Publications by authors named "Mamed Kadyrov"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effects of Nrf2 deletion on placental morphology and exchange capacity in the mouse.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2017 Sep 3;30(17):2068-2073. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

a Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology , RWTH Aachen University Hospital , Aachen , Germany.

Objectives: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined as a pathological decreased fetal growth. Oxidative stress has been connected to the restriction in the fetal growth. The transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant response. The effect Nrf2 on fetal-placental development has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Here, we evaluated the placental and fetal growth in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) and Nrf2-wild type mice (Nrf2-WT) throughout pregnancy.

Methods: Heterozygote Nrf2 (Nrf2) mice were paired to get Nrf2-KO and Nrf2-WT in the litters. Placentae and embryos from both genotypes were collected and weighed on days 13.5, 15.5 and 18.5 post coitum. The absolute volumes of the labyrinth zone and the total volume of the placenta were determined using the Cavalieri principle.

Results: On E 18.5 the fetal weight in Nrf2-KO was significantly reduced versus Nrf2-WT indicating a decrease in placental efficiency. A significant reduction in both total and labyrinth-volume in the placenta of Nrf2-KO mice was observed.

Conclusion: This data points out the necessity of functional Nrf2 for fetal and placental growth. A deficiency in Nrf2 signaling may negatively affect nutrient transfer capacity which is then no longer able to meet fetal growth demands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2016.1236251DOI Listing
September 2017

Corrigendum to "Enoxaparin Prevents Steroid-Related Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head".

ScientificWorldJournal 2015 26;2015:264241. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany ; Department of Orthopaedic and Spine Surgery, AGAPLESION EV. BATHILDISKRANKENHAUS gemeinnützige GmbH, Maulbeerallee 4, 31812 Bad Pyrmont, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/264241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550074PMC
January 2016

Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock.

Mediators Inflamm 2015 1;2015:132451. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/132451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461787PMC
June 2016

Enoxaparin prevents steroid-related avascular necrosis of the femoral head.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 2;2014:347813. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany ; Department of Orthopaedic and Spine Surgery, AGAPLESION EV. BATHILDISKRANKENHAUS gemeinnützige GmbH, Maulbeerallee 4, 31812 Bad Pyrmont, Germany.

Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is still a challenging problem in orthopedic surgery. It is responsible for 10% of the 500,000 hip replacement surgeries in the USA and affects relatively young, active patients in particular. Main reasons for nontraumatic osteonecrosis are glucocorticoid use, alcoholism, thrombophilia, and hypofibrinolysis (Glueck et al., 1997; Orth and Anagnostakos, 2013). One pathomechanism of steroid-induced osteonecrosis is thought to be impaired blood flow to the femoral head caused by increased thrombus formation and vasoconstriction. To investigate the preventive effect of enoxaparin on steroid-related osteonecrosis, we used male New Zealand white rabbits. Osteonecrosis was induced by methylprednisolone-injection (1 × 20 mg/kg body weight). Control animals were treated with phosphate-buffered saline. Treatment consisted of an injection of 11.7 mg/kg body weight of enoxaparin per day (Clexane) in addition to methylprednisolone. Four weeks after methylprednisolone-injection the animals were sacrificed. Histology (hematoxylin-eosin and Ladewig staining) was performed, and empty lacunae and histological signs of osteonecrosis were quantified. Histomorphometry revealed a significant increase in empty lacunae and necrotic changed osteocytes in glucocorticoid-treated animals as compared with the glucocorticoid- and Clexane-treated animals and with the control group. No significant difference was detected between the glucocorticoid and Clexane group and the control group. This finding suggests that cotreatment with enoxaparin has the potential to prevent steroid-associated osteonecrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/347813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4106066PMC
April 2015

A possible protective role of Nrf2 in preeclampsia.

