Publications by authors named "Manabu Natsumeda"

51 Publications

[The Present and Future of Less-invasive Liquid Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Gliomas and Brain Tumors].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 May;49(3):527-534

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

There is growing interest in liquid biopsy, the less-invasive detection of circulating tumor DNA(ctDNA)or circulating tumor cells(CTCs)from cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)and/or serum of patients, for the diagnosis of brain tumors. We share our experience of detecting hot spot point mutations using droplet digital PCR(ddPCR)in ctDNA obtained from the CSF of patients with brain tumors. The detection of mutations such as R132H, V600E, and promoter mutations in gliomas can be diagnostic. For optimal detection of ctDNA, which is only seen at very low concentrations, proper handling and storage of CSF, high-yield extraction of ctDNA, and usage of sensitive PCR methods for detection are imperative. We discuss which mutations can be assessed when diagnosing brain tumors, with a specific focus on gliomas. Finally, we look at what the near future holds for liquid biopsy of brain tumor patients, including next-generation sequencing panel analysis and accurate assessment of fusion genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204425DOI Listing
May 2021

Low Detection Rate of H3K27M Mutations in Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Lumbar Puncture in Newly Diagnosed Diffuse Midline Gliomas.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 9;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8585, Japan.

Recent studies have suggested the feasibility of detecting H3K27M mutations in the cerebrospinal fluid of diffuse midline glioma (DMG) patients. However, cerebrospinal fluid from patients in these studies were collected mainly during biopsy, ventriculo-peritoneal shunt procedures or postmortem. We assessed circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) extracted from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in a series of 12 radiographically suspected and/or pathologically confirmed diffuse midline glioma patients and assessed for K27M mutation using digital droplet PCR. In 10 patients, CSF was obtained by lumbar puncture at presentation. A definitive detection of K27M mutation was achieved in only one case (10%); K27M mutation was suspected in three other cases (30%). K27M mutation was detected in two patients in CSF obtained by ventricular tap during a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt for obstructive hydrocephalus. Cases in which a definitive assessment was possible (definite K27M or definite wildtype) tended to be younger (median 7.5 years vs. 40.5 years; = 0.07) and have a higher concentration of CSF protein (median 123 mg/dL vs. 27.5 mg/dL; = 0.21) compared to nondefinite cases. Low proliferation and apoptotic rates seemed to be characteristics of DMG unfavorable for liquid biopsy. More advanced lesions with necrosis and evidence of dissemination were unlikely to be candidates for lumbar puncture due to the fear of exacerbating obstructive hydrocephalus. Methods to safely sample CSF and a more sensitive detection of ctDNA are necessary for reliable liquid biopsy of DMG at presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11040681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070169PMC
April 2021

[Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):438-444

Center for Integrated Human Brain Science, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata.

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(H-MRS)is a non-invasive method for evaluating brain function and metabolism. H-MRS can quantify low-molecular-weight metabolites in a living brain; it shows their spectra without tracer administration. In this paper, we introduce H-MRS and MRS for imaging the distribution of metabolites. The applications of H-MRS imaging for several neurological disorders will be outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204411DOI Listing
March 2021

[Dysplastic Cerebellar Gangliocytoma(Lhermitte-Duclos Disease)].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):395-399

Department of Translational Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma or Lhermitte-Duclos disease(LDD)is a rare benign cerebellar lesion composed of dysplastic ganglion cells that conform to the existing cortical architecture. In this disease, the enlarged ganglion cells are predominantly located within the internal granular layer, and they thicken the cerebellar folia. The architecture of the affected cerebellar hemisphere with the enlarged cerebellar folia and the cystic changes, in some cases, present as "tiger-striped striations," a characteristic imaging finding that is not specific to LDD. This imaging feature may be observed in medulloblastoma and isolated cerebellar Rosai-Dorfman disease. This cerebellar lesion is a major central nervous system manifestation of Cowden syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition that causes various hamartomas and neoplasms. A molecular-based study estimated the prevalence of Cowden syndrome to be 1 case per 200,000. In a study involving 211 patients with Cowden syndrome, 32% developed LDD. LDD can be diagnosed in young children and older adults within the eighth decades of life. PTEN mutations have been identified in virtually all adult-onset LDDs, but not in childhood-onset cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204404DOI Listing
March 2021

[Melanocytic Tumors].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):389-394

