Publications by authors named "Mandeep Kaur"

244 Publications

Molecular mechanisms of cognitive impairment associated with stroke.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CT University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Stroke is the second leading cause of death after coronary heart disease in developed countries and is the greatest cause of disability and cognitive impairment. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, hypertension, arterial fibrillation, diabetes, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke, depressive illness duration of a stroke, location, volume, intensity, and degree of neuronal degeneration, location and size of infarction after stroke, time interval after stroke other cerebral dysfunctions. The pathophysiology of stroke associated cognitive impairment is complex and recent molecular, cellular, and animal models studies have revealed that multiple cellular changes have been implicated, including altered redox state, mitochondrial dysfunction, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, perivascular spacing, glymphatic system impairment, microglia activation and amyloid-β deposition in the parenchyma of the brain. These studies have also evidenced the involvement of various transcription factors, intracellular adhesion molecules, and endogenous growth factors in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment associated with stroke and providing scope for developing therapeutic strategies for treatment. This review summarizes the latest research findings on molecular mechanisms involved in cognitive impairment associated with stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-022-00901-0DOI Listing
January 2022

Identification of novel pulmonary vein nodes as generators of ectopic arrhythmic foci for atrial fibrillation: an immunohistochemical proof.

Surg Radiol Anat 2022 Jan 7;44(1):129-136. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Anatomy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Purpose: The atrial muscle sleeve (AMS) of the pulmonary vein is the most common source of the arrhythmogenic triggers in atrial fibrillation (AF). Anatomical substrate generating these ectopic currents is still elusive. The present study was designed to study the AMS of pulmonary veins with an emphasis on the structural basis which might govern AF initiation and perpetuation.

Methods: The study was conducted on a longitudinal tissue section of pulmonary vein, taken from 15 human cadaveric nondiseased hearts. Tissue was studied histologically using H&E and Gömöri trichrome stain. The pacemaker channels were identified by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal HCN4 and HCN1 antibodies.

Results: The AMS was identified in each pulmonary vein, located between the tunica adventitia and tunica media. A node-like arrangement of myocytes was seen within the AMS in 30% of veins. It had a compact zone limited by a fibrous capsule and contained much smaller, paler and interconnected myocytes. Outside the capsule, there was a zone of dispersed, singly placed myocytes separating the compact zone from the working myocytes of the AMS. HCN4 and HCN1 antibodies were expressed on the cell membrane of nodal myocytes, while the working myocytes demonstrated none to minimal staining.

Conclusion: Pulmonary veins nodes are similar to the specialized cardiac conductive tissue in the histological arrangement of compact and transitional zones, cellular characteristics and the presence of pacemaker channels. They might be the anatomical basis of ectopic arrhythmogenic foci. To our knowledge, these nodes are being described for the first time in human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00276-021-02864-wDOI Listing
January 2022

Cholesterol Depletion Modulates Drug Resistance Pathways to Sensitize Resistant Breast Cancer Cells to Tamoxifen.

Anticancer Res 2022 Jan;42(1):565-579

School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa

Background: Cancer drug resistance poses a significant risk of relapse and mortality. Adjuvant tamoxifen use has significantly reduced breast cancer mortality; however, many patients relapse due to acquired resistance. We aim to assess the potential of a cholesterol depletor (acetyl plumbagin) combined with tamoxifen to reduce cholesterol accumulation and cancer drug resistance.

Materials And Methods: Cell viability, apoptosis and cholesterol staining was assessed following combination treatment. Gene and protein expression in cancer drug resistance and lipoprotein signalling pathways were assessed using RT Profiler™ PCR arrays and STRING networks.

Results: Combined treatment led to an increase in apoptosis and reduced intracellular cholesterol in MCF-7 and long-term estrogen deprived (LTED) cells compared to single compound treatments. Furthermore, the combination treatment perturbed several cholesterol-related and cancer-drug resistance pathways.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the efficacy of tamoxifen combined with acetyl plumbagin in potentially disrupting the PI3K/Akt/PKB and Akt/mTORC1 signalling pathways in MCF-7 cells, reducing breast cancer cell proliferation and resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.15514DOI Listing
January 2022

Wheat inositol pyrophosphate kinase TaVIH2-3B modulates cell-wall composition and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

BMC Biol 2021 12 11;19(1):261. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (Department of Biotechnology), Sector 81, Knowledge City, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali-140306, Punjab, India.

Background: Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are high-energy derivatives of inositol, involved in different signalling and regulatory responses of eukaryotic cells. Distinct PP-InsPs species are characterized by the presence of phosphate at a variable number of the 6-carbon inositol ring backbone, and two distinct classes of inositol phosphate kinases responsible for their synthesis have been identified in Arabidopsis, namely ITPKinase (inositol 1,3,4 trisphosphate 5/6 kinase) and PP-IP5Kinase (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinases). Plant PP-IP5Ks are capable of synthesizing InsP and were previously shown to control defense against pathogens and phosphate response signals. However, other potential roles of plant PP-IP5Ks, especially towards abiotic stress, remain poorly understood.

