Publications by authors named "Mana M Mehrjouy"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nationwide germline whole genome sequencing of 198 consecutive pediatric cancer patients reveals a high incidence of cancer prone syndromes.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 17;16(12):e1009231. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Historically, cancer predisposition syndromes (CPSs) were rarely established for children with cancer. This nationwide, population-based study investigated how frequently children with cancer had or were likely to have a CPS.

Methods: Children (0-17 years) in Denmark with newly diagnosed cancer were invited to participate in whole-genome sequencing of germline DNA. Suspicion of CPS was assessed according to Jongmans'/McGill Interactive Pediatric OncoGenetic Guidelines (MIPOGG) criteria and familial cancer diagnoses were verified using population-based registries.

Results: 198 of 235 (84.3%) eligible patients participated, of whom 94/198 (47.5%) carried pathogenic variants (PVs) in a CPS gene or had clinical features indicating CPS. Twenty-nine of 198 (14.6%) patients harbored a CPS, of whom 21/198 (10.6%) harbored a childhood-onset and 9/198 (4.5%) an adult-onset CPS. In addition, 23/198 (11.6%) patients carried a PV associated with biallelic CPS. Seven of the 54 (12.9%) patients carried two or more variants in different CPS genes. Seventy of 198 (35.4%) patients fulfilled the Jongmans' and/or MIPOGG criteria indicating an underlying CPS, including two of the 9 (22.2%) patients with an adult-onset CPS versus 18 of the 21 (85.7%) patients with a childhood-onset CPS (p = 0.0022), eight of the additional 23 (34.8%) patients with a heterozygous PV associated with biallelic CPS, and 42 patients without PVs. Children with a central nervous system (CNS) tumor had family members with CNS tumors more frequently than patients with other cancers (11/44, p = 0.04), but 42 of 44 (95.5%) cases did not have a PV in a CPS gene.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate the value of systematically screening pediatric cancer patients for CPSs and indicate that a higher proportion of childhood cancers may be linked to predisposing germline variants than previously supposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787686PMC
December 2020

Multigenic truncation of the semaphorin-plexin pathway by a germline chromothriptic rearrangement associated with Moebius syndrome.

Hum Mutat 2019 08 14;40(8):1057-1062. Epub 2019 May 14.

Wilhelm Johannsen Center for Functional Genome Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Moebius syndrome (MBS) is a congenital disorder caused by paralysis of the facial and abducens nerves. Although a number of candidate genes have been suspected, so far only mutations in PLXND1 and REV3L are confirmed to cause MBS. Here, we fine mapped the breakpoints of a complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) 46,XY,t(7;8;11;13) in a patient with MBS, which revealed 41 clustered breakpoints with typical hallmarks of chromothripsis. Among 12 truncated protein-coding genes, SEMA3A is known to bind to the MBS-associated PLXND1. Intriguingly, the CCR also truncated PIK3CG, which in silico interacts with REVL3 encoded by the other known MBS-gene REV3L, and with the SEMA3A/PLXND1 complex via FLT1. Additional studies of other complex rearrangements may reveal whether the multiple breakpoints in germline chromothripsis may predispose to complex multigenic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688968PMC
August 2019

Haploinsufficiency of ARHGAP42 is associated with hypertension.

Eur J Hum Genet 2019 08 21;27(8):1296-1303. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, 2200, Denmark.

Family studies have established that the heritability of blood pressure is significant and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous susceptibility loci, including one within the non-coding part of Rho GTPase-activating protein 42 gene (ARHGAP42) on chromosome 11q22.1. Arhgap42-deficient mice have significantly elevated blood pressure, but the phenotypic effects of human variants in the coding part of the gene are unknown. In a Danish cohort of carriers with apparently balanced chromosomal rearrangements, we identified a family where a reciprocal translocation t(11;18)(q22.1;q12.2) segregated with hypertension and obesity. Clinical re-examination revealed that four carriers (age 50-77 years) have had hypertension for several years along with an increased body mass index (34-43 kg/m). A younger carrier (age 23 years) had normal blood pressure and body mass index. Mapping of the chromosomal breakpoints with mate-pair and Sanger sequencing revealed truncation of ARHGAP42. A decreased expression level of ARHGAP42 mRNA in the blood was found in the translocation carriers relative to controls and allele-specific expression analysis showed monoallelic expression in the translocation carriers, confirming that the truncated allele of ARHGAP42 was not expressed. These findings support that haploinsufficiency of ARHGAP42 leads to an age-dependent hypertension. The other breakpoint truncated a regulatory domain of the CUGBP Elav-like family member 4 (CELF4) gene on chromosome 18q12.2 that harbours several GWAS signals for obesity. We thereby provide additional support for an obesity locus in the CELF4 domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0382-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777610PMC
August 2019

Position effect, cryptic complexity, and direct gene disruption as disease mechanisms in de novo apparently balanced translocation cases.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(10):e0205298. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Cytogenetics and Genomics, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus.

