Publications by authors named "Man-Jong Kang"

32 Publications

Select Porcine Elongation Factor 1α Sequences Mediate Stable High-Level and Upregulated Expression of Heterologous Genes in Porcine Cells in Response to Primate Serum.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Animal Biotechnology Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-gun 55365, Korea.

Genetically engineered (GE) pigs with various combinations of genetic profiles have been developed using heterologous promoters. This study aimed to identify autologous promoters for high and ubiquitous expression of xenotransplantation relevant genes in GE pigs. A 1.4 kb upstream regulatory sequence of porcine elongation factor 1α (pEF1α) gene was selected and isolated for use as a promoter. Activity of the pEF1α promoter was subsequently compared with that of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, CMV enhancer/chicken β-actin (CAG) promoter, and human EF1α (hEF1α) promoter in different types of pig-derived cells. Comparative analysis of luciferase and mutant human leukocyte antigen class E-F2A-β-2 microglobulin (HLA-E) expression driven by pEF1α, CMV, CAG, and hEF1α promoters revealed the pEF1α promoter mediated comparable expression levels with those of the CAG promoter in porcine ear skin fibroblasts (PEFs) and porcine kidney-15 (PK-15) cells, but lower than those of the CAG promoter in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs). The pEF1α promoter provided long-term stable HLA-E expression in PEFs, but the CAG promoter failed to sustain those levels of expression. For xenogeneic serum-induced cytotoxicity assays, the cells were cultured for several hours in growth medium supplemented with primate serum. Notably, the pEF1α promoter induced significant increases in luciferase and HLA-E expression in response to primate serum in PAECs compared with those driven by the CAG promoter, suggesting the pEF1α promoter could regulate temporal expression of heterologous genes under xenogeneic-cytotoxic conditions. These results suggest the pEF1α promoter may be valuable for development of GE pigs spatiotemporally and stably expressing immunomodulatory genes for xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12071046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304002PMC
July 2021

Relationship between DNA mismatch repair and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in in the bovine β-casein gene locus.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Objective: Efficient gene editing technology is critical for successful knock-in in domestic animals. RAD51 gene plays an important role in strand invasion during homologous recombination (HR) in mammals, and is regulated by CHK1 and CHK2 genes, which are upstream elements of RAD51. In addition, mismatch repair (MMR) system is inextricably linked to HR-related pathways and regulates HR via heteroduplex rejection. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in efficiency of human lactoferrin (hLF) knock-in vector in the bovine β-casein gene locus can be increased by suppressing DNA mismatch repair (MMR)-related genes (MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2) and overexpressing DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-related genes (RAD51, CHK1, CHK2).

Methods: MAC-T cells were transfected with a knock-in vector, RAD51, CHK1 or CHK2 overexpression vector and CRISPR/sgRNA expression vector to target the bovine β-casein gene locus, followed by treatment of the cells with CdCl2 for 24 hours. After 3 days of CdCl2 treatment, the knock-in efficiency was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mRNA expression levels of DNA MMR-related and DNA DSB repair-related genes were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR).

Results: Treatment with CdCl2 decreased the mRNA expression of RAD51 and MMR-related genes but did not increase the knock-in efficiency in MAC-T cells. Also, the overexpression of DNA DSB repair-related genes in MAC-T cells did not significantly affect the mRNA expression of MMR-related genes and failed to increase the knock-in efficiency.

Conclusion: Treatment with CdCl2 inhibited the mRNA levels of RAD51 and DNA MMR-related genes in MAC-T cells. However, the function of MMR pathway in relation to HR may differ in various cell types or species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0117DOI Listing
June 2021

Histone deacetylases inhibitor and RAD51 recombinase increase transcription activator-like effector nucleases-mediated homologous recombination on the bovine β-casein gene locus.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Jun 22;33(6):1023-1033. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Objective: The efficiency of the knock-in process is very important to successful gene editing in domestic animals. Recently, it was reported that transient loosening of the nucleosomal folding of transcriptionally inactive chromatin might have the potential to enhance homologous recombination efficiency. The objective of this study was to determine whether histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitor and RAD51 recombinase (RAD51) expression were associated with increased knock-in efficiency on the β-casein (bCSN2) gene locus in mammary alveolar-large T antigen (MAC-T) cells using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) system.

Methods: MAC-T cells were treated with HDAC inhibitors, valproic acid, trichostatin A, or sodium butyrate for 24 h, then transfected with a knock-in vector, RAD51 expression vector and TALEN to target the bCSN2 gene. After 3 days of transfection, the knock-in efficiency was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the target site.

Results: The level of HDAC 2 protein in MAC-T cells was decreased by treatment with HDAC inhibitors. The knock-in efficiency in MAC-T cells treated with HDAC inhibitors was higher than in cells not treated with inhibitors. However, the length of the homologous arm of the knock-in vector made no difference in the knock-in efficiency. Furthermore, DNA sequencing confirmed that the precision of the knock-in was more efficient in MAC-T cells treated with sodium butyrate.