Results: Here, we characterized the physiological functions of two Triticum aestivum L. (hexaploid wheat) PPIP5K homologs, TaVIH1 and TaVIH2. We demonstrate that wheat VIH proteins can utilize InsP as the substrate to produce InsP, a process that requires the functional VIH-kinase domains. At the transcriptional level, both TaVIH1 and TaVIH2 are expressed in different wheat tissues, including developing grains, but show selective response to abiotic stresses during drought-mimic experiments. Ectopic overexpression of TaVIH2-3B in Arabidopsis confers tolerance to drought stress and rescues the sensitivity of Atvih2 mutants. RNAseq analysis of TaVIH2-3B-expressing transgenic lines of Arabidopsis shows genome-wide reprogramming with remarkable effects on genes involved in cell-wall biosynthesis, which is supported by the observation of enhanced accumulation of polysaccharides (arabinogalactan, cellulose, and arabinoxylan) in the transgenic plants.

Conclusions: Overall, this work identifies a novel function of VIH proteins, implicating them in modulation of the expression of cell-wall homeostasis genes, and tolerance to water-deficit stress. This work suggests that plant VIH enzymes may be linked to drought tolerance and opens up the possibility of future research into using plant VIH-derived products to generate drought-resistant plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-01198-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8665518PMC
December 2021

Effect of Different Agricultural Farming Practices on Microbial Biomass and Enzyme Activities of Celery Growing Field Soil.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 12 6;18(23). Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Henan Key Laboratory of Earth System Observation and Modeling, College of Geography and Environmental Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Soil quality is directly affected by alterations in its microbiological, biological, biochemical, physical, and chemical aspects. The microbiological activities of soil can affect soil fertility and plant growth because it can speed up the cycling of nutrients, enzymes, and hormones that are needed by plants for proper growth and development. The use of different agricultural management practices can influence microbial biomass and enzyme activities by altering soil microclimate, soil microorganism habitat, and nutrient cycling. Based on this, the present work planned to evaluate the impact of conventional, low-input, and organic farming systems in a vegetable field growing celery on microbial biomass and different soil enzyme activities. The present study showed a comparison of the effect of different practices on biological soil quality indicators during two sampling times, i.e., one month after colonization and one month before harvesting. It was observed that the soil microbial biomass in the organic farming system was significantly higher than that found in conventional and low-input practices. Under an organic farming system, the soil microbial biomass in December was significantly higher than that in October. The soil microbial biomass carbon in the 0-20 cm soil layer showed higher variation compared to that in the 20-40 cm layer for all the three of the farming management practices that were used in the study. Additionally, the soil total carbon and total organic carbon were recorded as being higher in the December samples than they were in the October samples. Under all the three of the management practices that were applied, the soil catalase activity was higher in the October samples than it was in the December soil samples that were collected the from 20-40 cm soil layer compared to those that were taken from the 0-20 cm layer. The application of organic fertilizer (chicken and cowmanure compost) resulted inincreases in the soil urease and in the protease activity. The protease activity of the soil samples that were extracted from the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in October was higher in the samples that were taken from farms using conventional practices than it was in the samples that were taken from farms using organic and low-input practices, while the samples that were collected during December from both of the soil layers showed higher protease activity when organic methods had been used. No significant variation in the soil urease activity was observed between the two soil layer samples. Urease activity was the highest when organic management practices were being used, followed by the low-input and the conventional modes. For the conventional and low-input practices, the soil urease activity showed an obvious trend of change that was related to thetime of sampling, i.e., activity in December was significantly higher than activity in October. The novelty of this study was to determine the microbial biomass carbon and enzymatic activity in a six-field crop rotation (tomato, cucumber, celery, fennel, cauliflower, and eggplant) using three management practices: low-input, conventional, and organic systems. The present study showed that the long-term application of organic fertilizers plays a large role in maintaining excellent microbial and enzyme activitythat result in improved soil quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8657710PMC
December 2021

Mechanistic Insights Delineating the Role of Cholesterol in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Drug Resistance in Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:728325. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Despite the significant advancements made in targeted anti-cancer therapy, drug resistance constitutes a multifaceted phenomenon leading to therapy failure and ultimately mortality. Emerging experimental evidence highlight a role of cholesterol metabolism in facilitating drug resistance in cancer. This review aims to describe the role of cholesterol in facilitating multi-drug resistance in cancer. We focus on specific signaling pathways that contribute to drug resistance and the link between these pathways and cholesterol. Additionally, we briefly discuss the molecular mechanisms related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the documented link between EMT, metastasis and drug resistance. We illustrate this by specifically focusing on hypoxia and the role it plays in influencing cellular cholesterol content following EMT induction. Finally, we provide a proposed model delineating the crucial role of cholesterol in EMT and discuss whether targeting cholesterol could serve as a novel means of combatting drug resistance in cancer progression and metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.728325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8640133PMC
November 2021

Understanding Parinaud's Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2021 Nov 6;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Neurology Department, Larkin Community Hospital, South Miami, FL 33143, USA.

Parinaud's syndrome involves dysfunction of the structures of the dorsal midbrain. We investigated the pathophysiology related to the signs and symptoms to better understand the symptoms of Parinaud's syndrome: diplopia, blurred vision, visual field defects, ptosis, squint, and ataxia, and Parinaud's main signs of upward gaze paralysis, upper eyelid retraction, convergence retraction nystagmus (CRN), and pseudo-Argyll Robertson pupils. In upward gaze palsy, three structures are disrupted: the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF), interstitial nucleus of Cajal (iNC), and the posterior commissure. In CRN, there is a continuous discharge of the medial rectus muscle because of the lack of inhibition of supranuclear fibers. In Collier's sign, the posterior commissure and the iNC are mainly involved. In the vicinity of the iNC, there are two essential groups of cells, the M-group cells and central caudal nuclear (CCN) group cells, which are important for vertical gaze, and eyelid control. Overstimulation of the M group of cells and increased firing rate of the CCN group causing eyelid retraction. External compression of the posterior commissure, and pretectal area causes pseudo-Argyll Robertson pupils. Pseudo-Argyll Robertson pupils constrict to accommodation and have a slight response to light (miosis) as opposed to Argyll Robertson pupils were there is no response to a light stimulus. In Parinaud's syndrome patients conserve a slight response to light because an additional pathway to a pupillary light response that involves attention to a conscious bright/dark stimulus. Diplopia is mainly due to involvement of the trochlear nerve (IVth cranial nerve. Blurry vision is related to accommodation problems, while the visual field defects are a consequence of chronic papilledema that causes optic neuropathy. Ptosis in Parinaud's syndrome is caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve, mainly the levator palpebrae portion. We did not find a reasonable explanation for squint. Finally, ataxia is caused by compression of the superior cerebellar peduncle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11111469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8615667PMC
November 2021