The majority of apparently balanced translocation (ABT) carriers are phenotypically normal. However, several mechanisms were proposed to underlie phenotypes in affected ABT cases. In the current study, whole-genome mate-pair sequencing (WG-MPS) followed by Sanger sequencing was applied to further characterize de novo ABTs in three affected individuals. WG-MPS precisely mapped all ABT breakpoints and revealed three possible underlying molecular mechanisms. Firstly, in a t(X;1) carrier with hearing loss, a highly skewed X-inactivation pattern was observed and the der(X) breakpoint mapped ~87kb upstream an X-linked deafness gene namely POU3F4, thus suggesting an underlying long-range position effect mechanism. Secondly, cryptic complexity and a chromothripsis rearrangement was identified in a t(6;7;8;12) carrier with intellectual disability. Two translocations and a heterozygous deletion disrupted SOX5; a dominant nervous system development gene previously reported in similar patients. Finally, a direct gene disruption mechanism was proposed in a t(4;9) carrier with dysmorphic facial features and speech delay. In this case, the der(9) breakpoint directly disrupted NFIB, a gene involved in lung maturation and development of the pons with important functions in main speech processes. To conclude, in contrast to familial ABT cases with identical rearrangements and discordant phenotypes, where translocations are considered coincidental, translocations seem to be associated with phenotype presentation in affected de novo ABT cases. In addition, this study highlights the importance of investigating both coding and non-coding regions to decipher the underlying pathogenic mechanisms in these patients, and supports the potential introduction of low coverage WG-MPS in the clinical investigation of de novo ABTs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205298PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173455PMC
March 2019

De novo unbalanced translocations have a complex history/aetiology.

Hum Genet 2018 Oct 1;137(10):817-829. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

We investigated 52 cases of de novo unbalanced translocations, consisting in a terminally deleted or inverted-duplicated deleted (inv-dup del) 46th chromosome to which the distal portion of another chromosome or its opposite end was transposed. Array CGH, whole-genome sequencing, qPCR, FISH, and trio genotyping were applied. A biparental origin of the deletion and duplication was detected in 6 cases, whereas in 46, both imbalances have the same parental origin. Moreover, the duplicated region was of maternal origin in more than half of the cases, with 25% of them showing two maternal and one paternal haplotype. In all these cases, maternal age was increased. These findings indicate that the primary driver for the occurrence of the de novo unbalanced translocations is a maternal meiotic non-disjunction, followed by partial trisomy rescue of the supernumerary chromosome present in the trisomic zygote. In contrast, asymmetric breakage of a dicentric chromosome, originated either at the meiosis or postzygotically, in which the two resulting chromosomes, one being deleted and the other one inv-dup del, are repaired by telomere capture, appears at the basis of all inv-dup del translocations. Notably, this mechanism also fits with the origin of some simple translocations in which the duplicated region was of paternal origin. In all cases, the signature at the translocation junctions was that of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) rather than non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Our data imply that there is no risk of recurrence in the following pregnancies for any of the de novo unbalanced translocations we discuss here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-018-1941-9DOI Listing
October 2018

Cryptic breakpoint identified by whole-genome mate-pair sequencing in a rare paternally inherited complex chromosomal rearrangement.

Mol Cytogenet 2018 7;11:34. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

1Department of Cytogenetics and Genomics, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Background: Precise characterization of apparently balanced complex chromosomal rearrangements in non-affected individuals is crucial as they may result in reproductive failure, recurrent miscarriages or affected offspring.

Case Presentation: We present a family, where the non-affected father and daughter were found, using FISH and karyotyping, to be carriers of a three-way complex chromosomal rearrangement [t(6;7;10)(q16.2;q34;q26.1), de novo in the father]. The family suffered from two stillbirths, one miscarriage, and has a son with severe intellectual disability. In the present study, the family was revisited using whole-genome mate-pair sequencing. Interestingly, whole-genome mate-pair sequencing revealed a cryptic breakpoint on derivative (der) chromosome 6 rendering the rearrangement even more complex. FISH using a chromosome (chr) 6 custom-designed probe and a chr10 control probe confirmed that the interstitial chr6 segment, created by the two chr6 breakpoints, was translocated onto der(10). Breakpoints were successfully validated with Sanger sequencing, and small imbalances as well as microhomology were identified. Finally, the complex chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints disrupted the , , , and genes without causing any phenotype development.