Conclusion: These results indicate that chromatin modification by HDAC inhibition and RAD51 expression enhanced the homologous recombination efficiency on the bCSN2 gene locus in MAC-T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206376PMC
June 2020

Pear Extract and Malaxinic Acid Reverse Obesity, Adipose Tissue Inflammation, and Hepatosteatosis in Mice.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 07 9;63(14):e1801347. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Animal Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Scope: Obesity and diabetes are major public health problems and are emerging as pandemics. Considerable evidence suggests that pear fruit consumption is associated with a lower risk of obesity-related complications. Thus, the present study is conducted to investigate the therapeutic potential of pear extract (PE) for reversing obesity and associated metabolic complications in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Methods And Results: Obesity is induced in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet for 11 weeks. After the first 6 weeks on the diet, obese mice are administered vehicle or PE for 5 weeks. PE treatment decreases body weight gain, expands white adipose tissue (WAT), and causes hepatic steatosis in obese mice, as well as inhibits adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance are improved by PE. In addition, PE reduces macrophage infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory genes and deactivates mitogen-activated protein kinases in WAT. Finally, malaxinic acid is identified as an active component responsible for the anti-obesity effects of PE in mice.

Conclusion: The results demonstrate that PE supplementation ameliorates diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications and suggest the health-beneficial effects of both pear fruits and malaxinic acid in counteracting these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201801347DOI Listing
July 2019

Mito-TEMPO improves development competence by reducing superoxide in preimplantation porcine embryos.

Sci Rep 2018 07 4;8(1):10130. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Daegu University, 201 Daegudae-ro, Jillyang, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 38453, Republic of Korea.

Mito-TEMPO is a well-known mitochondria-specific superoxide scavenger. However, the effect of Mito-TEMPO on porcine embryo development, to our knowledge, has not been studied yet. In the present study, porcine embryos were classified into two groups (G1 and G2) based on the cytoplasm lipid contents at the zygote stage. The development of blastocysts derived from G2 zygotes was reduced (G2:16.2 ± 7.9% vs G1: 26.5 ± 5.9%; 1.6-fold, p < 0.05) compared to those from G1 zygotes. In G2 embryos, the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells was also higher than that of G1 embryos. Superoxide in G2 embryos was significantly increased compared to that in G1 embryos. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production were lower in G2 embryos than in G1 embryos. Phosphorylation of Drp1 at Ser 616 increased in G1 embryos during the cleavage stages compared to that in the zygote but was not significantly different in G2 embryos. Then, the effects of Mito-TEMPO were investigated in G2 embryos. Blastocyst formation rate (G2: 19.1 ± 5.1% vs G2 + Mito-TEMPO: 28.8 ± 4.0%; 1.5-fold, p < 0.05) and mitochondrial aggregation were recovered after superoxide reduction by Mito-TEMPO treatment. Thus, we showed that Mito-TEMPO improves blastocyst development by superoxide reduction in porcine embryos in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28497-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6031607PMC
July 2018

Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) Controls Morphine Reward by Glutamate Receptor Activation in the Nucleus Accumbens of Mouse Brain.

Mol Cells 2018 May 10;41(5):454-464. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and BK21 Plus Project Team, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Crosstalk between G-protein signaling and glutamatergic transmission within the brain reward circuits is critical for long-term emotional effects (depression and anxiety), cravings, and negative withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction. A previous study showed that Regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (RGS4) may be implicated in opiate action in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the mechanism of the NAc-specific RGS4 actions that induce the behavioral responses to opiates remains largely unknown. The present study used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knock-down of RGS4 in the NAc of the mouse brain to investigate the relationship between the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and RGS4 in the NAc during morphine reward. Additionally, the shRNA-mediated RGS4 knock-down was implemented in NAc/striatal primary-cultured neurons to investigate the role that striatal neurons have in the morphine-induced activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors. The results of this study show that the NAc-specific knockdown of RGS4 significantly increased the behaviors associated with morphine and did so by phosphorylation of the GluR1 (Ser831) and NR2A (Tyr1325) glutamate receptors in the NAc. Furthermore, the knock-down of RGS4 enhanced the phosphorylation of the GluR1 and NR2A glutamate receptors in the primary NAc/striatal neurons during spontaneous morphine withdrawal. These findings show a novel molecular mechanism of RGS4 in glutamatergic transmission that underlies the negative symptoms associated with morphine administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2018.0023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5974622PMC
May 2018

Melatonin improves the meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress during in vitro maturation.

J Pineal Res 2018 Mar 4;64(2). Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Daegu University, Jillyang, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, Korea.

Under endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress conditions, the unfolded protein response (UPR) generates a defense mechanism in mammalian cells. The regulation of UPR signaling is important in oocyte maturation, embryo development, and female reproduction of pigs. Recent studies have shown that melatonin plays an important role as an antioxidant to improve pig oocyte maturation. However, there is no report on the role of melatonin in the regulation of UPR signaling and ER-stress during in vitro maturation (IVM) of porcine oocytes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of melatonin on porcine oocyte maturation through the regulation of ER-stress and UPR signaling. We investigated the changes in the mRNA/protein expression levels of three UPR signal genes (Bip/Grp78, ATF4, P90/50ATF6, sXbp1, and CHOP) on oocytes, cumulus cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) during IVM (metaphase I; 22 hours and metaphase II; 44 hours) by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Treatment with the ER-stress inducer, tunicamycin (Tm), significantly increased expression of UPR markers. Additionally, cumulus cell expansion and meiotic maturation of oocytes were reduced in COCs of Tm-treated groups (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL). We confirmed the reducing effects of melatonin (0.1 μmol/L) on ER-stress after pretreatment with Tm (5 μg/mL; 22 hours) in maturing COCs. Addition of melatonin (0.1 μmol/L) to Tm-pretreated COCs recovered meiotic maturation rates and expression of most UPR markers. In conclusion, we confirmed a role for melatonin in the modulation of UPR signal pathways and reducing ER-stress during IVM of porcine oocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5814851PMC
March 2018