Department of Translational Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Primary melanocytic neoplasms of the central nervous system(CNS)presumably arise from leptomeningeal melanocytes that are derived from the neural crest. Melanocytic neoplasms associated with neurocutaneous melanosis likely derive from melanocyte precursor cells that reach the CNS after somatic mutations, mostly, of the . They should be distinguished from other melanotic tumors involving the CNS, including metastatic melanoma and other primary tumors that undergo melanization, such as melanocytic schwannomas, medulloblastomas, paragangliomas, and various gliomas, because these lesions require different patient workups and therapy. Primary melanocytic neoplasms of the CNS that are diffuse and do not form macroscopic masses are called melanocytoses, whereas malignant diffuse or multifocal lesions are collectively called melanomatoses. Benign and intermediate-grade tumoral lesions are called melanocytomas. Discrete malignant tumors are called melanomas. CT and MRI of melanocytosis and melanomatosis show diffuse thickening and enhancement of the leptomeninges, often with focal or multifocal nodularity. Depending on the melanin content, diffuse and circumscribed melanocytic tumors of the CNS may show some characteristics on CT and MRI: iso- to hyperattenuation on CT and paramagnetic properties of melanin on MRI resulting in an isointense signal on T1WIs and iso- to hypointensity on T2WIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204403DOI Listing
March 2021

[Multinodular and Vacuolating Neuronal Tumor of the Cerebrum(MVNT)].

No Shinkei Geka 2021 Mar;49(2):383-387

Department of Translational Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors of the cerebrum(MVNTs)are rare brain tumors that were described first in 2013. MVNTs have been added to the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System in 2016(2016WHO), although an MVNT is a clinical-pathological lesion with uncertain class assignment. It remains unclear whether MVNTs should be considered a true neoplasm or malformative lesion. Their prevalence and pathophysiology are unknown. MVNTs typically occur in adults, predominantly in the cerebral subcortical region, and are most frequently associated with seizures or seizure equivalents. MVMTs can also present incidentally without seizures. MVNTs have been reported to show highly suggestive imaging features, especially on MRI scans. MVNTs consist of small T2 and T2-FLAIR hyperintense nodules in subcortical and juxtacortical areas with rare or no post-contrast enhancement. Most MVNTs reported in the literature involve the supratentorial part of the brain. Recently, lesions exhibiting a remarkably similar pattern of imaging findings were described in the posterior fossa, which are referred to as multinodular and vacuolating posterior fossa of unknown significance(MV-PLUS). Both MVNT and MV-PLUS are considered "leave-me-alone" lesions because of the absence of malignancy criteria and the lack of evolutivity on follow-up MRI scans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204402DOI Listing
March 2021

Topoisomerase IIβ immunoreactivity (IR) co-localizes with neuronal marker-IR but not glial fibrillary acidic protein-IR in GLI3-positive medulloblastomas: an immunohistochemical analysis of 124 medulloblastomas from the Japan Children's Cancer Group.

Brain Tumor Pathol 2021 Apr 11;38(2):109-121. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neuropathology, Aichi Medical University, Institute for Medical Science of Aging, Aichi, Japan.

We previously reported observing GLI3 in medulloblastomas expressing neuronal markers (NM) and/or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Furthermore, patients with medulloblastomas expressing NM or GFAP tended to show favorable or poor prognosis, respectively. In the present study, we focused on the role of topoisomerase IIβ (TOP2β) as a possible regulator for neuronal differentiation in medulloblastomas and examined the pathological roles of GLI3, NM, GFAP, and TOP2β expressions in a larger population. We divided 124 medulloblastomas into three groups (NM-/GFAP-, NM +/GFAP-, and GFAP +) based on their immunoreactivity (IR) against NM and GFAP. The relationship among GLI3, NM, GFAP, and TOP2β was evaluated using fluorescent immunostaining and a publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing dataset. In total, 87, 30, and 7 medulloblastomas were classified as NM-/GFAP-, NM + /GFAP-, and GFAP +, and showed intermediate, good, and poor prognoses, respectively. GLI3-IR was frequently observed in NM +/GFAP-  and GFAP + , and TOP2β-IR was frequently observed only in NM +/GFAP-  medulloblastomas. In fluorescent immunostaining, TOP2β-IR was mostly co-localized with NeuN-IR but not with GFAP-IR. In single-cell RNA sequencing, TOP2β expression was elevated in CMAS/DCX-positive, but not in GFAP-positive, cells. NM-IR and GFAP-IR are important for estimating the prognosis of patients with medulloblastoma; hence they should be assessed in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10014-021-00396-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

