Publications by authors named "Manar M Moneer"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of MMTV-Like Sequences and Its Association with BRCA1/2 Genes Mutations Among Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 26;13:2835-2848. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Virology and Immunology Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is thought to have a role in human breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis. BRCA1 and 2 genes mutations are well-established risk factors for BC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of MMTV in familial and non-familial Egyptian breast cancer patients. We also aimed to establish a correlation between BRCAs genes mutations and MMTV infection in those patients.

Patients And Methods: The study was included 80 BC patients and 10 healthy women were included as a control group. We used PCR to amplify a 250-bp MMTV-like env sequence. We also used PCR followed by direct sequencing to identify the genetic variation of exons 2, 13, 19 of BRCA1 gene and exon 9 and region f of exon 11 of BRCA2 gene. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis was used to screen the selected exons of BRCA1/2 genes in order to detect different variants.

Results: MMTV DNA-like env sequences were detected in 70%, 76% of familial and non-familial BC patients, respectively, and it was not detected in any of the control subjects. The presence of viral sequences was associated with larger tumor size in the sporadic patients. Seventy BC patients showed variations in BRCA1/2 genes according to HRM analysis and sequencing analysis showed two different sequences of polymorphism among 22 familial and non-familial BC patients.

Conclusion: MMTV DNA was present among BC patients and it was associated with increased tumor growth. This indicates a potential role for MMTV in BC patients with and without deleterious mutation in BRCA1/2 genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S294584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009344PMC
March 2021

Assessment of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk Factors in Egyptian Women With Breast Cancer.

Breast Cancer (Auckl) 2021 25;15:1178223421996279. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Numerous risk factors for breast cancer (BC) have been identified. High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is the etiological agent of cervical cancer and in some cases of head and neck cancer, specifically oropharyngeal cancer, but the role of HR-HPV in evoking neoplasia in BC is still unclear. In this study, all women above the age of 18 visiting the oncology clinic at Al-Azhar university hospital and Ain Shams specialized hospital between the period of February 2017 and March 2018 were invited to participate. We determined the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes 16, 18, and 31 in breast tissue samples from 72 women with treatment-naïve BC and 15 women with benign breast lesions (BBL) by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and primer sets targeting the E6 and E7 regions. High-risk human papilloma virus DNA was detected in 16 of 72 (22.2%) BC cases (viral load range = 0.3-237.8 copies/uL) and 0 of 15 women with BBL. High-risk human papilloma virus was detected in 14 of 16 (87.5%), 2 of 16 (12.5%), and 0 of 16 (0%) for genotypes 16, 18, and 31, respectively. Forty-three age-matched healthy Egyptian women were enrolled as controls for assessment of local risk factors that can be used to initiate a strategy of BC prevention in Egypt. Assessment of the risk factors demonstrated that low education level, passive smoking, lack of physical activity, family history of cancer, and use of oral contraception were significant risk factors for BC. In conclusion, our results lead us to postulate that HR-HPV infection may be implicated in the development of some types of BC in Egyptian women. In addition, identification of local risk factors can support practical prevention strategies for BC in Egypt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178223421996279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917427PMC
February 2021

Frequency of CD4+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, and human papilloma virus infection in Egyptian Women with breast cancer.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2020 Jan-Dec;34:2058738420966822