Investigation of the Developmental Potential and Developmental Kinetics of Bovine Parthenogenetic and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos Using a Time-Lapse Monitoring System.

Cell Reprogram 2017 08 26;19(4):245-254. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

1 Jeju National University Stem Cell Research Center , Seoul, Korea.

A time-lapse monitoring system has predictive value for selecting good-quality embryos with the highest implantation potential. Using this new tool, we investigated the developmental potential and developmental kinetics of bovine parthenogenetic (PA) and two types of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Bovine non-transgenic ear cells (bECs) or transgenic cells (bTGCs) were used as donor cells. The cleavage and blastocyst development rates did not significantly differ among the PA, NT-bEC, and NT-bTGC groups, and first cleavage occurred an average of 19.3 hours (n = 70), 21.6 hours (n = 60), and 21.3 hours (n = 62) after activation, respectively (20.4 hours [n = 192] for all embryos). When embryos were classified into early cleaving (≤20 hours) and late cleaving (>20 hours) groups, the blastocyst formation rate was much higher in the early cleaving groups (PA, 46%; NT-bEC, 50%; NT-bTGC, 39%) than in the late cleaving groups (PA, 18%; NT-bEC, 23%; NT-bTGC, 28%), while the percentage of embryos whose development was blocked between the two- and eight-cell stages was increased in the late cleaving groups. The percentage of embryos classified as early cleaving with a normal morphology was twofold higher in the PA group (20.0%, n = 14) than in the NT-bTGC group (9.7%, n = 6). The timing of each developmental stage varied widely; the timing of first cleavage varied from 7.6 hours in the PA group to 34.5 hours in the NT-bEC group and the timing of expanded/hatching blastocyst appearance varied from 141.6 hours in the PA group to 196.3 hours in the NT-bTGC group, differences of 26.9 and 54.7 hours, respectively (PA>NT-bEC>NT-bTGC). These results demonstrate that time-lapse monitoring provides novel data regarding individual embryo developmental kinetics and helps to predict developmental potential for improved bovine NT embryo selection based on early cleavage (≤20 hours) and normal morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2017.0003DOI Listing
August 2017

Native plants ( and ) extracts act as antioxidants to support developmental competence of bovine blastocysts.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Sep 23;30(9):1245-1252. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Engineering, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea.

Objective: () and () are closely involved in anti-oxidative response and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities. However, the effects of their extracts on development of preimplantation bovine embryos have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of and extracts on developmental competence and quality of preimplantation bovine embryos.

Methods: After fertilization, bovine embryos were cultured for 7 days in Charles Rosenkrans amino acid medium supplemented with (0.01 μg/mL) and (0.01 μg/mL). The effect of this supplementation during culture on development competence and antioxidant was investigated.

Results: We observed that the blastocysts rate was significantly increased (p<0.05) in (28.9%±2.9%), (30.9%±1.5%), and a mixture of and (34.8%± 2.1%) treated groups compared with the control group (25.4%±1.6%). We next confirmed that the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly decreased (p<0.01) in and/or extract treated groups when compared with the control group. Our results also showed that expression of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptotic cells of blastocysts were significantly decreased (p<0.05) in bovine blastocysts derived from both and extract treated embryos.

Conclusion: These results suggest that proper treatment with and extracts in the development of preimplantation bovine embryos improves the quality of blastocysts, which may be related to the reduction of ROS level and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582280PMC
September 2017

Generation of Fibroblasts Lacking the Sal-like 1 Gene by Using Transcription Activator-like Effector Nuclease-mediated Homologous Recombination.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2016 Apr 1;29(4):564-70. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea.

The Sal-like 1 gene (Sall1) is essential for kidney development, and mutations in this gene result in abnormalities in the kidneys. Mice lacking Sall1 show agenesis or severe dysgenesis of the kidneys. In a recent study, blastocyst complementation was used to develop mice and pigs with exogenic organs. In the present study, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated homologous recombination was used to produce Sall1-knockout porcine fibroblasts for developing knockout pigs. The vector targeting the Sall1 locus included a 5.5-kb 5' arm, 1.8-kb 3' arm, and a neomycin resistance gene as a positive selection marker. The knockout vector and TALEN were introduced into porcine fibroblasts by electroporation. Antibiotic selection was performed over 11 days by using 300 μg/mL G418. DNA of cells from G418-resistant colonies was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to confirm the presence of fragments corresponding to the 3' and 5' arms of Sall1. Further, mono- and bi-allelic knockout cells were isolated and analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results of our study indicated that TALEN-mediated homologous recombination induced bi-allelic knockout of the endogenous gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.15.0244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782092PMC
April 2016

Knock-in fibroblasts and transgenic blastocysts for expression of human FGF2 in the bovine β-casein gene locus using CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination.

