminates in the contralateral DG. In contrast, in mice, such a crossed projection is reportedly absent. Using single and double mouse organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures, we studied the ipsi- and crossed entorhino-dentate projections. Viral tracing revealed that entorhino-dentate projections terminate with a high degree of lamina-specificity in single as well as in double cultures. Furthermore, in double cultures, entorhinal axons arising from one slice freely intermingled with entorhinal axons originating from the other slice. In single as well as in double cultures, entorhinal axons exhibited a correct topographical projection to the DG: medial entorhinal axons terminated in the middle and lateral entorhinal axons terminated in the outer molecular layer. Finally, entorhinal neurons were virally transduced with Channelrhodopsin2-YFP and stimulated with light, revealing functional connections between the EC and dentate granule cells. We conclude from our findings that entorhino-dentate projections form bilaterally in the mouse hippocampus and that the mouse DG provides a permissive environment for crossed entorhinal fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2021.637036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904698PMC
February 2021

The actin-modulating protein synaptopodin mediates long-term survival of dendritic spines.

Elife 2020 12 4;9. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Dr. Senckenberg Anatomy, Neuroscience Center, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Large spines are stable and important for memory trace formation. The majority of large spines also contains synaptopodin (SP), an actin-modulating and plasticity-related protein. Since SP stabilizes F-actin, we speculated that the presence of SP within large spines could explain their long lifetime. Indeed, using 2-photon time-lapse imaging of SP-transgenic granule cells in mouse organotypic tissue cultures we found that spines containing SP survived considerably longer than spines of equal size without SP. Of note, SP-positive (SP+) spines that underwent pruning first lost SP before disappearing. Whereas the survival time courses of SP+ spines followed conditional two-stage decay functions, SP-negative (SP-) spines and all spines of SP-deficient animals showed single-phase exponential decays. This was also the case following afferent denervation. These results implicate SP as a major regulator of long-term spine stability: SP clusters stabilize spines, and the presence of SP indicates spines of high stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.62944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717903PMC
December 2020

Neuropathic and cAMP-induced pain behavior is ameliorated in mice lacking CNGB1.

Neuropharmacology 2020 07 6;171:108087. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Institute of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Goethe University, 60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels, which are directly activated by cAMP and cGMP, have long been known to play a key role in retinal and olfactory signal transduction. Emerging evidence indicates that CNG channels are also involved in signaling pathways important for pain processing. Here, we found that the expression of the channel subunits CNGA2, CNGA3, CNGA4 and CNGB1 in dorsal root ganglia, and of CNGA2 in the spinal cord, is transiently altered after peripheral nerve injury in mice. Specifically, we show using in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time RT-PCR that CNG channels containing the CNGB1b subunit are localized to populations of sensory neurons and predominantly excitatory interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn. In CNGB1 knockout (CNGB1) mice, neuropathic pain behavior is considerably attenuated whereas inflammatory pain behavior is normal. Finally, we provide evidence to support CNGB1 as a downstream mediator of cAMP signaling in pain pathways. Altogether, our data suggest that CNGB1-positive CNG channels specifically contribute to neuropathic pain processing after peripheral nerve injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108087DOI Listing
July 2020

Granule Cell Ensembles in Mouse Dentate Gyrus Rapidly Upregulate the Plasticity-Related Protein Synaptopodin after Exploration Behavior.

Cereb Cortex 2020 04;30(4):2185-2198

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Dr. Senckenberg Anatomy, Neuroscience Center, D-60590 Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

The plasticity-related protein Synaptopodin (SP) has been implicated in neuronal plasticity. SP is targeted to dendritic spines and the axon initial segment, where it organizes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the spine apparatus and the cisternal organelle, respectively. Here, we report an inducible third localization of SP in the somata of activated granule cell ensembles in mouse dentate gyrus. Using immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we observed a subpopulation of mature granule cells (~1-2%) exhibiting perinuclear SP protein and a strong somatic SP mRNA signal. Double immunofluorescence labeling for Arc demonstrated that ~ 75% of these somatic SP-positive cells are also Arc-positive. Placement of mice into a novel environment caused a rapid (~2-4 h) induction of Arc, SP mRNA, and SP protein in exploration-induced granule cell ensembles. Lesion experiments showed that this induction requires input from the entorhinal cortex. Somatic SP colocalized with α-Actinin2, a known binding partner of SP. Finally, ultrastructural analysis revealed SP immunoprecipitate on dense plates linking cytoplasmic and perinuclear ER cisterns; these structures were absent in granule cells of SP-deficient mice. Our data implicate SP in the formation of contextual representations in the dentate gyrus and the behaviorally induced reorganization of cytoplasmic and perinuclear ER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhz231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175005PMC
April 2020

Re-innervation of the Denervated Dentate Gyrus by Sprouting Associational and Commissural Mossy Cell Axons in Organotypic Tissue Cultures of Entorhinal Cortex and Hippocampus.