Association Between Knee Moments During Stair Navigation and Participant-Related Factors in Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Sport Rehabil 2021 Nov 18:1-7. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Context: Altered knee joint mechanics may be related to quadriceps muscle strength, time since surgery, and sex following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between knee moments, with participant-related factors during stair navigation post-ACLR.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: A total of 30 participants (14 women) with ACLR, on average 7.0 (SD 4.4) years postsurgery were tested during stair ascent and descent in a gait laboratory. Motion capture was conducted using a floor-embedded force plate and 11 infrared cameras. Quadriceps concentric and eccentric muscle strength was measured with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s, and peak torques recorded. Multiple regression analyses were performed between external knee flexion and adduction moments, respectively, and quadriceps peak torque, sex, and time since ACLR.

Results: Higher concentric quadriceps strength and female sex accounted for 55.7% of the total variance for peak knee flexion moment during stair ascent (P < .001). None of the independent variables accounted for variance in knee adduction moment (P = .698). No significant associations were found for knee flexion and adduction moments during for stair descent.

Conclusion: Higher quadriceps concentric strength and sex explains major variance in knee flexion moments during stair ascent. The strong association between muscle strength and external knee flexion moments during stair ascent indicate rehabilitation tailored for quadriceps may optimize knee mechanics, particularly for women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsr.2021-0104DOI Listing
November 2021

Muscle transcriptome provides the first insight into the dynamics of gene expression with progression of age in sheep.

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 16;11(1):22360. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Animal Biotechnology Division, ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, G T Road By-Pass, P O Box 129, Karnal, 132001, Haryana, India.

The dynamic synergy of genes and pathways in muscles in relation to age affects the muscle characteristics. Investigating the temporal changes in gene expression will help illustrate the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle development. Here we report the gene expression changes in skeletal muscles through successive age groups in Bandur, a meat type sheep of India. RNA sequencing data was generated from the longissimus thoracis muscles from four age groups, ranging from lamb to adult. Analysis of 20 highest expressed genes common across the groups revealed muscle protein, phosphorylation, acetylation, metal binding and transport as significant functions. Maximum differentiation was observed after 2.5-3 years on transition from lambs to adult. Transcriptional regulation by the TFAP2 transcription factors, IL-6 signaling and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were enriched in younger animals. The gene-protein network demarcated key interactive genes involved in muscle development and proliferation that can be used as candidates for future research on improvement of muscle characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-01848-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595721PMC
November 2021

Prevalence of type 2 inflammatory diseases in pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis: Real-world evidence.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Oct 28. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Dermatology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri; Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are considered at increased risk of developing other type 2 inflammatory diseases. However, real-world evidence based on large commercially insured pediatric populations in the United States is scarce.

Objective: To use a large claims database (IBM MarketScan 2013-2017) in the United States to assess prevalence and incidence of type 2 inflammatory diseases in pediatric patients with AD.

Methods: Pediatric patients with AD were matched 1:1 to patients without AD. Prevalence was assessed for conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urticaria, asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis/nasal polyps at the 12 months' post-index date (the first AD diagnosis date for patients with AD; a randomly selected outpatient visit for control patients). The incidence of other type 2 inflammatory diseases post-index was assessed among patients 0-2 years of age.

Results: A total of 244,776 AD and matched non-AD patients were selected. The prevalence and incidence of type 2 inflammatory diseases were higher among patients with AD. Overall, the prevalence more than doubled for asthma, eosinophilic esophagitis, urticaria, and rhinitis, and increased with AD severity.

Limitations: AD identification was based on billing diagnoses; the observation period was only 12 months; and the study was limited to commercially insured patients.

Conclusion: The burden of type 2 inflammatory diseases in pediatric patients with AD is substantial, highlighting the need to optimize management of AD and its numerous associated morbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.10.038DOI Listing
October 2021

Utilization of Agricultural Waste from Paddy (Rice) Fields for the Synthesis of Nanocellulose.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 06;21(6):3622-3629

Department of Environmental Science & Engineering, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana, India.

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science with multifold applications in various fields. Nanocellulose is an emerging sustainable material possessing marvellous features. It has broad range of prospects in several research areas especially in agriculture sector. This study aims at utilization of agricultural waste of rice () from paddy fields viz. rice husk and rice stem into novel commodities i.e., cellulose nanofibres and cellulose nanocrystals. Chemo-mechanical treatment was adopted for successful extraction of cellulose nanofibres from rice stem and cellulose nanocrystals from rice husk. Morphological investigations were accomplished by different microscopic techniques such as atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed for identification of attached functional groups. X-ray diffraction study revealed the crystallinity of the synthesized nanocellulose. Thermogravimetric analysis showed the decomposition and degradation of obtained cellulose nanofibres and cellulose nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy depicted 50 nm diameter range of cellulose nanofibres of rice stem and atomic force microscopy illustrated 76.77 nm diameter of cellulose nanocrystals of rice husk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19009DOI Listing
June 2021

State of Art Manufacturing and Producing Nanocellulose from Agricultural Waste: A Review.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 06;21(6):3394-3403

Department of Bio & Nano Technology Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana, India.