GLI3 Is Associated With Neuronal Differentiation in SHH-Activated and WNT-Activated Medulloblastoma.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021 01;80(2):129-136

Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 3 (GLI3), whose main function is to inhibit GLI1, has been associated with neuronal differentiation in medulloblastoma. However, it is not clear what molecular subtype(s) show increased GLI3 expression. GLI3 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in 2 independent cohorts, including a total of 88 cases, and found to be high in both WNT- and SHH-activated medulloblastoma. Analysis of bulk mRNA expression data and single cell RNA sequencing studies confirmed that GLI1 and GLI3 are highly expressed in SHH-activated medulloblastoma, whereas GLI3 but not GLI1 is highly expressed in WNT-activated medulloblastoma. Immunohistochemical analysis has shown that GLI3 is expressed inside the neuronal differentiated nodules of SHH-activated medulloblastoma, whereas GLI1/2 are expressed in desmoplastic areas. In contrast, GLI3 is diffusely expressed in WNT-activated medulloblastoma, whereas GLI1 is suppressed. Our data suggest that GLI3 may be a master regulator of neuronal differentiation and morphology in these subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa141DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular Features and Prognostic Factors of Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma: A Collaborative Investigation of the Tohoku Brain Tumor Study Group.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2020 Nov 16;60(11):543-552. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University.

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare glial tumor, however, its histological differentiation from high-grade gliomas is often difficult. Molecular characteristics may contribute to a better diagnostic discrimination. Prognostic factors of PXA are also important but few relevant reports have been published. This study investigated the molecular features and prognostic factors of PXAs. Seven university hospitals participated in this study by providing retrospective clinical data and tumor samples of PXA cases between 1993 and 2014. Tumor samples were analyzed for immunohistochemical (IHC) neuronal and glial markers along with Ki67. The status of the BRAF and TERT promoter (TERTp) mutation was also evaluated using the same samples, followed by feature extraction of PXA and survival analyses. In all, 19 primary cases (17 PXA and 2 anaplastic PXA) were included. IHC examination revealed the stable staining of nestin and the close association of synaptophysin to NFP. Of the PXA cases, 57% had the BRAF mutation and only 7% had the TERTp mutation. On univariate analysis, age (≥60 years), preoperative Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (≤80%), and marked peritumoral edema were significantly associated with progression-free survival (PFS). No independent factor was indicated by the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, PXA was characterized by positive nestin staining and a few TERTp mutations. The neuronal differential marker and BRAF status may help in diagnosis. Patient age, preoperative KPS, and marked perifocal edema were associated with PFS. The present study is limited because of small number of cases and its retrospective nature. Further clinical study is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2020-0155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788268PMC
November 2020

A Hyperactive RelA/p65-Hexokinase 2 Signaling Axis Drives Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

Cancer Res 2020 12 16;80(23):5330-5343. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an isolated type of lymphoma of the central nervous system and has a dismal prognosis despite intensive chemotherapy. Recent genomic analyses have identified highly recurrent mutations of MYD88 and CD79B in immunocompetent PCNSL, whereas LMP1 activation is commonly observed in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive PCNSL. However, a lack of clinically representative preclinical models has hampered our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms by which genetic aberrations drive PCNSL disease phenotypes. Here, we establish a panel of 12 orthotopic, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from both immunocompetent and EBV-positive PCNSL and secondary CNSL biopsy specimens. PDXs faithfully retained their phenotypic, metabolic, and genetic features, with 100% concordance of MYD88 and CD79B mutations present in PCNSL in immunocompetent patients. These models revealed a convergent functional dependency upon a deregulated RelA/p65-hexokinase 2 signaling axis, codriven by either mutated MYD88/CD79B or LMP1 with Pin1 overactivation in immunocompetent PCNSL and EBV-positive PCNSL, respectively. Notably, distinct molecular alterations used by immunocompetent and EBV-positive PCNSL converged to deregulate RelA/p65 expression and to drive glycolysis, which is critical for intracerebral tumor progression and FDG-PET imaging characteristics. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of this key signaling axis potently suppressed PCNSL growth and . These patient-derived models offer a platform for predicting clinical chemotherapeutics efficacy and provide critical insights into PCNSL pathogenic mechanisms, accelerating therapeutic discovery for this aggressive disease. SIGNIFICANCE: A set of clinically relevant CNSL xenografts identifies a hyperactive RelA/p65-hexokinase 2 signaling axis as a driver of progression and potential therapeutic target for treatment and provides a foundational preclinical platform. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/23/5330/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2425DOI Listing
December 2020

So-called bifocal tumors with diabetes insipidus and negative tumor markers: are they all germinoma?