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Several subsets of regulatory CD4+ T cells (CD4+ Tregs) have been described in peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment of breast cancer (BC) patients and may play a role in the progression of BC. High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) has a causal role in cervical, head, and neck tumors but the role of HR-HPV in evoking neoplasia in BC is still unclear. In this study we assessed the prevalence of CD4+CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (CD4+Tregs) and CD3+ CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from a total of 55 Egyptian women, including 20 treatment-naïve BC, 15 with breast benign lesions (BBL), and 20 healthy volunteers (HV). HR-HPV genotypes type 16, 18, and 31 were investigated in breast tissue from all BC and BBL patients using Real-Time PCR. HR-HPV was detected in 4/20 (20%) and 0/15 (0%) BC and BBL patients respectively. The frequency of CD4+ Tregs was significantly higher in BC compared to BBL and HV, ( < 0.001). In addition, we observed a significantly higher frequency of CD3+ CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients with late stage III BC compared to early stage I and II BC ( = 0.011). However, there was no significant association between the ratio of CD8+ T cell to CD4+ Tregs frequencies and the expression of Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PR), and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). These results lead us to postulate that the association between the frequency of CD4+ Tregs and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood may be a prognostic or predictive parameter in Egyptian women with BC. In addition, HR-HPV infection may be implicated in the development of some types of BC in Egyptian women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058738420966822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786412PMC
October 2020

Health-Related Quality of Life among Egyptian Female Breast Cancer Patients at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Oct 1;20(10):3113-3119. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Biostatistics, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background: To measure the quality of life (QoL) of Egyptian females with breast cancer (BC) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University (CU) and its relations with the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.

Methods: A total of 200 female BC patients were recruited from the medical oncology outpatient clinic during a period from December 2015 to March 2018. The instrument of this study consisted of two parts: the first for Socio-demographic and clinicopathological characteristics, and the second was the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast for patients with Lymphedema (FACT-B+4) questionnaire.

Results: The majority of the study participants were married, housewives, and without a family history of cancer (70.0%, 93.0%, and 63.0%, respectively). Most of them presented with breast mass, had IDC, grade II and disease stage III at diagnosis (89.0%, 84.5%, 85.6% and 56.8%, respectively) and had undergone modified radical mastectomy, received adjuvant chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapy (62.0%, 83.8%, 73.5% and 60.5%, respectively). The median FACT-B score was 81 (range 35-133). The medians of subscales were: physical well-being 13 (range 0-28), social well-being 20 (range 0-28), emotional well-being 15 (range 2-24), and functional well-being 16 (range 2-28). The median score for breast subscale was 19 (range 2-32). Many factors affected the QoL scores, including age, marital status, occupation, smoking, residence, comorbidities, symptoms, grade, chemotherapy, radiation, and recurrence.

Conclusion: QoL of Egyptian females with BC was influenced by several factors like age, marital status, occupation, smoking, residence, comorbidities, symptoms, grade, chemotherapy, radiation, and recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.10.3113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982660PMC
October 2019

First-line paclitaxel and cisplatin used sequentially or in combination in metastatic breast cancer: A phase II randomized study.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2018 Mar 7;30(1):13-20. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Medical Department, Benghazi University, Libya.

Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the commonest cancer among females worldwide. Some patients present initially at advanced stages and more than 50% of them will develop metastasis (MBC) at some point. Compared to single agents, combination chemotherapy produces higher response rates (RR), longer progression-free survival (PFS) than single agents. This is associated with remarkably higher toxicities. At the same time, overall survival (OS) is comparable. This study aimed to compare safety and efficacy of combination and sequential chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: Forty-six MBC patients were randomized to receive 6 cycles of the combination of paclitaxel (175 mg/m) and cisplatin (70 mg/m) (combination PC) or paclitaxel for 3 cycles followed by cisplatin for 3 cycles (sequential PC). Endpoints were RR, PFS, OS and safety.

Results: Both combination and sequential PC produced similar RR (52% in both arms) and disease control rates (78.3% vs. 73.9%, p = .652). Responses were faster in the combination arm. Median PFS was 8.2 months in the combination compared to 5.0 months in the sequential arm (p = .064). The median OS was 16.5 and 18.8 months in the combination and sequential arms, respectively (p = .866). The combination was more toxic than sequential PC. Grade 3 toxicities were higher with combination PC than to sequential PC (48% vs. 4.3%; p < .001).

Conclusion: Sequential agent chemotherapy may provide similar response rate and overall survival to combination chemotherapy with much lower toxicities. The former can be considered the standard practice in most instances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnci.2018.01.002DOI Listing
March 2018

Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections and their clinical relevance in Egyptian leukemic pediatric patients.