This review article aims to identify current research areas in nanocellulose production from various agricultural waste materials. In the arena of sustainable materials, nano-sized cellulosic materials have achieved great curiosity from scientists and researchers. Nanocellulose is embellished with some remarkable properties like biodegradability, renewability, low density, low weight, high strength and high stiffness. Nanocellulose is a versatile material and show pertinence towards variety of applications such as heavy metals, pharmaceuticals, medicines, textiles, barrier, reinforcing polymers etc. This review is an effective tool to introduce numerous agricultural waste materials used for the extraction of different forms of nanocellulose viz. cellulose nanofibres and cellulose nanocrystals. The most common preparation methods of nanocellulose are oxidation, high pressure homogenization, refining, electrospinning, steam explosion, acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis etc. This review emphasize upon acid hydrolysis as one of the most prominent approach to synthesize nanocellulose by utilizing agricultural waste. This strategy to materialize nanocellulose provides an outlook for the future perspectives in overcoming the global issues like stubble burning, curbing air pollution etc. in a facile manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19006DOI Listing
June 2021

Can We Go Online for Sports Injury Prevention? A Systematic Review of English-Language Websites with Exercise-Based Sports Injury Risk Reduction Programmes.

Sports Med Open 2021 Oct 30;7(1):80. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background: Preventing sports injuries is at the forefront of sports medicine. Although effective preventive strategies in scientific literature exist, their implementation is lagging behind. The Internet could support the translation of knowledge from the literature to end-users, but the quality of the online resources would have to be assured. This online-based systematic review is to assess availability, readability, quality, and content of the websites presenting exercise-based sports injury risk reduction (prevention) programmes. Moreover, the quality of reporting and contents of the exercise programmes were assessed.

Methods: Google, Yahoo, and Bing were searched on 2 September 2018. We used 'sports injury prevention program*' and 'sports injury prevention warm-up' as search phrases. The owners/authors of the included websites were asked for further recommendations on online resources. Search updates were run in DuckDuckGo on 15 May 2020 and 22 August 2021. Eligible websites were active, in English, and contained instructions for the exercise/s aiming at sports injury prevention. Two reviewers independently screened the links and previews and performed an in-depth appraisal of included websites. The website quality was assessed using JAMA framework criteria and Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification. The readability of websites was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. The reporting appraisal of exercise programmes was done using the modified Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT).

Results: Among 480 websites screened, 16 were eligible with an additional four recommended and nine found in search updates (29 in total). None of the websites was certified by HONcode. The overall quality of websites was low 2.1 ± 1.0/4, but overall readability was high 67 ± 17/100. The average quality of reporting of exercise programmes was low 5.79 ± 3.1/12. Websites with community input had the lowest readability, but the highest quality, and vice versa websites run by businesses had the highest readability, but the lowest quality. Eight websites presented programmes tested for effectiveness.

Conclusions: Overall, the quality of the websites was low, but their readability was high. Improvements required are relatively easy to implement (i.e. including the date when the website was updated, applying for HONcode certification) and extremely important (e.g. providing resources on which the website's content is based). There are some sports injury risk reduction programmes reported with high quality and effectiveness-tested available online for team sports, but none for individual sports. Trial Registration This review has been registered in the PROSPERO (CRD42019107104).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40798-021-00373-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8557234PMC
October 2021

Architectural and functional details of CF IA proteins involved in yeast 3'-end pre-mRNA processing and its significance for eukaryotes: A concise review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Dec 23;193(Pt A):387-400. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India. Electronic address:

In eukaryotes, maturation of pre-mRNA relies on its precise 3'-end processing. This processing involves co-transcriptional steps regulated by sequence elements and other proteins. Although, it holds tremendous importance, defect in the processing machinery will result in erroneous pre-mRNA maturation leading to defective translation. Remarkably, more than 20 proteins in humans and yeast share homology and execute this processing. The defects in this processing are associated with various diseases in humans. We shed light on the CF IA subunit of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contains four proteins (Pcf11, Clp1, Rna14 and Rna15) involved in this processing. Structural details of various domains of CF IA and their roles during 3'-end processing, like cleavage and polyadenylation at 3'-UTR of pre-mRNA and other cellular events are explained. Further, the chronological development and important discoveries associated with 3'-end processing are summarized. Moreover, the mammalian homologues of yeast CF IA proteins, along with their key roles are described. This knowledge would be helpful for better comprehension of the mechanism associated with this marvel; thus opening up vast avenues in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.10.129DOI Listing
December 2021

Phytotoxic Effects of Polyethylene Microplastics on the Growth of Food Crops Soybean () and Mung Bean ().