Ann Anat 2014 Sep 27;196(5):268-77. Epub 2014 May 27.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Aachen, Germany. Electronic address:

Excess release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major cause of oxidative stress. This disturbance has been implicated as a cause of preeclampsia, a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Increased oxidative stress leads to trophoblast apoptosis/necrosis and alters the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, resulting in generalized maternal endothelial dysfunction. Trials using antioxidants have significantly failed to improve the condition of, or in any way protect, the mother from the life-threatening complications of this syndrome. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a potent transcription activator that regulates the expression of a multitude of genes that encode detoxification enzymes and anti-oxidative proteins. Recent discussion on evidence of a link between Nrf2 and vascular angiogenic balance has focussed on the downstream target protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 metabolizes heme to biliverdin, iron and carbon monoxide (CO). HO-1/CO protects against hypertensive cardiovascular disease and contributes to the sustained health of the vascular system. In one animal model, sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) has induced blood pressure elevation, but the induction of HO-1 attenuated the hypertensive response in the pregnant animals. The special conditions under which Nrf2 participates in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia are still unclear, as is whether Nrf2 attenuates or stimulates the processes involved in this syndrome. In this review, we summarize recent theories about how Nrf2 is involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and present the reasons for considering Nrf2 as a therapeutic target for the treatment of preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2014.04.002DOI Listing
September 2014

PP019. A new player in preeclampsia: The NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2).

Pregnancy Hypertens 2013 Apr 6;3(2):74. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Introduction: Preeclampsia PE is characterized by diminished antioxidant capacity. These enzymes are mainly regulated via the transcription factor Nrf2.

Objectives: PE is associated with an increase in Nrf2 activity. Nrf2 involves also in the vascular homeostasis during PE. Respective hemodisturbances have been associated with impaired invasion of the extravillous trophoblast EVT in early onset IUGR associated with PE. To test this link, we studied in vitro the interaction between Nrf2 and VEGF, then their expression was determined in third trimester placental beds in cases of severe early onset IUGR/PE.

Methods: BeWo cells were used in the in vitro study.Western blot; ELISA and Dual Luciferase assay were applied. Full-thickness uterine tissues from 6 healthy and 6 women with severe early onset IUGR/PE were used to study the expression of VEGF, Nrf2 and 4-HNE in the EVT.

Results: Nrf2-activation and its downstream target protein HO-1 augmented CO production, which in turn up-regulated the expression of VEGF. EVT in cases with IUGR/PE showed increased expression of Nrf2 and decreased VEGF intensity.

Conclusion: In early onset IUGR/PE the EVT experience oxidative stress and try to counteract this by increased expression of Nrf2. However, since these cells fail to up-regulate VEGF, Nrf2-activation does not occur, leading to further trophoblast damage. At the same time, in vitro data show a protective role of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which may have a therapeutic potential in PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.preghy.2013.04.047DOI Listing
April 2013

A role for Nrf2 in redox signalling of the invasive extravillous trophoblast in severe early onset IUGR associated with preeclampsia.

PLoS One 2012 9;7(10):e47055. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Germany.

Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by increased lipid oxidation and diminished antioxidant capacity, while intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is characterized by impaired invasion of the extravillous trophoblast. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to be altered in preeclampsia. A relationship between VEGF and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) has been shown in vitro, where VEGF prevents oxidative damage via activation of the Nrf2 pathway. In this study the expression of Nrf2, VEGF and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), was determined in interstitial and endovascular/intramural extravillous trophoblast (EVT) in normal pregnancies and those complicated by severe early onset IUGR associated with preeclampsia IUGR/PE.

Materials And Methods: Full-thickness uterine tissues derived from caesarean hysterectomies performed in 5 healthy normotensive women delivering term infants and 6 women with severe early onset IUGR with preeclampsia (29-34 weeks gestation) were analyzed. Interstitial and endovascular extravillous trophoblast were quantified after immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections using antibodies against Nrf2, 4-HNE, VEGF, and cytokeratin 7.

Results: Uterine tissues from women suffering from severe early onset IUGR/PE were characterized by reduced invasion of extravillous trophoblast into the endometrial and myometrial segments of spiral arteries in the placental bed. Extravillous trophoblast showed an increased cytoplasmic expression of Nrf2 and 4-HNE in IUGR/PE cases. The increased expression of Nrf2 in cases of IUGR/PE was associated with decreased expression of VEGF in these cells compared to controls.