Virol J 2017 03 6;14(1):46. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Egypt.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are environmental risk factors affecting the outcome of cancer due to an impairment in the cell-mediated immunity. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the frequency of EBV and CMV DNA and their association with clinical characteristics and outcome of pediatric leukemic patients.

Methods: Samples of 50 immunocompromised pediatric leukemic patients and 30 apparently healthy children were subjected to the amplification of EBV DNA by one version of PCR targeting the Bam H1 W region of the genomic region of EBV, and the amplification of CMV DNA by targeting the CMV UL97 genomic region by a second round PCR. All investigations were performed on WBCs and sera. Results were correlated with the clinical and laboratory characteristics of the disease, and with overall survival.

Results: EBV and CMV DNA were detected in 20 and 54% of leukemic patients, respectively. Nine out of ten patients with EBV DNA (90%) were positive for CMV DNA in their sera. The presence of EBV DNA or CMV DNA was associated with neutropenia and a low total leukocyte count (TLC) (p = 0.02, 0.03, respectively). The presence of severe CMV disease, longer duration of febrile neutropenia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and the presence of EBV DNA in patients' sera were significantly associated with worse overall survival.

Conclusion: The detection of CMV disease and EBV DNA is relatively common in leukemic children and is significantly associated with a decline in the overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-017-0715-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5339968PMC
March 2017

Assessment of Statistical Methodologies and Pitfalls of Dissertations Carried Out at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 01 1;18(1):231-237. Epub 2017 Jan 1.

Department of Biostatistics and Cancer Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt. Email:

Purpose: To identify statistical errors and pitfalls in dissertations performed as part of the requirements for the Medical Doctorate (MD) degree at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Cairo University (CU) to improve the quality of medical research. Methods: A critical assessment of 62 MD dissertations conducted in 3 departments at NCI, CU, between 2009 and 2013 was carried out regarding statistical methodology and presentation of the results. To detect differences in study characteristics over time, grouping was into two periods; 2009-2010 and 2011-2013. Results: Statistical methods were appropriate in only 13 studies (24.5%). The most common statistical tests applied were chi-square, log-rank, and Mann-Whitney tests. Four studies estimated sample size and/or power. Only 37.1% and 38.7% of dissertation results supported aims and answered the research questions, respectively. Most of results were misinterpreted (82.3%) with misuse of statistical terminology (77.4%). Tabular and graphical data display was independently informative in only 36 dissertations (58.1%) with accurate titles and labels in only 17 (27.4%). Statistical tests fulfilled the assumptions only in 29 studies; with evident misuse in 33. Ten dissertations reported non-significance regarding their primary outcome measure; the median power of the test was 35.5% (range: 6-60%). There was no significant change in the characteristics between the time periods. Conclusion: MD dissertations at NCI have many epidemiological and statistical defects that may compromise the external validity of the results. It is recommended to involve a biostatistician from the very start to improve study design, sample size calculation, end points estimation and measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.1.231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563106PMC
January 2017

Bacteremia due to ESKAPE pathogens: An emerging problem in cancer patients.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2016 Sep 3;28(3):157-62. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Biostatistics and Cancer Epidemiology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background And Aim: In recent years, a few of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, known as ESKAPE pathogens, have been found responsible for serious infections. We investigated the risk factors, and impact of ESKAPE pathogens on course of blood stream infections (BSIs) in cancer patients in comparison to coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS).

Patients And Methods: The data of patients with ESKAPE positive blood cultures at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University were analyzed. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates were done using Microscan Walk Away 96.