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 10 11;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Environmental Science, College of Geography and Environmental Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

Accumulation of micro-plastics (MPs) in the environment has resulted in various ecological and health concerns. Nowadays, however, studies are mainly focused on toxicity of MPs on aquatic organisms, but only a few studies assess the toxic effects of micro-plastics on terrestrial plants, especially edible agricultural crops. The present study was aimed to investigate the adverse effects of polyethylene (PE) microplastics on the germination of two common food crops of China, i.e., soybean () and mung bean (). Both the crops were treated with polyethylene microplastics (PE-MPs) of two sizes (6.5 μm and 13 μm) with six different concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/L). Parameters studied were (i) seed vigor (e.g., germination energy, germination index, vigor index, mean germination speed, germination rate); (ii) morphology (e.g., root length, shoot length) and (iii) dry weight. It was found that the phyto-toxicity of PE-MPs to soybean () was greater than that of mung bean (). On the 3rd day, the dry weight of soybean was inhibited at different concentrations as compared to the control and the inhibition showed decline with the increase in the concentration of PE-MPs. After the 7th day, the root length of soybean was inhibited by PE-MPs of 13 μm size, and the inhibition degree was positively correlated with the concentration, whereas the root length of mung bean was increased, and the promotion degree was positively correlated with the concentration. Present study indicated the necessity to explore the hazardous effects of different sizes of PE-MPs on the growth and germination process of agricultural crops. Additionally, our results can provide theoretical basis and data support for further investigation on the toxicity of PE-MPs to soybean and mung bean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8535555PMC
October 2021

miRNAs as Modulators of Cholesterol in Breast Cancer Stem Cells: An Approach to overcome Drug Resistance in Cancer

Curr Drug Targets 2021 10 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS-2050, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.

It has been postulated that a small number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) buried in tumour mass drives cancer growth and imparts cancer drug resistance. However, their eradication has not been achieved so far as the mechanistic understanding of CSCs’ role in cancer development and growth is limited. The cholesterol accumulation and efflux processes have been shown to play an important role in maintaining cell’s integrity and its sensitivity towards drugs, as altered cholesterol pathways contribute to cancer drug resistance. Emerging pieces of evidence have indicated miRNAs as regulators of CSCs, and also as regulators of cholesterol pathways in cancer cells, but a link between the two has not been fully established so far. In this review, we have collated key signalling pathways and published evidence emphasising the involvement of miRNAs and cholesterol in CSCs related drug resistance. Additionally, we have used bioinformatics analysis to identify miRNAs that may modulate cholesterol pathways in CSCs at a molecular level to contribute to cancer drug resistance. Our results show that two miRNAs (hsa-miR-34a-5p and hsa-miR-373-3p) interact and bind to two known Breast CSC markers (CD44 and CD24) and mediate the expression of several cholesterol-related genes (INSIG2, APOL2, CYP51A1, HDLB, and DHCR7). Further- more, survival analysis of the breast cancer patients’ gene expression data revealed that higher expression of these genes is associated with poor disease-free survival. We, therefore, propose that targeting these two miRNAs could possibly provide a way to alter cell’s response to drugs via modulating cholesterol pathways in CSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450122666211008140811DOI Listing
October 2021

A Prospective Study to Assess the Optimal Incubation Times for Culture and Aerobic Bacterial Profile in Prosthetic Joint Infections.

J Lab Physicians 2021 Sep 6;13(3):224-230. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, Punjab, India.

With an increase in the number of total joint arthroplasties, the count of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) is also increasing and has become a nightmare for an orthopaedic surgeon. Microbiological diagnosis is important for administering definitive antimicrobial treatment. Negative culture reports hamper patient management and prolonged incubation periods have increased the culture yield but at the risk of culture contamination in conventional microbiology settings. Thus, we aimed to optimize the best incubation time for culture and the aerobic bacterial profile of PJIs. Over a year, samples from clinically suspected PJI patients were collected and processed for culture using standard techniques. The samples were incubated for up to 10 days with daily subculturing on to solid media. The bacterial isolates were identified and antibiotic susceptibility was performed. Out of 200 patients, 105 were included in the study and samples were collected in triplicate. In 70 cases culture was positive and 35 were culture negative PJIs. Mean incubation days to culture positivity was 3.6 days with 97.14% culture positivity seen by the seventh day of incubation. Twenty-four percent , and more than 50% extended spectrum β lactamase producing and were isolated. Culture positivity in PJIs provides definitive evidence of infection and guides the treatment. Increasing the incubation times can help in maximizing the culture yield, and we found that 97.14% pathogens grew within 7 days of incubation. Prolonging it further would not provide an added advantage especially in a resource-constraint setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1730879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478509PMC
September 2021

New insights of structural activity relationship of curcumin and correlating their efficacy in anticancer studies with some other similar molecules.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(8):3755-3765. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Synthetic and Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Punjabi University Patiala 147002, India.

Recently, Cancer is the widespread category of different diseases in human beings, and its progress is linked with a number of factors such as estrogen level, diet, hereditary etc. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound which appears to be significant clinical for applications as well as studies. Many of the research groups have been paying attention towards natural products for the development of anticancer drugs. Curcumin, Rosmarinic acid and Chalcone are the naturally occurring compounds, which are chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic. In present review the anticancer activity of curcumin and similar analogues has been discussed on the basis of inhibitory concentration (IC). Also this data is compared with the inhibitory concentration of chalcone, its derivatives and rosmarinic acid.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414381PMC
August 2021

Relationship between masticatory variables and bolus characteristics of meat with different textures.