Conclusions: In contrast to the majority of maternally transmitted complex chromosomal rearrangement cases, our study investigated a rare case where a complex chromosomal rearrangement, which most probably resulted from a Type IV hexavalent during the pachytene stage of meiosis I, was stably transmitted from a fertile father to his non-affected daughter. Whole-genome mate-pair sequencing proved highly successful in identifying cryptic complexity, which consequently provided further insight into the meiotic segregation of chromosomes and the increased reproductive risk in individuals carrying the specific complex chromosomal rearrangement. We propose that such complex rearrangements should be characterized in detail using a combination of conventional cytogenetic and NGS-based approaches to aid in better prenatal preimplantation genetic diagnosis and counseling in couples with reproductive problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-018-0384-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991433PMC
June 2018

Risks and Recommendations in Prenatally Detected De Novo Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements from Assessment of Long-Term Outcomes.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 06 24;102(6):1090-1103. Epub 2018 May 24.

Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark; Department of Clinical Genetics, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark. Electronic address:

The 6%-9% risk of an untoward outcome previously established by Warburton for prenatally detected de novo balanced chromosomal rearrangements (BCRs) does not account for long-term morbidity. We performed long-term follow-up (mean 17 years) of a registry-based nationwide cohort of 41 individuals carrying a prenatally detected de novo BCR with normal first trimester screening/ultrasound scan. We observed a significantly higher frequency of neurodevelopmental and/or neuropsychiatric disorders than in a matched control group (19.5% versus 8.3%, p = 0.04), which was increased to 26.8% upon clinical follow-up. Chromosomal microarray of 32 carriers revealed no pathogenic imbalances, illustrating a low prognostic value when fetal ultrasound scan is normal. In contrast, mate-pair sequencing revealed disrupted genes (ARID1B, NPAS3, CELF4), regulatory domains of known developmental genes (ZEB2, HOXC), and complex BCRs associated with adverse outcomes. Seven unmappable autosomal-autosomal BCRs with breakpoints involving pericentromeric/heterochromatic regions may represent a low-risk group. We performed independent phenotype-aware and blinded interpretation, which accurately predicted benign outcomes (specificity = 100%) but demonstrated relatively low sensitivity for prediction of the clinical outcome in affected carriers (sensitivity = 45%-55%). This sensitivity emphasizes the challenges associated with prenatal risk prediction for long-term morbidity in the absence of phenotypic data given the still immature annotation of the morbidity genome and poorly understood long-range regulatory mechanisms. In conclusion, we upwardly revise the previous estimates of Warburton to a morbidity risk of 27% and recommend sequencing of the chromosomal breakpoints as the first-tier diagnostic test in pregnancies with a de novo BCR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.04.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992120PMC
June 2018

Very short DNA segments can be detected and handled by the repair machinery during germline chromothriptic chromosome reassembly.

Hum Mutat 2018 05 20;39(5):709-716. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Biology and Medical Genetics, Charles University 2nd Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.

Analyses at nucleotide resolution reveal unexpected complexity of seemingly simple and balanced chromosomal rearrangements. Chromothripsis is a rare complex aberration involving local shattering of one or more chromosomes and reassembly of the resulting DNA segments. This can influence gene expression and cause abnormal phenotypes. We studied the structure and mechanism of a seemingly balanced de novo complex rearrangement of four chromosomes in a boy with developmental and growth delay. Microarray analysis revealed two paternal de novo deletions of 0.7 and 2.5 Mb at two of the breakpoints in 1q24.3 and 6q24.1-q24.2, respectively, which could explain most symptoms of the patient. Subsequent whole-genome mate-pair sequencing confirmed the chromothriptic nature of the rearrangement. The four participating chromosomes were broken into 29 segments longer than 1 kb. Sanger sequencing of all breakpoint junctions revealed additional complexity compatible with the involvement of different repair pathways. We observed translocation of a 33 bp long DNA fragment, which may have implications for the definition of the lower size limit of structural variants. Our observations and literature review indicate that even very small fragments from shattered chromosomes can be detected and handled by the repair machinery during germline chromothriptic chromosome reassembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23408DOI Listing
May 2018

Regulatory variants of FOXG1 in the context of its topological domain organisation.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 02 30;26(2):186-196. Epub 2017 Dec 30.

Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

FOXG1 syndrome is caused by FOXG1 intragenic point mutations, or by long-range position effects (LRPE) of intergenic structural variants. However, the size of the FOXG1 regulatory landscape is uncertain, because the associated topologically associating domain (TAD) in fibroblasts is split into two domains in embryonic stem cells (hESC). Indeed, it has been suggested that the pathogenetic mechanism of deletions that remove the stem-cell-specific TAD boundary may be enhancer adoption due to ectopic activity of enhancer(s) located in the distal hESC-TAD. Herein we map three de novo translocation breakpoints to the proximal regulatory domain of FOXG1. The classical FOXG1 syndrome in these and in other translocation patients, and in a patient with an intergenic deletion that removes the hESC-specific TAD boundary, do not support the hypothesised enhancer adoption as a main contributor to the FOXG1 syndrome. Also, virtual 4 C and HiC-interaction data suggest that the hESC-specific TAD boundary may not be critical for FOXG1 regulation in a majority of human cells and tissues, including brain tissues and a neuronal progenitor cell line. Our data support the importance of a critical regulatory region (SRO) proximal to the hESC-specific TAD boundary. We further narrow this critical region by a deletion distal to the hESC-specific boundary, associated with a milder clinical phenotype. The distance from FOXG1 to the SRO ( > 500 kb) highlight a limitation of ENCODE DNase hypersensitivity data for functional prediction of LRPE. Moreover, the SRO has little overlap with a cluster of frequently associating regions (FIREs) located in the proximal hESC-TAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-017-0011-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839045PMC
February 2018

Enrichment of megabase-sized DNA molecules for single-molecule optical mapping and next-generation sequencing.

Sci Rep 2017 12 20;7(1):17893. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Alle 14, Copenhagen, 2200, Denmark.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has caused a revolution, yet left a gap: long-range genetic information from native, non-amplified DNA fragments is unavailable. It might be obtained by optical mapping of megabase-sized DNA molecules. Frequently only a specific genomic region is of interest, so here we introduce a method for selection and enrichment of megabase-sized DNA molecules intended for single-molecule optical mapping: DNA from a human cell line is digested by the NotI rare-cutting enzyme and size-selected by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. For demonstration, more than 600 sub-megabase- to megabase-sized DNA molecules were recovered from the gel and analysed by denaturation-renaturation optical mapping. Size-selected molecules from the same gel were sequenced by NGS. The optically mapped molecules and the NGS reads showed enrichment from regions defined by NotI restriction sites. We demonstrate that the unannotated genome can be characterized in a locus-specific manner via molecules partially overlapping with the annotated genome. The method is a promising tool for investigation of structural variants in enriched human genomic regions for both research and diagnostic purposes. Our enrichment method could potentially work with other genomes or target specified regions by applying other genomic editing tools, such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18091-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5738345PMC
December 2017

Breakpoint mapping and haplotype analysis of translocation t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) in two apparently independent families with vascular phenotypes.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 01 23;6(1):56-68. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The risk of serious congenital anomaly for de novo balanced translocations is estimated to be at least 6%. We identified two apparently independent families with a balanced t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) as an outcome of a "Systematic Survey of Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Finns." In the first family, carriers (n = 6) manifest with learning problems in childhood, and later with unexplained neurological symptoms (chronic headache, balance problems, tremor, fatigue) and cerebral infarctions in their 50s. In the second family, two carriers suffer from tetralogy of Fallot, one from transient ischemic attack and one from migraine. The translocation cosegregates with these vascular phenotypes and neurological symptoms.

Methods And Results: We narrowed down the breakpoint regions using mate pair sequencing. We observed conserved haplotypes around the breakpoints, pointing out that this translocation has arisen only once. The chromosome 1 breakpoint truncates a CHRM3 processed transcript, and is flanked by the 5' end of CHRM3 and the 3' end of RYR2. TRHDE, KCNC2, and ATXN7L3B flank the chromosome 12 breakpoint.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates a balanced t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) with conserved haplotypes on the derived chromosomes. The translocation seems to result in vascular phenotype, with or without neurological symptoms, in at least two families. We suggest that the translocation influences the positional expression of CHRM3, RYR2, TRHDE, KCNC2, and/or ATXN7L3B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823676PMC
January 2018

Accurate Breakpoint Mapping in Apparently Balanced Translocation Families with Discordant Phenotypes Using Whole Genome Mate-Pair Sequencing.