Results: In a 6month period, ESKAPE pathogens were isolated from non-duplicate blood cultures in 81 episodes of 72 cases of pediatric cancer patients, while CoNS were isolated from 135 blood cultures of 116 patients. The ESKAPE pathogens isolated were Enterobacter spp., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococci in 12%, 23%, 37%, 10%, 9%, and 9% of episodes, respectively. Health-care acquired infections constituted 75% of ESKAPE infections. Duration of episodes and overall mortality were significantly higher in ESKAPE BSIs when compared to CoNS (14.5±7.6 versus 09.9±6.9), and (26% versus 4%); respectively, p value <0.001.

Conclusions: ESKAPE pathogens were significantly associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality indicating the need for improving the means of prevention of these types of infections within health care premises. Microbiology laboratories have a role in defining more dangerous infections and rapid diagnostics are required in the era of resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnci.2016.05.002DOI Listing
September 2016

Polyomavirus infections and its clinical relevance in cancer patients: A Prospective Study.

J Infect Public Health 2017 Jan - Feb;10(1):22-30. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

Virology and Immunology Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

BK and JC polyomaviruses (PyV) have been demonstrated to be associated with the pathogenesis of various human cancers. We aimed to investigate the impact of BK and JC polyomavirus infections on several clinical parameters in different human cancers. A total of 150 cancer patients were included in the study (51 patients with solid tumors, 48 patients with lymphomas and 51 patients with leukemias). Amplification of PyV DNA was performed using a semi-nested version of Polymerase chain reaction targeting the T genomic region of PyV. The polyomavirus load was determined using real-time PCR assay. The clinical data were collected. Polyomavirus DNA could be detected in 84 (56%) of 150 of all cancerous patients. The solid tumors had the lowest proportion of JCV (6 (11.8%) of 51), whereas had the highest proportion of JCV (200copies/μl). JCV was more frequent among NHL patients (30%) and absent in HL patients (0%). During follow-up, PyV positivity decreased significantly (p=0.004) in lymphoma patients (n=28). Although PyV positivity decreased significantly from 39% to 7% in 28 of 48 lymphoma patients after treatment, it significantly persisted in leukemic patients after treatment (from 22% to 38%). JC was more frequent among leukemic patients with leukopenia. The presence of JC polyomavirus was more frequent among leukemic patients without any significant impact on their overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2016.01.008DOI Listing
March 2017

Treatment Outcomes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers Following Maximum Cytoreduction and Adjuvant Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Chemotherapy: Egyptian NCI Experience.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(16):7237-42

Medical Oncology, NCI, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt E-mail :

Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the commonest malignancy involving the ovaries. Maximum surgical cytoreduction (MCR) followed by adjuvant taxane-platinum chemotherapy are the standard of care treatments.

Aims: To study treatment outcomes of EOC patients that were maximally cyto-reduced and received adjuvant paclitaxel-carboplatin (PC) chemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 174 patients with EOC treated at the Egyptian National Cancer Institute between 2006 and 2010. For inclusion, they should have had undergone MCR with no-gross residual followed by adjuvant PC chemotherapy. MCR was total abdominal hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy [TAH/BSO] or unilateral salpingo- oophorectomy [USO] plus comprehensive staging.

Results: The median age was 50 years. Most patients were married (97.1%), had offspring (92.5%), were postmenopausal (53.4%), presented with abdominal/pelvic pain and swelling (93.7%), had tumors involving both ovaries (45.4%) without extra-ovarian extension i.e. stage I (55.2%) of serous histology (79.9%) and grade II (87.4%). TAH/BSO was performed in 97.7% of cases. A total of 1,014 PC chemotherapy cycles were administered and were generally tolerable with 93.7% completing 6 cycles. Alopecia and numbness were the commonest adverse events. The median follow up period was 42 months. The 2-year rates for disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 70.7% and 94.8%, respectively. The respective 5-year rates were 52.6% and 81.3%. Advanced stage and high-grade were significantly associated with poor DFS and OS (p<0.001). Age >65 years was associated with poor OS (p =0.008). Using Cox-regression, stage was independent predictor of poor DFS and OS. Age was an independent predictor of poor OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.16.7237DOI Listing
September 2016

Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance Monitored in Surveillance Analysis of Blood Stream Infections in Febrile Neutropenic Pediatric Oncology Patients.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(14):5691-5

Clinical Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University Cairo, Egypt E-mail :

Background: Continuous surveillance of pattern of blood stream infection is necessary in febrile neutropenia (FN)especially with the recent escalating trend in the management of pediatric cancer patients towards intensified regimens and with the increase in infections caused by resistant organisms limiting the choice of antibiotics.