J Texture Stud 2021 Dec 18;52(5-6):552-560. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Discipline of Biosciences and Food Technology, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

The physiological transformations that happen during oral processing are complex and challenging to capture and measure; however, their knowledge can help design new products for people who struggle with mastication and swallowing. Here we relate chewing, saliva incorporation and bolus properties with initial meat texture. Three different textures (T1-tender, T2-intermediate, T3-tough) were created by cooking meat in different temperature time combinations and "ready-to-swallow" meat boluses were collected from 10 healthy individuals. Masticatory variables, saliva incorporation, and bolus mechanical and geometrical characteristics were analyzed. Meat texture showed significant effect on masticatory variables (number of chews and chewing duration) but not on saliva incorporation. Bolus mechanical characteristics (hardness, cohesiveness and adhesiveness) varied significantly (p < .05) with meat texture, where meat with a harder texture resulted in a harder bolus. Number of bolus particles changed significantly (p < .05) with increasing meat hardness, where harder meat produced more bolus particles. Significant (p < .05) intersubject variability was recorded for masticatory parameters and saliva incorporation. Mechanical and geometrical characteristics of "ready-to-swallow" meat bolus did not vary among subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12629DOI Listing
December 2021

Apophysomyces variabilis, an emerging and worrisome cause of primary cutaneous necrotizing infections in India.

J Mycol Med 2021 Dec 19;31(4):101197. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Mycology Unit, Medical School and IISPV, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Reus, Spain. Electronic address:

In India, Apophysomyces species complex is the second common agent of mucormycosis mainly affecting immunocompetent hosts unlike other Mucorales. It is frequently involved in causing necrotizing cutaneous infections. The present two-year study was planned to investigate the causative role of Apophysomyces spp. in cutaneous necrotizing infections. The tissue samples were processed using standard techniques and in five out of 65 patients, Apophysomyces variabilis was the etiological agent. Diabetes mellitus and trauma were common risk factors and despite appropriate treatment only one patient could be survived. Apophysomyces variabilis is emerging as agent of necrotizing infections which invariably result in poor patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2021.101197DOI Listing
December 2021

The Use of Real-World Data to Evaluate the Association Between Atopic Dermatitis and Cardiovascular Disease: A Retrospective Claims Analysis.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2021 Oct 27;11(5):1707-1715. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Sanofi, 1 Avenue Pierre Brossolette, 91380, Chilly-Mazarin, France.

Introduction: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a systemic inflammatory condition that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, ongoing debate exists surrounding its direct association. We aimed to elucidate whether AD contributes to a higher incidence of CVD and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in adult patients with AD, independent of metabolic disorders.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a large US-based population of patients with AD (≥ 18 years of age). Logistic regression estimated the risk of CVD and MACE in adult patients with AD, independent of metabolic disorders (including diabetes, hypertension, and obesity).

Results: The odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for patients without metabolic disorders was 1.25 (1.13, 1.39) for CVD and 1.22 (1.01, 1.47) for MACE. The OR (95% CI) for AD patients with metabolic disorders was 1.09 (1.07, 1.12) for CVD and 1.14 (1.09, 1.18) for MACE. This trend was even more pronounced after long-term follow-up (≥ 3 years). Lifestyle and health behavioral factors of the subjects were not available in the dataset. The lack of control for these factors could potentially confound our results.

Conclusions: Atopic dermatitis may contribute to the risk of developing CVD and MACE in adults, independent of metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13555-021-00587-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484421PMC
October 2021

A cross-sectional study on prevalence of menstrual problems, lifestyle, mental health, and PCOS awareness among rural and urban population of Punjab, India.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Aug 27:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India.

Introduction: Menstrual cycle gets affected by various modifiable risk factors. To assess prevalence of various types of menstrual problems, lifestyle and mental health status, identification of variables as predictors for menstrual problems and level of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) awareness among rural and urban population of Punjab, the present study has been carried out .

Methods: The study was conducted from November 2019 to July 2020 in the Malwa region of Punjab, India, with 2673 participants (15-25 years). Epidemiological information was collected using predesigned questionnaire along with depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) score mental health assessment tool. MS-Excel (2019) and IBM SPSS 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The overall prevalence of different menstrual problems was 60.61%, with dysmenorrhea (50.64%) being most common problem. Body mass index (BMI), menarche age, physical activity, and mental health status are significant ( < 0.05) predictors of menstrual problem both in rural and urban population. Overall, only 3.30% subjects were aware about PCOS.

Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is the most common menstrual problem, both in rural and urban population. BMI, sedentary lifestyle, electronic gadgets usage, and mental health are associated with menstrual problems. Low awareness on PCOS indicates need to create awareness as the condition can be easily managed with early intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2021.1965983DOI Listing
August 2021

Skeletal and Soft-Tissue Stability Following Advancement Genioplasty: A Comparative Analysis between Wire and Miniplate Osteosynthesis.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Jun 5;13(Suppl 1):S72-S75. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Dasmesh Institute of Research and Dental Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India.

Background: Genioplasty has nowadays become a routine procedure in the correction of dentofacial deformities. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the osseous and soft-tissue stability after advancement genioplasties, stabilized using wire and plate osteosynthesis.

Methodology: The study was conducted on ten patients who underwent advanced genioplasty. The patients were divided equally into two groups. In the Group I patients, plates and in Group II, wires were used for stabilization. Lateral cephalograms preoperative and 6 months postoperative were analyzed using Park . method of cephalometric analysis.

Results: All the ten patients experienced a reliable improvement in esthetics. Although statistically not significant, Group II wire patients have slightly more relapse in the horizontal direction than Group I. The mean ratio of sagittal changes of osseous soft tissue for Group I was 1:0.88 and for Group II wires was 1:0.80.