Neuro Oncol 2021 02;23(2):295-303

Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Background: The Delphi consensus statements on the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs) failed to reach agreements on the statement that the cases with (i) pineal and neurohypophyseal bifocal lesion, (ii) with diabetes insipidus, and (iii) with negative tumor markers can be diagnosed as germinoma without histological verification. To answer this, multicenter retrospective analysis was performed.

Methods: A questionnaire on clinical findings, histological diagnosis, and details of surgical procedures was sent to 86 neurosurgical and 35 pediatrics departments in Japan.

Results: Fifty-one institutes reported 132 cases that fulfilled the 3 criteria. Tissue sampling was performed in 91 cases from pineal (n = 44), neurohypophyseal (n = 32), both (n = 6), and distant (n = 9) lesions. Histological diagnosis was established in 89 cases: pure germinoma or germinoma with syncytiotrophoblastic giant cells in 82 (92.1%) cases, germinoma and mature teratoma in 2 cases, and granulomatous inflammation in 2 cases. Histological diagnosis was not established in 2 cases. Although no tumors other than GCTs were identified, 3 (3.4%) patients had non-germinomatous GCTs (NGGCTs). None of the patients developed permanent complications after endoscopic or stereotactic biopsy. Thirty-nine patients underwent simultaneous procedure for acute hydrocephalus without permanent complications, and hydrocephalus was controlled in 94.9% of them.

Conclusion: All patients who fulfilled the 3 criteria had GCTs or granulomatous inflammation, but not other types of tumors. However, no fewer than 3.4% of the patients had NGGCTs. Considering the safety and the effects of simultaneous procedures for acute hydrocephalus, biopsy was recommended in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906060PMC
February 2021

[Endovascular Revascularization for Acute Ischemic Stroke Related to Blunt Carotid Injury:A Case Report].

No Shinkei Geka 2020 Jun;48(6):527-532

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Although blunt carotid artery injury is known as an important cause of ischemic stroke, the role of the endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke related to blunt carotid injuries remains unclear. We report the case of a patient with acute ischemic stroke secondary to blunt carotid artery injury who was treated with endovascular revascularization. A 46-year-old man suffered from sudden left-sided hemiparesis a day after a strike from a Japanese fencing staff on his right neck. 3D-CT angiography revealed tandem internal carotid artery occlusions of the cervical and C1 portions. We performed endovascular revascularization with carotid artery stenting and direct aspiration of the thrombus and achieved complete recanalization. The patient recovered almost completely. We conclude that endovascular revascularization should not be withheld from patients with acute ischemic stroke related to blunt carotid injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11477/mf.1436204223DOI Listing
June 2020

MGMT Expression Contributes to Temozolomide Resistance in H3K27M-Mutant Diffuse Midline Gliomas.

Front Oncol 2019 21;9:1568. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

Diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs) show resistance to many chemotherapeutic agents including temozolomide (TMZ). Histone gene mutations in DMGs trigger epigenetic changes including DNA hypomethylation, one of which is a frequent lack of O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase () promoter methylation, resulting in increased MGMT expression. We established the NGT16 cell line with K27M and G328E gene mutations from a DMG patient and used this cell line and other DMG cell lines with gene mutation (SF7761, SF8628, JHH-DIPG1) to analyze promoter methylation, MGMT protein expression, and response to TMZ. Three out of 4 DMG cell lines (NGT16, SF8628, and JHH-DIPG1) had unmethylated promoter, increased MGMT expression, and showed resistance to TMZ treatment. SF7761 cells with gene mutation showed promoter methylation, lacked MGMT expression, and sensitivity to TMZ treatment. NGT16 line showed response to ALK2 inhibitor K02288 treatment . We confirmed that MGMT expression contributes to TMZ resistance in DMG cell lines. There is an urgent need to develop new strategies to treat TMZ-resistant DMGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985080PMC
January 2020

Dramatic response of BRAF V600E-mutant epithelioid glioblastoma to combination therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitor: establishment and xenograft of a cell line to predict clinical efficacy.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 07 25;7(1):119. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

From the Departments of Neurosurgery, Niigata University, 1-757 Asahimachidori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Japan.