Aim: To monitor change in pattern of blood stream infections (BSI) in FN pediatric cancer patients.

Materials And Methods: Surveillance of FN episodes with positive BSI was prospectively monitored and compared to a previous surveillance in the same pediatric oncology unit.

Results: A total of 232 BSI positive episodes were documented in 192 patients during a 6 months period. The results of recent surveillance analysis showed an increase in intensified regimens of chemotherapy, antimicrobial resistance, fungal infections, and prolonged duration of episodes when compared to previous surveillance, with p value sof <0.001, 0.005, 0.021, and <0.001, respectively. There was an apparent decrease in the crude mortality but this was not statistically significant, to 6% in 2011 from 10 % in 2006.

Conclusions: The pattern of BSI at our institution is still inclining towards gram positive organisms but is showing a shift towards more antibiotic resistance and fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.14.5691DOI Listing
June 2016

Prognostic value of IDH1 mutations identified with PCR-RFLP assay in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2014 Mar 27;26(1):43-9. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background: Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene occur frequently in primary brain tumors. Recently theses mutations were demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). So far, assessment of these mutations relied on the DNA sequencing technique.

Aim Of The Work: The aim of this study was to detect somatic mutations in IDH1 gene using mismatched primers suitable for endonuclease based detection, without the need for DNA sequencing, and to estimate its prognostic value, on patients with de novo AML.

Methods: Residual DNA extracted from pretreatment bone marrow (BM) samples of 100 patients with de novo AML was used. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was adapted to IDH1gene, codon 132 mutations screening.

Results: The frequency of IDH1 mutations was 13%. In the non-acute promyelocytic leukemia group (non-APL), IDH1 mutations were significantly associated with FLT3-ITD negative patients (p=0.03). Patients with IDH1 mutations did not achieve complete remission (CR). There was a trend for shorter overall survival (OS) in patients with IDH1 mutation compared to those with wild type (p=0.08).

Conclusion: IDH1 mutations are recurring genetic alterations in AML and they may have unfavorable impact on clinical outcome in adult AML. The PCR-RFLP method allows for a fast, inexpensive, and sensitive method for the detection of IDH1 mutations in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnci.2013.11.001DOI Listing
March 2014

MDM2 T309G has a synergistic effect with P21 ser31arg single nucleotide polymorphisms on the risk of acute myeloid leukemia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012 ;13(9):4315-20

Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University.

Background: The P53 tumor suppressor gene plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular homeostasis by preventing the propagation of genome mutations. P53 in its transcriptionally active form is capable of activating distinct target genes that contribute to either apoptosis or growth arrest, like P21. However, the MDM2 gene is a major negative regulator of P53. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in codon Arg72Pro of P53 results in impairment of the tumor suppressor activity of the gene. A similar effect is caused by a SNP in codon 31 of P21. In contrast, a SNP in position 309 of MDM2 results in increased expression due to substitution of thymine by guanine. All three polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk of tumorigenesis.

Aim Of The Study: We aimed to study the prevalence of SNPs in the P53 pathway involving the three genes, P53, P21 and MDM2, among acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and to compare it to apparently normal healthy controls for assessment of impact on risk.

Results: We found that the P21 ser31arg heterozygous polymorphism increases the risk of AML (P value=0.017, OR=2.946, 95% CI=1.216-7.134). Although the MDM2 309G allele was itself without affect, it showed a synergistic effect with P21 ser/arg polymorphism (P value=0.003, OR= 6.807, 95% CI= 1.909-24.629). However, the MDM2 309T allele abolish risk effect of the P21 polymorphic allele (P value= 0.71). There is no significant association of P53 arg72pro polymorphism on the risk of AML.