Conclusion: The choice of method of fixation following genioplasty would entirely be based on the merits of the individual cases. The marginal edge of advantage seen in miniplate osteosynthesis when compared to wire osteosynthesis is seen in cases that require larger chin advancements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_547_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375883PMC
June 2021

The pathogenic and spoilage bacteria associated with red meat and application of different approaches of high CO packaging to extend product shelf-life.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Aug 26:1-22. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Biosciences and Food Technology Discipline, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

With the fast-global development of packaging techniques, the potential antimicrobial effect of CO, as a safe, cheap and readily available gas, makes it the integral component for packaging of meat products. The associated spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria on raw meat may respond in different ways to elevated CO concentrations. The growth of some aerobic Gram-negative bacteria such as spp. is significantly inhibited but some LAB bacteria may be allowed to grow faster and dominate the product. The antimicrobial efficacy of enriched CO packaging is attributed to the rate of CO solubility in the product which is itself affected by the level of headspace CO, product pH, temperature and the ratio of headspace gas to product (G:P). This review, first, explores the varied range of beef and sheep meat spoilage and pathogenic bacteria and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that may influence the pattern of microbial growth and meat spoilage rate during storage. Then, the antimicrobial mechanism of elevated CO packaging will be discussed and the different approaches of achieving enriched CO packaging i.e. the traditional technique of flushing a desired gas mixture and/or using the new commercially developed CO emitters will then be compared in terms of their strengths, limitations and technical mode of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1968336DOI Listing
August 2021

Relationship between instrumental and sensory texture profile of beef semitendinosus muscles with different textures.

J Texture Stud 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Discipline of Biosciences and Food Technology, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Texture of meat is a critical factor in oral processing and bolus formation, especially for people suffering from dysphagia. The present study evaluated and compared the texture changes of beef semitendinosus muscles upon cooking, using sensory panelists and instrumental texture profile analysis. Cooking losses were also estimated. The correlation between instrumental and sensory parameters were established. Training with sensory texture profile enabled panelists to clearly identify and describe meat textural attributes except cohesiveness and springiness. Increased cooking temperature (65-85°C) and time (30-60 min) significantly (p < .05) increased hardness, chewiness, and cook loss of beef whereas adhesiveness and juiciness decreased significantly. The correlation data showed significant positive correlations between instrumental and sensory hardness, chewiness, and adhesiveness and poor correlations between cohesiveness and springiness. Results show that the texture profile analyzer has a possibility to replace sensory analysis for hardness, chewiness, and adhesiveness; however, future work is needed to address cohesiveness and springiness of meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12623DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of the potential of protective cultures to extend the microbial shelf-life of chilled lamb meat.

Meat Sci 2021 Nov 26;181:108613. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Biosciences and Food Technology, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

The use of protective cultures to inhibit spoilage bacteria is a promising natural preservation technique to extend the shelf-life of fresh meat. This study evaluated the effectiveness of six food-grade protective cultures (containing different combinations of Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Staphylococcus carnosus) on naturally contaminated chill-stored (4 °C) lamb meat in different packaging systems. Only slight reductions of common meat spoilage bacteria Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., and Enterobacteriaceae were observed in culture-treated samples stored in modified atmosphere packaging (80% O:20% CO). Greater inhibitory effects were found in vacuum-packed lamb, with mixed cultures containing either L. sakei, S. carnosus, and S. xylosus or S. carnosus and L. sakei causing the most significant reductions. Protective cultures did not adversely affect meat color or pH. This study demonstrated the potential of protective cultures comprising lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative staphylococci in controlling microbial spoilage of lamb and, by inference, other types of meat as a natural solution for shelf-life extension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108613DOI Listing
November 2021

Effect of Different Pollution Parameters and Chemical Components of PM on Health of Residents of Xinxiang City, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 25;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Environment, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, China.

The present study was planned to explore the pollution characteristics, health risks, and influence of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM) and its components on blood routine parameters in a typical industrial city (Xinxiang City) in China. In this study, 102 effective samples 28 (April-May), 19 (July-August), 27 (September-October), 28 (December-January) of PM were collected during different seasons from 2017 to 2018. The water-soluble ions and metal elements in PM were analyzed via ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The blood routine physical examination parameters under different polluted weather conditions from January to December 2017 and 2018, the corresponding PM concentration, temperature, and relative humidity during the same period were collected from Second People's Hospital of Xinxiang during 2017-2018. Risk assessment was carried out using the generalized additive time series model (GAM). It was used to analyze the influence of PM concentration and its components on blood routine indicators of the physical examination population. The "mgcv" package in R.3.5.3 statistical software was used for modeling and analysis and used to perform nonparametric smoothing on meteorological indicators such as temperature and humidity. When Akaike's information criterion (AIC) value is the smallest, the goodness of fit of the model is the highest. Additionally, the US EPA exposure model was used to evaluate the health risks caused by different heavy metals in PM to the human body through the respiratory pathway, including carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk. The result showed that the air particulate matter and its chemical components in Xinxiang City were higher in winter as compared to other seasons with an overall trend of winter > spring > autumn > summer. The content of nitrate (NO) and sulfate (SO) ions in the atmosphere were higher in winter, which, together with ammonium, constitute the main components of water-soluble ions in PM in Xinxiang City. Source analysis reported that mobile pollution sources (coal combustion emissions, automobile exhaust emissions, and industrial emissions) in Xinxiang City during the winter season contributed more to atmospheric pollution as compared to fixed sources. The results of the risk assessment showed that the non-carcinogenic health risk of heavy metals in fine particulate matter is acceptable to the human body, while among the carcinogenic elements, the order of lifetime carcinogenic risk is arsenic (As) > chromium(Cr) > cadmium (Cd) > cobalt(Co) > nickel (Ni). During periods of haze pollution, the exposure concentration of PM has a certain lag effect on blood routine parameters. On the day when haze pollution occurs, when the daily average concentration of PM rises by 10 μg·m, hemoglobin (HGB) and platelet count (PLT) increase, respectively, by 9.923% (95% CI, 8.741-11.264) and 0.068% (95% CI, 0.067-0.069). GAM model analysis predicted the maximum effect of PM exposure concentration on red blood cell count (RBC) and PLT was reached when the hysteresis accumulates for 1d (Lag0). The maximum effect of exposure concentration ofPM on MONO is reached when the lag accumulation is 3d (Lag2). When the hysteresis accumulates for 6d (Lag5), the exposure concentration of PM has the greatest effect on HGB. The maximum cumulative effect of PM on neutrophil count (NEUT) and lymphocyte (LMY) was strongest when the lag was 2d (Lag1). During periods of moderate to severe pollution, the concentration of water-soluble ions and heavy metal elements in PM increases significantly and has a significant correlation with some blood routine indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297198PMC
June 2021