Epithelioid glioblastoma is a rare aggressive variant of glioblastoma (GBM) characterized by a dismal prognosis of about 6 months and frequent leptomeningeal dissemination. A recent study has revealed that 50% of epithelioid GBMs harbor three genetic alterations - BRAF V600E mutation, TERT promoter mutations, and homozygous deletions of CDKN2A/2B. Emerging evidence support the effectiveness of targeted therapies for brain tumors with BRAF V600E mutation. Here we describe a dramatic radiographical response to combined therapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in a patient with epithelioid GBM harboring BRAF V600E mutation, characterized by thick spinal dissemination. From relapsed tumor procured at autopsy, we established a cell line retaining the BRAF V600E mutation, TERT promoter mutation and CDKN2A/2B loss. Intracranial implantation of these cells into mice resulted in tumors closely resembling the original, characterized by epithelioid tumor cells and dissemination, and invasion into the perivascular spaces. We then confirmed the efficacy of treatment with BRAF and MEK inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Epithelioid GBM with BRAF V600E mutation can be considered a good treatment indication for precision medicine, and this patient-derived cell line should be useful for prediction of the tumor response and clarification of its biological characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0774-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659204PMC
July 2019

Comparison of circulating tumor DNA between body fluids in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 12 15;60(14):3587-3589. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1639169DOI Listing
December 2019

Podoplanin Expression and IDH-Wildtype Status Predict Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with High-Grade Gliomas in the Early Postoperative Period.

World Neurosurg 2019 Aug 15;128:e982-e988. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata.

Objective: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) often is encountered in patients with high-grade gliomas. The underlying mechanisms are unclear, as is the optimal prophylactic protocol. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors of VTE and examine the validity of early VTE detection in high-grade gliomas.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 165 patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma treated at Niigata University Hospital during the years 2009 to 2016. If the serum D-dimer levels increased to 5.0 μg/mL or more, computed tomography was performed to detect VTE. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry with antibodies against podoplanin was performed on available 101 tumor tissues.

Results: Of the 165 patients, 44 (26.7%) developed VTE. Of the 44 patients, 34 (79.5%) developed VTE within 7 days after surgery. No fatal VTE occurred and major complications secondary to anticoagulation occurred in only 2 (1.2%) patients. On multivariate analysis, lower Karnofsky Performance Scale status, podoplanin expression, and isocitrate dehydrogenase-wildtype status were independently associated with the risk of VTE (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: We found that most VTEs occurred early in the postoperative period and commonly in patients with lower Karnofsky Performance Scale status and isocitrate dehydrogenase-wildtype gliomas, which expressed podoplanin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.05.049DOI Listing
August 2019

Malignant Hyperthermia and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis After Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in Infant with Schizencephaly and COL4A1 Mutation.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jul 25;127:446-450. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

Background: Schizencephaly is a rare congenital central nervous system malformation characterized by linear, thickened clefts of the cerebral mantle. Recently, germline mutations in collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) have been reported to be a genetic cause of schizencephaly as a result of prenatal stroke. Patients with COL4A1 mutation demonstrate a variety of disease phenotypes. However, little is known about the potential complications of patients with COL4A1 mutations before and after neurologic surgery.

Case Description: A 9-month-old boy with schizencephaly and a congenital cataract underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for progressive hydrocephalus. Postoperatively, he developed malignant hyperthermia and cerebral venous thrombosis. Early treatment with dantrolene sodium and hydration was effective. Genetic testing revealed a germline COL4A1 mutation.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, malignant hyperthermia and cerebral venous thrombosis have not been reported in the literature in patients with COL4A1 mutations after surgery. Schizencephaly arising from COL4A1 mutations might be a disease prone to these adverse effects because this mutation is known to be associated with venous tortuosity, venous vulnerability, and muscle spasms due to basement membrane protein abnormalities. We need to better understand the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes of COL4A1 mutations and potential complications in order to better manage surgery of patients with schizencephaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.04.156DOI Listing
July 2019

EGFRvIII Is Expressed in Cellular Areas of Tumor in a Subset of Glioblastoma.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2019 Mar 21;59(3):89-97. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata.

Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is a tumor-specific cell surface antigen often expressed in glioblastoma and has drawn much attention as a possible therapeutic target. We performed immunohistochemistry on histology sections of surgical specimens taken from 67 cases with glioblastoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase-wild type, and evaluated the morphological characteristics and distribution of the EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. We then evaluated the localization of EGFRvIII-expression within the tumor and peritumoral areas. EGFRvIII immunopositivity was detected in 15 specimens taken from 13 patients, including two recurrent specimens taken from the same patient at relapse. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that EGFRvIII-positive cells were present in cells positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and some showed astrocytic differentiation with multiple fine processes and others did not shown. The EGFRvIII-positive cells were located in cellular areas of the tumor, but not in the invading zone. In the two recurrent cases, EGFRvIII-positive cells were markedly decreased in one case and retained in the other. With regard to overall survival, univariate analysis indicated that EGFRvIII-expression in patients with glioblastoma was not significantly associated with a favorable outcome. Double-labeling immunofluorescence staining of EGFRvIII and GFAP showed that processes of large, well differentiated, GFAP-positive glia extend to and surround less differentiated, EGFRvIII-positive glial cells in cellular areas of tumor. However, in the tumor periphery, EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells were not observed. This finding suggests that EGFRvIII is involved in tumor proliferation, but that invading glioma cells lose their EGFRvIII expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.oa.2018-0078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434422PMC
March 2019

Inhibition of enhancer of zest homologue 2 is a potential therapeutic target for high-MYC medulloblastoma.

Neuropathology 2019 Apr 10;39(2):71-77. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

MYC amplification is common in Group 3 medulloblastoma and is associated with poor survival. Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastomas are also known to have elevated levels of histone H3-lysine 27-tri-methylation (H3K27me3), at least in part due to high expression of the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zest homologue 2 (EZH2), which can be regulated by MYC. We therefore examined whether MYC expression is associated with elevated EZH2 and H3K27me3 in medulloblastoma, and if high-MYC medulloblastomas are particularly sensitive to pharmacological EZH2 blockade. Western blot analysis of low (DAOY, UW228, CB SV40) and high (DAOY-MYC, UW228-MYC, CB-MYC, D425) MYC cell lines showed that higher levels of EZH2 and H3K27me3 were associated with elevated MYC. In fixed medulloblastoma samples examined using immunohistochemistry, most MYC positive tumors also had high H3K27me3, but many MYC negative ones did as well, and the correlation was not statistically significant. All high MYC lines tested were sensitive to the EZH2 inhibitor EPZ6438. Many low MYC lines also grew more slowly in the presence of EPZ6438, although DAOY-MYC cells responded more strongly than parent DAOY cultures with lower MYC levels. We find that higher MYC levels are associated with increased EZH2, and pharmacological blockade of EZH2 is a potential therapeutic strategy for aggressive medulloblastoma with elevated MYC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12534DOI Listing
April 2019

MGMT Expression Contributes to Temozolomide Resistance in H3K27M-Mutant Diffuse Midline Gliomas and MGMT Silencing to Temozolomide Sensitivity in IDH-Mutant Gliomas.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2018 Jul 31;58(7):290-295. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University.

Histone H3 mutations are frequently found in diffuse midline gliomas (DMGs), which include diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas and thalamic gliomas. These tumors have dismal prognoses. Recent evidence suggests that one reason for the poor prognoses is that O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter frequently lacks methylation in DMGs. This review compares the epigenetic changes brought about by histone mutations to those by isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant gliomas, which frequently have methylated MGMT promoters and are known to be sensitive to temozolomide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2176/nmc.ra.2018-0044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048353PMC
July 2018

High Incidence of Deep Vein Thrombosis in the Perioperative Period of Neurosurgical Patients.

World Neurosurg 2018 Apr 30;112:e103-e112. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: A prospective study was designed to elucidate incidence and predictors of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing craniotomies.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-two patients who underwent craniotomies received pre- and postoperative venous ultrasonography and/or contrast-enhanced spiral computed tomography for diagnosis of DVT. The primary endpoint was DVT occurrence. Serial levels of serum D-dimer, soluble fibrin, and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were analyzed.

Results: Twenty-four of 92 patients (26.1%) had DVT, of whom 10 (41.7%) were diagnosed preoperatively. In patients with preoperative DVT, age, incidence of decreased performance status and leg paresis, levels of D-dimer, soluble fibrin, and TAT were significantly greater. In patients with postoperative DVT, length of surgery, incidence of decreased postoperative performance status, levels of D-dimer on postoperative days (POD) 3, 7, and 14, and TAT on POD7 were significantly greater. Patients with postoperative DVT had elevated D-dimer levels on POD 7 compared with POD 3. The D-dimer cutoff of 2.65 μg/mL at POD 7 could be used to identify DVT with 85.7% sensitivity and 72.3% specificity. A cutoff of 5.25 μg/mL at POD 7 yielded a specificity of 96.9%. Decreased performance status and elevated D-dimer were independent predictors for preoperative DVT, prolonged operation time, and elevated D-dimer on POD 7 for postoperative DVT.