Conclusion: We suggest that SNPs in the P53 pathway, especially the P21 ser31arg polymorphism and combined polymorphisms especially the P21/ MDM2 might be genetic susceptibility factors in the pathogenesis of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.9.4315DOI Listing
June 2013

Expression of P-glycoprotein, Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Relation with Induction Chemotherapy and Overall Survival.

Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus 2011 Sep 21;27(3):157-63. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Previous studies showed that non-cycling cells have a higher multidrug resistance (MDR) expression, which may be down-regulated by proliferation induction. Triggering these cells into proliferation down-regulates high MDR expression. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and cell cycle parameters (cyclin D1 and Ki-67) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis, and to evaluate the correlation between the expressions of each marker, and the clinical significance of such expression with response to induction chemotherapy and overall survival. A total of 78 newly diagnosed ALL patients were enrolled in our study. PGP, cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were determined by flow cytometry. PGP expression was encountered in 10/78 (12.8%) of ALL cases. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were expressed in 16/77 (20.6%) and 27/76 (34.6%) of ALL cases, respectively. None of the parameters were associated with response to induction chemotherapy and overall survival. Based on the current analysis, we conclude that a joint immunophenotypic evaluation of PGP and cell cycle parameters like that adopted in this study is unlikely to reveal mechanisms of multidrug resistance associated with the clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12288-011-0086-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3155713PMC
September 2011

Evaluation of morphological/immunohistochemical versus nuclear medicine imaging modalities in detecting metastatic bone and/or marrow deposits in neuroblastoma patients.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2011 Jun 10;23(2):79-88. Epub 2011 Oct 10.

Clinical Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background & Purpose: In planning diagnostic or follow-up investigational strategies, neuroblastoma (NB) metastatic deposits in bone and/or bone marrow (BM) should be detected as early as possible. Therefore, all investigational detection tools should be conducted simultaneously for precise staging. However, because of the financial conditions in our developing countries and in view of the cost/benefit relationship, the question is, can one detection tool only become satisfactory and replacing others? The purpose of our study is to compare simultaneous results of bone and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans versus BM biopsies with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining; in detecting bone and/or BM metastatic deposits in NB patients.

Material And Methods: This study included 138 NB patients; 46 were de novo and 92 were under follow-up. They were subjected to bilateral BM biopsies, IHC staining (using NSE McAb) and Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP) bone scan (BS). Only 57/138 patients were, in addition, subjected to I-131 MIBG scan.

Results: Matched results between IHC-stained BM sections and bone scans (BSs) 107/138 (77.5%) were higher than the un-matched ones 31/138 (22.5%). There was a moderate agreement between the two methods in all studied cases (Kappa=0.538) and it was higher among de novo (Kappa=0.603) than follow-up group (Kappa=0.511). Among the 31 un-matched results, the most frequent (17/31) were due to the presence of minute amount of infiltrating NB cells that could be detected by IHC-stained BM sections and not by BSs. The less frequent (12/31) were due to the presence of metastatic deposits outside pelvic bones that could be detected by BSs and not by IHC-stained BM sections mainly in the follow-up cases (11/12) rather than de novo cases (1/12). The matched results between IHC-stained BM sections and MIBG scans 54/57 (94.7%) were higher than the un-matched ones 3/57 (5.3%). The agreement between the two methods was higher among de novo (Kappa=1.000) than follow-up group (Kappa=0.847). The agreement between IHC-stained BM sections and MIBG scans was substantial (Kappa=0.890) while that between IHC-stained BM sections and BSs was moderate (Kappa=0.538).