Increased incidence of spontaneous abortions on exposure to cadmium and lead: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2022 Jan 25;38(1):16-21. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Human Genetics, Punjabi University, Patiala, India.

Background: Spontaneous abortions are the most severe complication of early pregnancy and are a major reproductive health problem. Although this could be caused due to various cytogenetic, immunological, or endocrinological reasons, role of environmental toxicants cannot be ruled out. In order to explore the role of cadmium and lead in causing spontaneous abortions, current systematic review and meta-analysis had been carried out.

Methodology: Literature search was performed using appropriate keywords in PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases up to December 25 2020 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PRISMA). Metananalysis was carried out with the help of RevMan software (version 5.3).

Results: Meta-analysis of nine studies on cadmium concentrations in blood of women with at least one spontaneous abortions and controls revealed standardized mean difference (SMD)=3.39, 95% CI (2.17, 4.61), with  < .05. Similarly, meta-analysis of eight studies on lead concentrations revealed standardized mean difference (SMD)=6.24, 95% CI (4.34, 8.14), with  < .05.

Conclusion: Populations exposed to heavy metals such as cadmium and lead are at higher risk of pregnancy loss. Therefore, couples experiencing repeated pregnancy losses may be screened for heavy metal load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590.2021.1942450DOI Listing
January 2022

Aspergillus flavus induced oxidative stress and immunosuppressive activity in Spodoptera litura as well as safety for mammals.

BMC Microbiol 2021 06 14;21(1):180. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Departments of Microbiology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Background: In the last few decades, considerable attention has been paid to entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents, however little is known about their mode of action and safety. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of Aspergillus flavus in insect Spodoptera litura by analyzing the effect of fungal extract on antioxidant and cellular immune defense. In antioxidant defense, the lipid peroxidation (Malondialdehyde content) and antioxidant enzymes activities (Catalase, Ascorbate peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase) were examined. In cellular immune defense, effect of A. flavus extract was analyzed on haemocytes using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, mammalian toxicity was analyzed with respect to DNA damage induced in treated rat relative to control by comet assay using different tissues of rat (blood, liver, and kidney).

Results: Ethyl acetate extract of A. flavus was administrated to the larvae of S.litura using artificial diet method having concentration 1340.84 μg/ml (LC of fungus). The effect was observed using haemolymph of insect larvae for different time intervals (24, 48, 72 and 96). In particular, Malondialdehyde content and antioxidant enzymes activities were found to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased in treated larvae as compared to control. A. flavus ethyl acetate extract also exhibit negative impact on haemocytes having major role in cellular immune defense. Various deformities were observed in different haemocytes like cytoplasmic leakage and surface abnormalities etc. Genotoxicity on rat was assessed using different tissues of rat (blood, liver, and kidney) by comet assay. Non-significant effect of A. flavus extract was found in all the tissues (blood, liver, and kidney).

Conclusions: Overall the study provides important information regarding the oxidative stress causing potential and immunosuppressant nature of A. flavus against S. litura and its non toxicity to mammals (rat), mammals (rat), suggesting it an environment friendly pest management agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02249-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204525PMC
June 2021

Colonisation dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food production environments.

Sci Rep 2021 06 9;11(1):12195. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Werribee, VIC, Australia.

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium capable of colonising and persisting within food production environments (FPEs) for many years, even decades. This ability to colonise, survive and persist within the FPEs can result in food product cross-contamination, including vulnerable products such as ready to eat food items. Various environmental and genetic elements are purported to be involved, with the ability to form biofilms being an important factor. In this study we examined various mechanisms which can influence colonisation in FPEs. The ability of isolates (n = 52) to attach and grow in biofilm was assessed, distinguishing slower biofilm formers from isolates forming biofilm more rapidly. These isolates were further assessed to determine if growth rate, exopolymeric substance production and/or the agr signalling propeptide influenced these dynamics and could promote persistence in conditions reflective of FPE. Despite no strong association with the above factors to a rapid colonisation phenotype, the global transcriptome suggested transport, energy production and metabolism genes were widely upregulated during the initial colonisation stages under nutrient limited conditions. However, the upregulation of the metabolism systems varied between isolates supporting the idea that L. monocytogenes ability to colonise the FPEs is strain-specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91503-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190317PMC
June 2021
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