Front Mol Neurosci 2019 12;12:270. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Dr. Senckenberg Anatomy, Neuroscience Center, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Collateral sprouting of surviving axons contributes to the synaptic reorganization after brain injury. To study this clinically relevant phenomenon, we used complex organotypic tissue cultures of mouse entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (H). Single EC-H cultures were generated to analyze associational sprouting, and double EC-H cultures were used to evaluate commissural sprouting of mossy cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) following entorhinal denervation. Entorhinal denervation (transection of the perforant path) was performed at 14 days (DIV) and associational/commissural sprouting was assessed at 28 DIV. First, associational sprouting was studied in genetically hybrid EC-H cultures of beta-actin-GFPtg and wild-type mice. Using calretinin as a marker, associational axons were found to re-innervate almost the entire entorhinal target zone. Denervation experiments performed with EC-H cultures of Thy1-YFPtg mice, in which mossy cells are YFP-positive, confirmed that the overwhelming majority of sprouting associational calretinin-positive axons are mossy cell axons. Second, we analyzed associational/commissural sprouting by combining wild-type EC-H cultures with calretinin-deficient EC-H cultures. In these cultures, only wild-type mossy cells contain calretinin, and associational and commissural mossy cell collaterals can be distinguished using calretinin as a marker. Nearly the entire DG entorhinal target zone was re-innervated by sprouting of associational and commissural mossy cell axons. Finally, viral labeling of newly formed associational/commissural axons revealed a rapid post-lesional sprouting response. These findings demonstrate extensive and rapid re-innervation of the denervated DG outer molecular layer by associational and commissural mossy cell axons, similar to what has been reported to occur in juvenile rodent DG .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2019.00270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861856PMC
November 2019

Region-Specific Differences in Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression in the Mouse Hippocampus.

Front Mol Neurosci 2016 29;9:134. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Neuroscience Center, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany.

The physiological role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been extensively investigated in the rodent hippocampus. Evidence suggests that APP plays a role in synaptic plasticity, dendritic and spine morphogenesis, neuroprotection and-at the behavioral level-hippocampus-dependent forms of learning and memory. Intriguingly, however, studies focusing on the role of APP in synaptic plasticity have reported diverging results and considerable differences in effect size between the dentate gyrus (DG) and area CA1 of the mouse hippocampus. We speculated that regional differences in APP expression could underlie these discrepancies and studied the expression of APP in both regions using immunostaining, hybridization (ISH), and laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting. In sum, our results show that APP is approximately 1.7-fold higher expressed in pyramidal cells of Ammon's horn than in granule cells of the DG. This regional difference in APP expression may explain why loss-of-function approaches using APP-deficient mice revealed a role for APP in Hebbian plasticity in area CA1, whereas this could not be shown in the DG of the same APP mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2016.00134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126089PMC
November 2016

Deletion of the amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) enhances excitatory synaptic transmission, reduces network inhibition but does not impair synaptic plasticity in the mouse dentate gyrus.

J Comp Neurol 2015 Aug 7;523(11):1717-29. Epub 2015 Apr 7.

Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, Neuroscience Center, Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Amyloid precursor-like protein 1 (APLP1) is a transmembrane synaptic protein belonging to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family. Although the role of this gene family-in particular of APP-has been intensely studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, the physiological roles of its family members remain poorly understood. In particular, the function of APLP1, which is predominantly expressed in the nervous system, has remained enigmatic. Since APP has been implicated in synaptic plasticity, we wondered whether APLP1 could play a similar role. First, using in situ hybridization and laser microdissection combined with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we observed that Aplp1 mRNA is highly expressed in dentate granule cells. Having this examined, we studied synaptic plasticity at the perforant path-granule cell synapses in the dentate gyrus of APLP1-deficient mice in vivo. Analysis of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of perforant path fibers revealed increased excitatory transmission in APLP1-deficient mice. Moreover, we observed decreased paired-pulse inhibition of population spikes indicating a decrease in network inhibition upon deletion of APLP1. In contrast, short-term presynaptic plasticity (STP) as well as long-term synaptic plasticity (LTP) was unchanged in the absence of APLP1. Based on these results we conclude that APLP1 deficiency on its own does not lead to defects in synaptic plasticity, but affects synaptic transmission and network inhibition in the dentate gyrus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.23766DOI Listing
August 2015

Cardiac outflow tract development relies on the complex function of Sox4 and Sox11 in multiple cell types.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2014 Aug 6;71(15):2931-45. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Institut für Biochemie, Emil-Fischer-Zentrum, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Fahrstrasse 17, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

Congenital heart defects represent the most common human birth defects and are often life-threatening. Frequently, they are caused by abnormalities of the outflow tract whose formation results from coordinated development of cells from mesodermal and neural crest origin and depends on the activity of many different transcription factors. However, place, time, and mode of action have only been analyzed for a few of them. Here we assess the contribution of the closely related high-mobility-group transcription factors Sox4 and Sox11 to outflow tract development and determine their function. Using cell-type-specific deletion in the mouse, we show that Sox11 is required for proper development in both mesodermal cells and neural crest cells. Deletion in either mesoderm or neural crest, or both, leads to outflow tract defects ranging from double outlet right ventricle to common arterial trunk. Sox4 supports Sox11 in its function, but has additional roles with relevance for outflow tract formation in other cell types. The two Sox proteins are dispensable during early phases of cardiac neural crest development including neural tube emigration, proliferation, and migration through the pharyngeal arches. They become essential after arrival of the neural crest cells in the outflow tract for their proper differentiation and interaction with each other as well as with the environment through regulation of cytoskeletal, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix molecules. Our results demonstrate that Sox4 and Sox11 have multiple functions in several cell types during outflow tract formation and may thus help to understand the basis of congenital heart defects in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-013-1523-xDOI Listing
August 2014
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