Conclusions: DVT frequently was observed in patients before and after undergoing craniotomies. Patients with decreased performance status should be preoperatively screened for DVT by checking D-dimer levels. Elevated D-dimer levels on POD 7 compared with POD 3 and D-dimer levels greater than 2.65 μg/mL at POD7 suggest the presence of DVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.12.139DOI Listing
April 2018

Reliable diagnosis of IDH-mutant glioblastoma by 2-hydroxyglutarate detection: a study by 3-T magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Neurosurg Rev 2018 Apr 27;41(2):641-647. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, University of Niigata, Niigata, Japan.

We have previously reported that reliable detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant WHO grade 2 and 3 gliomas is possible utilizing 3.0-T single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SVMRS). We set out to determine whether the same method could be applied to detect 2HG in IDH-mutant glioblastoma. Forty-four patients harboring glioblastoma underwent pre-operative MRS evaluation to detect 2HG and other metabolites. Presence of IDH-mutations was determined by IDH1 R132H immunohistochemical analysis and DNA sequencing of surgically obtained tissues. Six out of 44 (13.6%) glioblastomas were IDH-mutant. IDH-mutant glioblastoma exhibited significantly higher accumulation of 2HG (median 3.191 vs. 0.000 mM, p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). A cutoff of 2HG = 0.897 mM achieved high sensitivity (100.0%) and specificity (92.59%) in determining IDH-mutation in glioblastoma. Glioblastoma with high 2HG accumulation did not have significantly longer overall survival than glioblastoma with low 2HG accumulation (p = 0.107, log-rank test). Non-invasive and reliable detection of 2HG in IDH-mutant glioblastoma was possible by 3.0-T SVMRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-017-0908-yDOI Listing
April 2018

The dual mTOR kinase inhibitor TAK228 inhibits tumorigenicity and enhances radiosensitization in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.

Cancer Lett 2017 08 25;400:110-116. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Division of Pediatric Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an invasive and treatment-refractory pediatric brain tumor. Primary DIPG tumors harbor a number of mutations including alterations in PTEN, AKT, and PI3K and exhibit activation of mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2). mTORC1/2 regulate protein translation, cell growth, survival, invasion, and metabolism. Pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1 is minimally effective in DIPG. However, the activity of dual TORC kinase inhibitors has not been examined in this tumor type. Nanomolar levels of the mTORC1/2 inhibitor TAK228 reduced expression of p-AKT and p-S6 and suppressed the growth of DIPG lines JHH-DIPG1, SF7761, and SU-DIPG-XIII. TAK228 induced apoptosis in DIPG cells and cooperated with radiation to further block proliferation and enhance apoptosis. TAK228 monotherapy inhibited the tumorigenicity of a murine orthotopic model of DIPG, more than doubling median survival (p = 0.0017) versus vehicle. We conclude that dual mTOR inhibition is a promising potential candidate for DIPG treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2017.04.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5569904PMC
August 2017

Long-term survivors of primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2017 02;47(2):101-107

Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

Objective: In this study, we provide long-term outcome data of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Methods: The long-term outcomes of PCNSL patients diagnosed between 1982 and 2006 were reviewed. Neurological late neurotoxicity symptoms, neuroradiological brain atrophy and leukoencephalopathy were evaluated. Surviving patients completed the Quality of Life Questionnaire-30 and Brain Cancer Module-20. The differences in overall survival were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. The differences between groups in terms of each investigated parameter were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: Among 112 PCNSL patients, there were 33 (29.4%) long-term (> 5 years) survivors. The median survival of all long-term survivors was 105.7 months; of these, 8 (7.1%) were alive at the latest follow-up, with a mean survival time of 170.2 months (range, 121.8–286.4). Clinical assessment revealed severe neurotoxicity in 14 patients (42.4%), moderate neurotoxicity in 5 (15.1%), and normal status in 14 (42.4%). Correlations were seen between the neuroradiological imaging score changes and neurocognitive condition (P=0.0001), neurocognitive condition and the whole brain irradiation dose (P=0.0004), and atrophy and the whole brain irradiation dose (P=0.0035).

Conclusions: A more severe clinical condition was found to be associated with increasing age and whole brain irradiation dose in long-term survivors with PCNSL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyw171DOI Listing
February 2017

Chemical Screening Identifies EUrd as a Novel Inhibitor Against Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells.