PLoS One 2017 10;12(1):e0169935. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Department of Cytogenetics and Genomics, The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Familial apparently balanced translocations (ABTs) segregating with discordant phenotypes are extremely challenging for interpretation and counseling due to the scarcity of publications and lack of routine techniques for quick investigation. Recently, next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficacious methodology for precise detection of translocation breakpoints. However, studies so far have mainly focused on de novo translocations. The present study focuses specifically on familial cases in order to shed some light to this diagnostic dilemma. Whole-genome mate-pair sequencing (WG-MPS) was applied to map the breakpoints in nine two-way ABT carriers from four families. Translocation breakpoints and patient-specific structural variants were validated by Sanger sequencing and quantitative Real Time PCR, respectively. Identical sequencing patterns and breakpoints were identified in affected and non-affected members carrying the same translocations. PTCD1, ATP5J2-PTCD1, CADPS2, and STPG1 were disrupted by the translocations in three families, rendering them initially as possible disease candidate genes. However, subsequent mutation screening and structural variant analysis did not reveal any pathogenic mutations or unique variants in the affected individuals that could explain the phenotypic differences between carriers of the same translocations. In conclusion, we suggest that NGS-based methods, such as WG-MPS, can be successfully used for detailed mapping of translocation breakpoints, which can also be used in routine clinical investigation of ABT cases. Unlike de novo translocations, no associations were determined here between familial two-way ABTs and the phenotype of the affected members, in which the presence of cryptic imbalances and complex chromosomal rearrangements has been excluded. Future whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing will potentially reveal unidentified mutations in the patients underlying the discordant phenotypes within each family. In addition, larger studies are needed to determine the exact percentage for phenotypic risk in families with ABTs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169935PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225008PMC
August 2017

Loss of function of the retinoid-related nuclear receptor (RORB) gene and epilepsy.

Eur J Hum Genet 2016 12 29;24(12):1761-1770. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Human Genetics Laboratory, "Mina Minovici" National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bucharest, Romania.

Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), formerly known as idiopathic generalized epilepsy, is the most common form of epilepsy and is thought to have predominant genetic etiology. GGE are clinically characterized by absence, myoclonic, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with electroencephalographic pattern of bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical spike-and-wave discharges. Despite their strong heritability, the genetic basis of generalized epilepsies remains largely elusive. Nevertheless, recent advances in genetic technology have led to the identification of numerous genes and genomic defects in various types of epilepsies in the past few years. In the present study, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a family with GGE consistent with the diagnosis of eyelid myoclonia with absences. We found a nonsense variant (c.196C>T/p.(Arg66*)) in RORB, which encodes the beta retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor (RORβ), in four affected family members. In addition, two de novo variants (c.218T>C/p.(Leu73Pro); c.1249_1251delACG/p.(Thr417del)) were identified in sporadic patients by trio-based exome sequencing. We also found two de novo deletions in patients with behavioral and cognitive impairment and epilepsy: a 52-kb microdeletion involving exons 5-10 of RORB and a larger 9q21-microdeletion. Furthermore, we identified a patient with intellectual disability and a balanced translocation where one breakpoint truncates RORB and refined the phenotype of a recently reported patient with RORB deletion. Our data support the role of RORB gene variants/CNVs in neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, and especially in generalized epilepsies with predominant absence seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2016.80DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5117930PMC
December 2016

A germline chromothripsis event stably segregating in 11 individuals through three generations.

Genet Med 2016 05 27;18(5):494-500. Epub 2015 Aug 27.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Applied Human Molecular Genetics, Kennedy Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark.

Purpose: Parentally transmitted germ-line chromothripsis (G-CTH) has been identified in only a few cases. Most of these rearrangements were stably transmitted, in an unbalanced form, from a healthy mother to her child with congenital abnormalities probably caused by de novo copy-number changes of dosage sensitive genes. We describe a G-CTH transmitted through three generations in 11 healthy carriers.

Methods: Conventional cytogenetic analysis, mate-pair sequencing, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to identify the chromosome rearrangement and characterize the breakpoints in all three generations.

Results: We identified an apparently balanced translocation t(3;5), later shown to be a G-CTH, in all individuals of a three-generation family. The G-CTH stably segregated without occurrence of additional rearrangements; however, several spontaneous abortions were reported, possibly due to unbalanced transmission. Although seven protein-coding genes are interrupted, no clinical features can be definitively attributed to the affected genes. However, it can be speculated that truncation of one of these genes, encoding ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein kinase (ATR), a key component of the DNA damage response, may be related to G-CTH formation.