Zygote 2016 Jun 22;24(3):442-56. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Animal Science,College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,Chonnam National University,Gwangju,Korea,Faculty of Biotechnology,College of Applied Life Sciences,Jeju National University,Jeju,Korea.

Many transgenic domestic animals have been developed to produce therapeutic proteins in the mammary gland, and this approach is one of the most important methods for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, expression and secretion of a protein varies because transgenes are integrated at random sites in the genome. In addition, distal enhancers are very important for transcriptional gene regulation and tissue-specific gene expression. Development of a vector system regulated accurately in the genome is needed to improve production of therapeutic proteins. The objective of this study was to develop a knock-in system for expression of human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the bovine β-casein gene locus. The F2A sequence was fused to the human FGF2 gene and inserted into exon 3 of the β-casein gene. We detected expression of human FGF2 mRNA in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells by RT-PCR and human FGF2 protein in the culture media using western blot analysis when the knock-in vector was introduced. We transfected the knock-in vector into bovine ear fibroblasts and produced knock-in fibroblasts using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. Moreover, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was more efficient than conventional methods. In addition, we produced knock-in blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the knock-in fibroblasts. Our knock-in fibroblasts may help to create cloned embryos for development of transgenic dairy cattle expressing human FGF2 protein in the mammary gland via the expression system of the bovine β-casein gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0967199415000374DOI Listing
June 2016

Knock-in of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein or/and Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Gene into β-Casein Gene Locus in the Porcine Fibroblasts to Produce Therapeutic Protein.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2014 Nov;27(11):1644-51

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea .

Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5' arm and 3' arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2014.14222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4213711PMC
November 2014

Glial activation with concurrent up-regulation of inflammatory mediators in trimethyltin-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

Acta Histochem 2014 Oct 26;116(8):1490-500. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Medical Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757, South Korea. Electronic address:

Trimethyltin (TMT), a potent neurotoxic chemical, causes dysfunction and neuroinflammation in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. The present study assessed TMT-induced glial cell activation and inflammatory cytokine alterations in the mouse hippocampus, BV-2 microglia, and primary cultured astrocytes. In the mouse hippocampus, TMT treatment significantly increased the expression of glial cell markers, including the microglial marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 and the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. The expression of M1 and M2 microglial markers (inducible nitric oxide synthase [iNOS] and CD206, respectively) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were significantly increased in the mouse hippocampus following TMT treatment. In BV-2 microglia, iNOS, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression increased significantly, whereas arginase-1 and CD206 expression decreased significantly after TMT treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In primary cultured astrocytes, iNOS, arginase-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression increased significantly, whereas IL-10 expression decreased significantly after TMT treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that significant up-regulation of pro-inflammatory signals in TMT-induced neurotoxicity may be associated with pathological processing of TMT-induced neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2014.09.003DOI Listing
October 2014

Hippocampal dysfunctions in tumor-bearing mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2014 Feb;36:147-55

Individuals with cancer are particularly susceptible to depression and cognitive impairment. However, the precise mechanisms underlying cancer-induced hippocampal dysfunction are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of a peripheral tumor on emotional behavior, hippocampus-dependent memory and associated molecular and cellular features using an experimental animal model. Behavioral alterations were examined; stress-related parameters measured; hippocampal neurogenesis evaluated; and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) assayed, 2 weeks after inoculation of adult BALB/c mice with cells of a colon carcinoma cell line (CT26). As the tumors developed, CT26-inoculated mice showed significant increases in the depression-like behavior (measured using the tail suspension test) and memory impairment (in terms of object recognition) compared with vehicle-inoculated controls. The presence of a peripheral tumor significantly elevated the hippocampal levels of mRNAs encoding interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as plasma IL-6 and corticosterone levels. Additionally, the adrenal glands became enlarged, and the numbers of Ki-67-positive proliferating hippocampal cells and doublecortin-positive immature progenitor neurons, as well as the constitutive levels of mRNAs encoding BDNF and COX-2 were significantly reduced. Therefore, a peripheral tumor alone may be sufficient to induce hippocampal dysfunction, possibly by reducing the rate of neurogenesis and the levels of BDNF and COX-2 in that tissue and also by increasing stress-related parameters and the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2013.10.022DOI Listing
February 2014

Nucleofection-mediated α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene inactivation and membrane cofactor protein expression for pig-to-primate xenotransplantation.

Anim Biotechnol 2013 ;24(4):253-67

a Animal Biotechnology Division , National Institute of Animal Science , RDA , Suwon , South Korea.