Conclusions: We suggest a step-wise strategy to be applied, at least in developing countries, in approaching de novo and follow-up NB cases for detecting bone and/or BM metastatic deposits. This strategy might be beneficial if it is considered during application of NB guide-lines for diagnosis and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnci.2011.09.004DOI Listing
June 2011

Antibiotic resistance is associated with longer bacteremic episodes and worse outcome in febrile neutropenic children with cancer.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2011 Aug 22;57(2):283-8. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

Clinical Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

Purpose: With the increasing emergence of multiresistant pathogens, better understanding of these infections is necessary. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with isolating a multiresistant organism (MRO) from a positive blood culture in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (F&N), and to study its impact on clinical course and outcome of febrile episodes.

Patients And Methods: The association between MRO with underlying malignancy, age, disease status, hospitalization during episode, absolute neutrophil count, absolute monocyte count, clinical foci of infection, and pathogens isolated was assessed in bacteremic pediatric cancer patients. The MRO phenotype was defined as diminished susceptibility to ≥3 of the broad spectrum antibody classes.

Results: Among 239 episodes of blood stream infections (BSI), Gram-positive, and Gram-negative organisms were detected in 180 (75%), and 59(25%) episodes, respectively; with 38% of isolates showing multiresistance (n = 92). Significant risk factors (P < 0.05) for MRO were hospitalization, Gram-negative organisms, presence of clinical focus of infection, reduced ANC, prolonged duration of neutropenia, and previous intake of antibiotics. Of the episodes with prolonged duration of fever extending for more than 7 days 62% (64|93) were associated with a multiresistant phenotype, while it accompanied 72% (18|25) of the cases with an unfavorable outcome; P-value <0.001.

Conclusion: Isolation of MRO is more likely to be associated with a prolonged course and an unfavorable outcome. Continuous multidisciplinary surveillance of BSI is warranted to develop strategies for antimicrobial resistance control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22926DOI Listing
August 2011

Presence of human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) in pediatric lymphomas: impact on clinical course and association with cytomegalovirus infection.

Virol J 2010 Oct 27;7:287. Epub 2010 Oct 27.

Virology and Immunology Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background: Activation of herpes virus 6 (HHV6) has seen in Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL&NHL) as a result of lymphoma associated immunosuppression. Multiple studies have suggested an association between both HHV6 and cytomegalovirus CMV for development of CMV disease affecting the pathogenesis of lymphoma. Therefore, this study investigated the frequency of HHV6, its impact on clinical manifestations of lymphoma and its possible association with risk for development of CMV infection in pediatric lymphoma patients.

Methods: Presence of HHV6 DNA and CMV DNA was investigated by PCR assay in both WBC's and plasma samples from 50 patients diagnosed with HL or NHL. CMV antibody titer was also determined in sera obtained from each patient. Twenty apparently healthy siblings were used as a control group.

Results: In a study group of 50 patients diagnosed with HL or NHL, 23/50 (46%) were found to be positive for herpes virus DNA (HHV6 or CMV) in WBC's or plasma by PCR assay and this was significantly higher than its presence in the pediatric control group 2/20 (10%) (p = 0.005). Ten out of these 23 (43%) were found to have active CMV infection. Fifty six percent of patients with CMV infection were found among NHL cases with B- subtype. The presence of both herpes viruses DNA was significantly associated with more frequent episodes of febrile neutropenia (median 3 episodes), absolute neutrophil count (< 0.8), lymphocytes (< 0.5), and low hemoglobin level (< 9.1), (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The presence of HHV6 can be considered as a predicting indicator of cellular immunosuppression preceding the onset of CMV infection which may result in a severe outcome among pediatric lymphoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-7-287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2988729PMC
October 2010

Prognostic value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in Egyptian females with metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

Clin Biochem 2009 Sep 2;42(13-14):1420-6. Epub 2009 Jul 2.

Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

Objectives: The aim of this work was to explore the value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with chemotherapy. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points were response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and VEGF-A level at baseline, mid-therapy and at the end of therapy.