Conclusion: G-CTH rearrangements are not always associated with abnormal phenotypes and may be misinterpreted as balanced two-way translocations, suggesting that G-CTH is an underdiagnosed phenomenon.Genet Med 18 5, 494-500.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2015.112DOI Listing
May 2016

Shaping the landscape of the Escherichia coli chromosome: replication-transcription encounters in cells with an ectopic replication origin.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Sep 8;43(16):7865-77. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Division of Biosciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK

Each cell division requires the unwinding of millions of DNA base pairs to allow chromosome duplication and gene transcription. As DNA replication and transcription share the same template, conflicts between both processes are unavoidable and head-on collisions are thought to be particularly problematic. Surprisingly, a recent study reported unperturbed cell cycle progression in Escherichia coli cells with an ectopic replication origin in which highly transcribed rrn operons were forced to be replicated opposite to normal. In this study we have re-generated a similar strain and found the doubling time to be twice that of normal cells. Replication profiles of this background revealed significant deviations in comparison to wild-type profiles, particularly in highly transcribed regions and the termination area. These deviations were alleviated by mutations that either inactivate the termination area or destabilise RNA polymerase complexes and allow their easier displacement by replication forks. Our data demonstrate that head-on replication-transcription conflicts are highly problematic. Indeed, analysis of the replication profile of the previously published E. coli construct revealed a chromosomal rearrangement that alleviates replication-transcription conflicts in an intriguingly simple way. Our data support the idea that avoiding head-on collisions has significantly contributed to shaping the distinct architecture of bacterial chromosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4652752PMC
September 2015

Prenatal Screening for Aneuploidies Using QF-PCR and Karyotyping: A Comprehensive Study in Iranian Population.

Arch Iran Med 2015 May;18(5):296-303

Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.

Background: We have investigated the efficacy of QF-PCR for the prenatal recognition of common aneuploidy and compared our findings with cytogenetic results in our laboratories.

Methods: A total of 4058 prenatal samples (4031 amniotic fluid and 27 chorionic villous samples) were analyzed by QF-PCR using several selected STR markers together with amelogenin. Results were compared to those obtained by conventional cytogenetic analysis.

Results: We detected 139 (3.42%) numerical abnormalities in our subjects by QF-PCR. Concordant QF-PCR and karyotype results were obtained in 4001 (98.59%) of the samples. An abnormal karyotype associated with adverse clinical outcome undetected by QF-PCR was found in 16.66% (n = 28) of samples. Using QF-PCR alone, we were able to detect abnormalities in 98.59% of all referred families; however the karyotyping results improved the detection rate to 99.85% of the referred cases. Individuals with neonatal screening result with 1:10 risk ratio showed 11.29% abnormal karyotype while this number was 2.16% in mothers with risk ratio of 1:250 or less.

Conclusion: In countries where large scale conventional cytogenetic is hampered by its high cost and lack of technical expertise, QF-PCR may be used as the first line of screening for detection of chromosomal abnormalities. We also recommend QF-PCR for all the families that are seeking prenatal diagnosis of single gene disorders aneuploidies screening to be added to their work up.
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http://dx.doi.org/0151805/AIM.007DOI Listing
May 2015

Partial USH2A deletions contribute to Usher syndrome in Denmark.

Eur J Hum Genet 2015 Dec 25;23(12):1646-51. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Clinical Genetics Clinic, The Kennedy Center, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark.

Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital hearing impairment, progressive visual loss owing to retinitis pigmentosa and in some cases vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome is divided into three subtypes, USH1, USH2 and USH3. Twelve loci and eleven genes have so far been identified. Duplications and deletions in PCDH15 and USH2A that lead to USH1 and USH2, respectively, have previously been identified in patients from United Kingdom, Spain and Italy. In this study, we investigate the proportion of exon deletions and duplications in PCDH15 and USH2A in 20 USH1 and 30 USH2 patients from Denmark using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Two heterozygous deletions were identified in USH2A, but no deletions or duplications were identified in PCDH15. Next-generation mate-pair sequencing was used to identify the exact breakpoints of the two deletions identified in USH2A. Our results suggest that USH2 is caused by USH2A exon deletions in a small fraction of the patients, whereas deletions or duplications in PCDH15 might be rare in Danish Usher patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2015.54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4795208PMC
December 2015
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