Xenotransplantation of pig organs into primates leads to hyperacute rejection (HAR). Functional ablation of the pig α 1,3-galactosyltransferase (GalT) gene, which abrogates expression of the Gal α 1-3Gal β 1-4GlcNAc-R (Gal) antigen, which inhibits HAR. However, antigens other than Gal may induce immunological rejection by their cognate antibody responses. Ultimately, overexpression of complement regulatory proteins reduces acute humoral rejection by non-Gal antibodies when GalT is ablated. In this study, we developed a vector-based strategy for ablation of GalT function and concurrent expression of membrane cofactor protein (MCP, CD46). We constructed an MCP expression cassette (designated as MCP-IRESneo) and inserted between the left and the right homologous arms to target exon 9 of the GalT gene. Nucleofection of porcine ear skin fibroblasts using the U-023 and V-013 programs resulted in high transfection efficiency and cell survival. We identified 28 clones in which the MCP-IRESneo vector had been successfully targeted to exon 9 of the GalT gene. Two of those clones, with apparent morphologically mitotic fibroblast features were selected through long-term culture. GalT gene expression was downregulated in these 2 clones. Importantly, MCP was shown to be efficiently expressed at the cell surface and to efficiently protect cell lysis against normal human complement serum attack in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2012.752741DOI Listing
March 2014

Production of biallelic CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase knock-out pigs.

Sci Rep 2013 ;3:1981

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea.

After the knock-out (KO) of α1,3 galactosyltransfease (Gal-T), the Hanganutziu-Deicher antigen became a major antigen of the "non-Gal antigen" that is implicated in subsequent xenograft rejection. For deletion of non-Gal antigen, we successfully produced zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated monoallelic/biallelic male and female CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) KO miniature pigs: the efficiency of the gene targeting (41.7%) was higher when donor DNA was used with the ZFN than those of ZFN alone (9.1%). Monoallelic KO pigs had no integration of exogenous DNA into their genome, indicating that this technique would provide a new avenue to reduce the risk of antibiotics resistance when organs from genetically modified pigs are transplanted into patients. Until now, both monoallelic and biallelic CMAH KO pigs are healthy and show no sign of abnormality and off-target mutations. Therefore, these CMAH null pigs on the Gal-T KO background could serve as an important model for the xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep01981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070623PMC
June 2014

Efficient generation of virus-free iPS cells using liposomal magnetofection.

PLoS One 2012 25;7(9):e45812. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Miraebio Research Institute, Mirae Biotech, Seoul, Korea.

The generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is a powerful tool in regenerative medicine, and advances in nanotechnology clearly have great potential to enhance stem cell research. Here, we introduce a liposomal magnetofection (LMF) method for iPS cell generation. Efficient conditions for generating virus-free iPS cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells were determined through the use of different concentrations of CombiMag nanoparticle-DNA(pCX-OKS-2A and pCX-cMyc)-lipoplexes and either one or two cycles of the LMF procedure. The cells were prepared in a short reprogramming time period (≤ 8 days, 0.032-0.040%). Among the seven LMF-iPS cell lines examined, two were confirmed to be integration-free, and an integration-free LMF-iPS cell line was produced under the least toxic conditions (single LMF cycle with a half-dose of plasmid). This cell line also displayed in vitro/in vivo pluripotency, including teratoma formation and chimeric mouse production. In addition, the safety of CombiMag-DNA lipoplexes for the transfection of MEF cells was confirmed through lactate dehydrogenase activity assay and transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrated that the LMF method is simple, effective, and safe. LMF may represent a superior technique for the generation of virus-free or integration-free iPS cell lines that could lead to enhanced stem cell therapy in the future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0045812PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3458059PMC
May 2013

Porcine Knock-in Fibroblasts Expressing hDAF on α-1,3-Galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) Gene Locus.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2012 Oct;25(10):1473-80

The Galactose-α1,3-galactose (α1,3Gal) epitope is responsible for hyperacute rejection in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF) is a cell surface regulatory protein that serves as a complement inhibitor to protect self cells from complement attack. The generation of α1,3-galactosyltransferase (GGTA1) knock-out pigs expressing DAF is a necessary step for their use as organ donors for humans. In this study, we established GGTA1 knock-out cell lines expressing DAF from pig ear fibroblasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer. hDAF expression was detected in hDAF knock-in heterozygous cells, but not in normal pig cells. Expression of the GGTA1 gene was lower in the knock-in heterozygous cell line compared to the normal pig cell. Knock-in heterozygous cells afforded more effective protection against cytotoxicity with human serum than with GGTA1 knock-out heterozygous and control cells. These cell lines may be used in the production of GGTA1 knock-out and DAF expression pigs for xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2012.12146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4093019PMC
October 2012

Regulation of OCT4 gene expression by liver receptor homolog-1 in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012 Oct 18;427(2):315-20. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-Do, South Korea.