Stem Cells 2016 08 17;34(8):2016-25. Epub 2016 May 17.

Division of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most malignant human cancers, frequently recurs despite multimodal treatment with surgery and chemo/radiotherapies. GBM-initiating cells (GICs) are the likely cell-of-origin in recurrences, as they proliferate indefinitely, form tumors in vivo, and are resistant to chemo/radiotherapies. It is therefore crucial to find chemicals that specifically kill GICs. We established temozolomide (the standard medicine for GBM)-resistant GICs (GICRs) and used the cells for chemical screening. Here, we identified 1-(3-C-ethynyl-β-d-ribopentofuranosyl) uracil (EUrd) as a selective drug for targeting GICRs. EUrd induced the death in GICRs more effectively than their parental GICs, while it was less toxic to normal neural stem cells. We demonstrate that the cytotoxic effect of EUrd on GICRs partly depended on the increased expression of uridine-cytidine kinase-like 1 (UCKL1) and the decreased one of 5'-nucleotidase cytosolic III (NT5C3), which regulate uridine-monophosphate synthesis positively and negatively respectively. Together, these findings suggest that EUrd can be used as a new therapeutic drug for GBM with the expression of surrogate markers UCKL1 and NT5C3. Stem Cells 2016;34:2016-2025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.2380DOI Listing
August 2016

Targeting Notch Signaling and Autophagy Increases Cytotoxicity in Glioblastoma Neurospheres.

Brain Pathol 2016 11 8;26(6):713-723. Epub 2016 Feb 8.

Department of Pathology, Division of Neuropathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Glioblastomas are highly aggressive tumors that contain treatment resistant stem-like cells. Therapies targeting developmental pathways such as Notch eliminate many neoplastic glioma cells, including those with stem cell features, but their efficacy can be limited by various mechanisms. One potential avenue for chemotherapeutic resistance is the induction of autophagy, but little is known how it might modulate the response to Notch inhibitors. We used the γ-secretase inhibitor MRK003 to block Notch pathway activity in glioblastoma neurospheres and assessed its effects on autophagy. A dramatic, several fold increase of LC3B-II/LC3B-I autophagy marker was noted on western blots, along with the emergence of punctate LC3B immunostaining in cultured cells. By combining the late stage autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) with MRK003, a significant induction in apoptosis and reduction in growth was noted as compared to Notch inhibition alone. A similar beneficial effect on inhibition of cloogenicity in soft agar was seen using the combination treatment. These results demonstrated that pharmacological Notch blockade can induce protective autophagy in glioma neurospheres, resulting in chemoresistance, which can be abrogated by combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12343DOI Listing
November 2016

Pharmacologic Wnt Inhibition Reduces Proliferation, Survival, and Clonogenicity of Glioblastoma Cells.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2015 Sep;74(9):889-900

From the Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital (UDK, MN, CGE); and Division of Pediatric Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University (MH), Baltimore, Maryland; Anatomical Pathology, St Jude Children Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (BAO); and Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany (UDK, AKS, KK, JM).

Wingless (Wnt) signaling is an important pathway in gliomagenesis and in the growth of stem-like glioma cells. Using immunohistochemistry to assess the translocation of β-catenin protein, we identified intranuclear staining suggesting Wnt pathway activation in 8 of 43 surgical samples (19%) from adult patients with glioblastoma and in 9 of 30 surgical samples (30%) from pediatric patients with glioblastoma. Wnt activity, evidenced by nuclear β-catenin in our cohort and high expression of its target AXIN2 (axis inhibitor protein 2) in published glioma datasets, was associated with shorter patient survival, although this was not statistically significant. We determined the effects of the porcupine inhibitor LGK974 on 3 glioblastoma cell lines with elevated AXIN2 and found that it reduced Wnt pathway activity by 50% or more, as assessed by T-cell factor luciferase reporters. Wnt inhibition led to suppression of growth, proliferation in cultures, and modest induction of cell death. LGK974 reduced NANOG messenger RNA levels and the fraction of cells expressing the stem cell marker CD133 in neurosphere cultures, induced glial differentiation, and suppressed clonogenicity. These data indicate that LGK974 is a promising new agent that can inhibit the canonical Wnt pathway in vitro, slow tumor growth, and deplete stem-like clonogenic cells, thereby providing further support for targeting Wnt in patients with glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NEN.0000000000000227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4544656PMC
September 2015