Design And Methods: Female patients aged 18 years or above with histologically proven metastatic TNBC were included. Serum VEFG-A levels were measured at baseline, after the 3rd and 6th cycles of FAC chemotherapy regimen (Fluorourcil, Adriamycin, and Cyclophamide).

Results: The overall RR was 57%. The median PFS and OS were 7 and 11.2 months, respectively (95% CI: 4.3-9.7 and 3.8-18.5 months, respectively). Patients whose disease progressed despite therapy had a significantly higher baseline VEGF-A level than those who did not progress. VEGF-A level did not drop with continuation of therapy. Patients with high VEGF-A level had a significantly lower PFS but not OS than patients with low levels.

Conclusion: The outcome of metastatic TNBC is poor with FAC chemotherapy regimen. Alternative chemotherapeutic regimens and novel therapeutic approaches including targeting of VEGF and/or its receptors are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.06.022DOI Listing
September 2009

Bcl-2 protein expression in egyptian acute myeloid leukemia.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2009 Mar;21(1):71-6

The Departments of Clinical Pathology, National Cancer Institute,Cairo University.

Objective: The primary cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the emergence of both resistant disease and early relapse. The bcl-2 gene encodes a 26-kDa protein that promotes cell survival by blocking programmed cell death (apoptosis). In the present study, bcl-2 protein expression was evaluated in newly diagnosed AML patients and correlated with the induction of remission and overall survival (OS), in an attempt to define patients who might benefit from modified therapeutic strategies.

Patients And Methods: Pretreatment cellular bcl-2 protein expression was measured in bone marrow samples obtained from 68 patients of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia and 10 healthy controls by western blotting.

Results: The mean bcl-2 protein expression was significantly higher in patients (0.686+/-0.592) compared to controls (0.313+/-0.016) (p=0.002). The overall survival for patients with mean bcl-2 expression of less, and more than or equal to 0.315, was 67% and 56%, respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.86).

Conclusion: Even though we did not observe a significant difference in overall survival between patients with high and low levels of bcl-2, modulation of this protein might still be considered as an option for enhancing the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy.

Key Words: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) - Bcl-2 - prognosis - Western blot.
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March 2009

Ipsilateral in-breast tumor relapse after breast conservation therapy: true recurrence versus new primary tumor.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2006 Sep;18(3):183-90

The Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt.

Background And Purpose: Ipsilateral breast tumor relapse (IBTR) occurs in approximately 8-20% of women 10 years after breast conservation therapy (BCT). The aim of this study is to classify ipsilateral breast tumor relapses in patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy as true recurrences or new primary and to show the clinical significance of classification into these two types of recurrences.

Patients And Methods: Out of 267 patients treated at National Cancer Institute, Cairo University in the period extending from 1993 to 2000, 29 patients have experienced ipsilateral tumor relapse as the first site of recurrence. These relapses were classified as true recurrence if it was located within 3cm of the primary tumor bed and was of the same histologic subtype. All other ipsilateral breast tumor relapses were considered as new primary. The patients were followed-up until January 2005.

Results: After a mean follow-up period of 7.9 +/- 2.6 years following the original diagnosis, the overall ipsilateral breast tumor relapse rate was 9.6% (29/267). Relapses were classified as TR in 21 patients (72.4%) and were considered as a new primary in 8 cases (27.6%). Patients diagnosed with a new primary had a longer mean time to breast relapse (6.09 years for NP Vs 3.09 years for TR, p < 0.001) and were significantly younger than true recurrence patients (38.38 years Vs 47.54 years, p=0.006). Patients with a new primary had a 10- year overall survival of 87.5%; whereas, it was 61.90% for TR cases (p=0.13).

Conclusions: It appears that a significant portion of patients who experience ipsilateral breast tumor relapse following conservative surgery and radiation therapy have new primary tumors as opposed to true recurrences. Patients with a new primary had better survival rates than those with true recurrence. Distinguishing new primary breast carcinoma from local disease recurrence may have importance in therapeutic decisions and chemoprevention strategies.
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September 2006