We demonstrate the regulation of OCT4 gene expression mediated by liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) in human embryonic carcinoma cells. LRH-1 and OCT4 are co-expressed in undifferentiated NCCIT cells and decreased during retinoic acid-induced differentiation. Dose-dependent overexpression of LRH-1 transactivated the OCT4 promoter activity and its dominant negative form with a deletion of activation function-2 motif reduced the activity even in the presence of LRH-1. The OCT4 promoter contains potent three LRH-1 binding sites; one within conserved region (CR) 1 and two within CR2. Mutagenesis of each binding site affected the decrease in OCT4 promoter activity and the 2nd binding site mutant most significantly reduced the transcriptional activity, compared to that of 1st and 3rd binding site mutants, respectively. Simultaneous disruption of 2nd and 3rd binding sites led to significant down-regulation of the activity even in the presence of 1st binding site-containing CR1. Moreover, mutation of each binding element within native or exogenous minimal promoter-driven CR1 or CR2 also decreased the promoter activity to some different extent, suggesting that three binding elements may be implicated in the induction of the full-activity of OCT4 promoter. In vivo binding assay revealed the 2nd and 3rd binding motifs within CR2 were more enriched than the 1st one within CR1. Taken together, our study indicates that LRH-1 acts as a transcriptional activator in the regulation of OCT4 gene expression through the cooperative interaction with three binding sites directly or/and indirectly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.09.049DOI Listing
October 2012

α1,3-galactosyltransferase deficiency in germ-free miniature pigs increases N-glycolylneuraminic acids as the xenoantigenic determinant in pig-human xenotransplantation.

Cell Reprogram 2012 Aug 9;14(4):353-63. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we examined whether Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D) antigens are important as an immunogenic non-α1,3-galactose (Gal) epitope in pigs with a disrupted α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene. The targeting efficiency of the AO blood genotype was achieved (2.2%) in pig fibroblast cells. A total of 1800 somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos were transferred to 10 recipients. One recipient developed to term and naturally delivered two piglets. The α1,3-galactosyltransferase activity in lung, liver, spleen, and testis of heterozygote α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GalT-KO) pigs was significantly decreased, whereas brain and heart showed very low decreasing levels of α1,3-galactosyltransferase activity when compared to those of control. Enzyme-linked lectinosorbent assay showed that the heterozygote GalT-KO pig had more sialylα2,6- and sialylα2,3-linked glycan than the control. Furthermore, the heart, liver, and kidney of the heterozygote GalT-KO pig had a higher N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) content than the control, whereas the lung of the heterozygote GalT-KO pig had Neu5Gc content similar to the control. Collectively, the data strongly indicated that Neu5Gc is a more critical xenoantigen to overcoming the next acute immune rejection in pig to human xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2011.0083DOI Listing
August 2012

Cloning and Molecular Characterization of Porcine β-casein Gene (CNS2).

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2012 Mar;25(3):421-7

The production of therapeutic proteins from transgenic animals is one of the most important successes of animal biotechnology. Milk is presently the most mature system for production of therapeutic proteins from a transgenic animal. Specifically, β-casein is a major component of cow, goat and sheep milk, and its promoter has been used to regulate the expression of transgenic genes in the mammary gland of transgenic animals. Here, we cloned the porcine β-casein gene and analyzed the transcriptional activity of the promoter and intron 1 region of the porcine β-casein gene. Sequence inspection of the 5'-flanking region revealed potential DNA elements including SRY, CdxA, AML-a, GATA-3, GATA-1 and C/EBP β. In addition, the first intron of the porcine β-casein gene contained the transcriptional enhancers Oct-1, SRY, YY1, C/EBP β, and AP-1, as well as the retroviral TATA box. We estimated the transcriptional activity for the 5'-proximal region with or without intron 1 of the porcine β-casein gene in HC11 cells stimulated with lactogenic hormones. High transcriptional activity was obtained for the 5'-proximal region with intron 1 of the porcine β-casein gene. The β-casein gene containing the mutant TATA box (CATAAAA) was also cloned from another individual pig. Promoter activity of the luciferase vector containing the mutant TATA box was weaker than the same vector containing the normal TATA box. Taken together, these findings suggest that the transcription of porcine β-casein gene is regulated by lactogenic hormone via intron 1 and promoter containing a mutant TATA box (CATAAAA) has poor porcine β-casein gene activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4092958PMC
March 2012

Resurrection of an alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-targeted miniature pig by recloning using postmortem ear skin fibroblasts.

Theriogenology 2011 Mar 31;75(5):933-9. Epub 2010 Dec 31.

Department of Physiology, Dankook University School of Medicine, Cheonan 330-714, Korea.

Animals with a targeted disruption of genes can be produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, difficulties in clonal selection of somatic cells with a targeted mutation often result in heterogeneous nuclear donor cells, including gene-targeted and non-targeted cells, and impose a risk of producing undesired wildtype cloned animals after SCNT. In addition, the efficiency of cloning by SCNT has remained extremely low. Most cloned embryos die in utero, and the few that develop to term show a high incidence of postnatal death and abnormalities. In the present study, resurrection of an alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase (αGT) gene-targeted miniature pig by recloning using postmortem ear skin fibroblasts was attempted. Three cloned piglets were produced from the first round of SCNT, including one stillborn and two who died immediately after birth due to respiratory distress syndrome and cardiac dysfunction. Among the three piglets, two were confirmed to be αGT gene-targeted. Fibroblasts derived from postmortem ear skin biopsies were used as nuclear donor cells for the second round of SCNT, and a piglet was produced. As expected, PCR and Southern analyses confirmed that the piglet produced from recloning was αGT gene-targeted. Currently, the piglet is fourteen months of age, and no overt health problems have been observed. Results from the present study demonstrate that loss of an invaluable animal, such as a gene-targeted miniature pig, may be rescued by recloning, with assurance of the desired genetic modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.11.001DOI Listing
March 2011

Epigenetic signatures and temporal expression of lineage-specific genes in hESCs during differentiation to hepatocytes in vitro.

Hum Mol Genet 2011 Feb 8;20(3):401-12. Epub 2010 Nov 8.

Department of Biological Sciences and Center for Stem Cell Differentiation, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) maintain unique epigenetic states to maintain their pluripotency. Differentiation of ESCs into specialized cell types requires changes in these epigenetic states. However, the dynamics of epigenetic marks found in hESCs during differentiation are poorly understood. Here, we report the variation in the dynamics of epigenetic modifications associated with the expression of lineage-specific genes during differentiation of hESCs to hepatocytes in vitro. The promoter regions of pluripotency marker genes characterized by permissive histone marks such as trimethylation of H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and acetylation of H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in hESCs were instead enriched with repressive histone marks such as dimethylation of H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2), trimethylation of H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and trimethylation of H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) during differentiation to hepatocytes. Interestingly, expression of definitive endoderm marker genes containing bivalent and non-bivalent domains may be modulated by a marked reduction in H3K27me3 and a significant enhancement of permissive marks such as H3K4me3 and H3K9ac during hESC differentiation. Expression of hepatocyte marker genes regulated by histone modifications was similar to that of pluripotency marker genes. Our findings provide insight into the epigenetic mechanisms regulating expression of developmental genes. Of particular interest, they may be differentially regulated either in a bivalent or non-bivalent domain manner during hESC differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddq476DOI Listing
February 2011

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Feb 20;392(4):495-9. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

Department of Molecular and Biochemical Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.

Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. The beta-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3beta phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated beta-catenin. Nuclear beta-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the beta-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.049DOI Listing
February 2010

Molecular characterization and expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-10, a new member of the LDLR gene family.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Jan 11;391(1):1110-5. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

Department of Molecular and Biochemical Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan.

We report the characterization of a new member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene family designated LRP10. Human LRP10 cDNA encodes a 1905 amino acid type I membrane protein consisting of five functional domains characteristic of the LDLR gene family. CHO-ldlA7 cells transfected with human LRP10 cDNA bound LDLR-associated protein, but not beta-VLDL and HDL. Human LRP10 transcripts were primarily found in the brain, muscle and heart. In situ hybridization of the rat brain showed that the transcripts were intensely present in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, choroid plexus, ependyma and granular layer. In the developing rat brain, transcript levels gradually increased from postnatal day 1 to 20. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that LRP10 was observed in the ventricular zone of the embryonic day 14.5 mouse cerebral cortex. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may play a significant role in the brain physiology other than lipoprotein metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.12.033DOI Listing
January 2010

Inheritable histone H4 acetylation of somatic chromatins in cloned embryos.

J Biol Chem 2006 Mar 21;281(9):6048-57. Epub 2005 Dec 21.

Laboratory of Development and Differentiation, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 52 Eoeun-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-806, Korea.

A viable cloned animal indicates that epigenetic status of the differentiated cell nucleus is reprogrammed to an embryonic totipotent state. However, molecular events regarding epigenetic reprogramming of the somatic chromatin are poorly understood. Here we provide new insight that somatic chromatins are refractory to reprogramming of histone acetylation during early development. A low level of acetylated histone H4-lysine 5 (AcH4K5) of the somatic chromatin was sustained at the pronuclear stage. Unlike in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos, the AcH4K5 level remarkably reduced at the 8-cell stage in cloned bovine embryos. The AcH4K5 status of somatic chromatins transmitted to cloned and even recloned embryos. Differences of AcH4K5 signal intensity were more distinguishable in the metaphase chromosomes between IVF and cloned embryos. Two imprinted genes, Ndn and Xist, were aberrantly expressed in cloned embryos as compared with IVF embryos, which is partly associated with the AcH4K5 signal intensity. Our findings suggest that abnormal epigenetic reprogramming in cloned embryos may be because of a memory mechanism, the epigenetic status itself of somatic chromatins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M511340200DOI Listing
March 2006

Differential DNA methylation reprogramming of various repetitive sequences in mouse preimplantation embryos.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Nov;324(1):58-63

Laboratory of Development and Differentiation, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), P.O. Box 115, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600, Republic of Korea.

Genome-wide changes of DNA methylation by active and passive demethylation processes are typical features during preimplantation development. Here we provide an insight that epigenetic reprogramming of DNA methylation is regulated in a region-specific manner, not a genome-wide fashion. To address this hypothesis, methylation states of three repetitive genomic regions were monitored at various developmental stages in the mouse embryos. Active demethylation was not observed in the IAP sequences whereas methylation reprogramming of the satellite sequences was regulated only by the active mechanism. Etn elements were actively demethylated after fertilization, passively demethylated by the 8-cell stage, and de novo methylated at the morular and blastocyst stages, showing dynamic epigenetic changes. Thus, our findings suggest that the specific genomic regions or sequences may spatially/temporally have their unique characteristics in the reprogramming of the DNA methylation during preimplantation development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.023DOI Listing
November 2004

Effects of ginsenoside on G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ channel activity expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

Eur J Pharmacol 2003 May;468(2):83-92

Department of Physiology, Research Laboratory for the Study of Ginseng Signal Transduction, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea

Recently, we provided evidence that ginsenoside, the active component of Panax ginseng, uses the pertussis toxin-insensitive Galpha(q/11)-phospholipase C-beta3 signal transduction pathway to increase Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents in the Xenopus oocyte. Other investigators have shown that stimulation of receptors linked to the Galpha(q)-phospholipase C pathway inhibits the activity of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels. In the present study, we sought to determine whether ginsenoside influenced the activity of GIRK 1 and GIRK 4 (GIRK 1/4) channels expressed in the Xenopus oocyte, and if so, the underlying signal transduction mechanism. In oocytes injected with GIRK 1/4 channel cRNA, bath-applied ginsenoside inhibited the high K(+) solution-elicited GIRK current (EC(50): 4.9+/-4.3 microg/ml). Pretreatment of the oocyte with pertussis toxin reduced the high K(+) solution-elicited GIRK current by 49%, but it did not alter the inhibitory effect of ginsenoside on the GIRK current. Prior intraoocyte injection of cRNA(s) coding Galpha(q), Galpha(11) or Galpha(q)/Galpha(11), but not Galpha(i2) or Galpha(oA), attenuated the inhibitory ginsenoside effect. Injection of cRNAs coding Gbeta(1)gamma(2) also attenuated the ginsenoside effect. Preincubation of GIRK channel-expressing oocytes with phospholipase C inhibitor, [1-[6-((17b-3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino)hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione] (U73122), or protein kinase C inhibitor, staurosporine or chelerythrine, blocked the inhibitory ginsenoside effect on the GIRK current. Intraoocyte injection of bis (o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetracetic acid (BAPTA), a free Ca(2+) chelator, had no significant effect on the action of ginsenoside. Taken together, these results suggest that ginsenoside inhibits the activity of the GIRK 1/4 channel expressed in the Xenopus oocyte through a pertussis toxin-insensitive and Galpha(q/11)-, phospholipase C- and protein kinase C-mediated signal transduction pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-2999(03)01666-2DOI Listing
May 2003

Repression of HPV E6-activated RSV promoter activity by anti-cancer agents.

Antiviral Res 2003 Mar;58(1):65-71

Cellular Biology Laboratory, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejon 305-600, South Korea.

Human papillomavirus E6 forms a complex with p53 tumor suppressor and E6-associated protein, leading to the degradation of p53 via the ubiquitination pathway, resulting in the oncogenesis of cervical carcinomas. Several viral and cellular gene promoters were shown to be transactivated by E6 oncogene. In this study, to understand the role of transcription activity of E6 related to cervical carcinogenesis, the effect of cervical cancer drugs on E6 induced transcription activity has been elucidated. Several viral promoter (RSV, CMV, SV40, and HIV)-luciferase reporter gene constructs, and eukaryotic E6 expression vector were prepared as an E6 transcription analysis system and an exogenous E6 protein source, respectively. It was shown that the promoters of RSV, SV40, and HIV, but not CMV, were transactivated by HPV 16 E6 in cervical cancer cell line. Several known cervical cancer drugs were investigated for their effects on transcription activity of E6 in SiHa stably transfected with E6-responsive promoters. Cervical cancer drugs consistently reduced luciferase activity, in transfectants with RSV-luc (SiHa/pRSV-luc, KCTC 0427BP) E6 mRNA also. Thus, in this study, we have demonstrated that the promoters of RSV, HIV, and SV40 were transactivated by E6 in cervical cancer cells. Three cervical cancer drugs downregulated RSV-luc transcription and E6 expression by a p53 independent pathway. RSV-luc promoter analysis system could be useful for understanding the role of transcription activity of E6 related to cervical cancer and also for screening drugs against cervical cancers caused by HPV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0166-3542(02)00190-0DOI Listing
March 2003

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) is essential for normal cholesterol metabolism and glucose-induced insulin secretion.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2003 Jan 30;100(1):229-34. Epub 2002 Dec 30.

Gene Research Center and Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology, and Vascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.

A Wnt coreceptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) plays an essential role in bone accrual and eye development. Here, we show that LRP5 is also required for normal cholesterol and glucose metabolism. The production of mice lacking LRP5 revealed that LRP5 deficiency led to increased plasma cholesterol levels in mice fed a high-fat diet, because of the decreased hepatic clearance of chylomicron remnants. In addition, when fed a normal diet, LRP5-deficient mice showed a markedly impaired glucose tolerance. The LRP5-deficient islets had a marked reduction in the levels of intracellular ATP and Ca(2+) in response to glucose, and thereby glucose-induced insulin secretion was decreased. The intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production in response to glucose was also reduced in LRP5-- islets. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a marked reduction of various transcripts for genes involved in glucose sensing in LRP5-- islets. Furthermore, exposure of LRP5++ islets to Wnt-3a and Wnt-5a stimulates glucose-induced insulin secretion and this stimulation was blocked by the addition of a soluble form of Wnt receptor, secreted Frizzled-related protein-1. In contrast, LRP5-deficient islets lacked the Wnt-3a-stimulated insulin secretion. These data suggest that WntLRP5 signaling contributes to the glucose-induced insulin secretion in the islets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0133792100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC140935PMC
January 2003
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