Conclusion: Our data suggests that besides villous cytotrophoblast, also the extravillous trophoblast is a source of Nrf2-dependent genes. VEGF deficiency may cause higher oxidative stress in extravillous trophoblast in cases with IUGR/PE. The resulting reduced basal defence against oxidative stress and the higher vulnerability to oxidative damage may play a role in the limited trophoblast invasion into spiral arteries in cases suffering from severe early onset IUGR/PE.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047055PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3467234PMC
May 2013

Impact of Nrf2 on esophagus epithelium cornification.

Int J Dermatol 2011 Nov;50(11):1362-5

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical Faculty, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Background: Nrf2 is a transcription factor that is known to maintain cellular defense against the toxicity of electrophiles and reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Methods: We show an effect of Nrf2 deficiency on the histology of the esophagus of Nrf2 knockout mice.

Results: Quantitative analysis of esophageal cornification via hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed significantly (P=0.0127) decreased stratification in Nrf2 knockout mice compared with wild-type controls. In addition, we show that Nrf2 is expressed solely in the stratum spinosum and not in the stratum basale of the epidermis. This expression pattern is exactly the same as those described for keratin K6 and K16.

Conclusions: We conclude that Nrf2 regulates the cornification of epithelia and may play a role in callus formation and wound healing of the skin, as well as in skin aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.04989.xDOI Listing
November 2011

Forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells stimulates increased tumor growth in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) egg.

Ann Anat 2011 May 10;193(3):220-3. Epub 2011 Mar 10.

Department of Anatomy II, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Invasiveness of BeWo cells has been assessed in a variety of assay systems including matrigel and mouse. At the same time BeWo cells are mostly used as model system for trophoblast fusion. Here we aimed to test the properties of BeWo cells in a combined approach. We forced BeWo cells to differentiate by culturing the cells in the presence of forskolin and then used these cells for invasion assays on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of the turkey. The chorioallantoic membranes of turkey eggs were incubated with medium containing forskolin, BeWo cells cultured in medium alone, BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and washed, and BeWo cells cultured in forskolin and used directly for application. Suspensions were applied onto ten CAM per condition. For local tumor formation eggs were checked for tumor development every 24h macroscopically for up to 12 days and immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 18 and Ki-67 were used for further analysis. Forskolin alone did not have any deleterious effect on the CAM. When the CAM was incubated with BeWo cells cultured in medium 40% of the eggs developed a macroscopically visible tumor. BeWo cells stimulated with forskolin and washed induced tumor growth in 50% of the eggs, while forskolin stimulated BeWo cells applied directly onto the CAM induced tumor growth in 70% of the eggs. Forced differentiation of BeWo cells by forskolin may lead to syncytial fusion in a plastic culture dish. Under the conditions used here, i.e. in direct contact to a living tissue, forskolin-induced differentiation of BeWo cells leads to an increase in tumor formation in the CAM. Thus BeWo cells may use signaling pathways to decide for both differentiation pathways similar to primary trophoblast depending on the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2011.02.007DOI Listing
May 2011

Role of a fetal defence mechanism against oxidative stress in the aetiology of preeclampsia.

Histopathology 2009 Jul;55(1):102-6

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Aims: Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress may play a key role in the aetiology of preeclampsia (PE). The aim of this study was to elucidate the placental defence mechanisms employed against oxidative stress and, in particular, the specific role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2).

Methods And Results: Expression of Nrf2 in third-trimester placental tissue was compared in preeclamptic and normal gestation-matched controls. PE was associated with increased Nrf2 activity within cytotrophoblastic nuclei. Nrf2 expression was restricted to proliferative and early post-proliferative cytotrophoblast only. Syncytiotrophoblast was immunonegative for Nrf2 in both controls and preeclamptic placentas.

Conclusions: Nrf2 is exclusively active within cytotrophoblast, strongly suggesting that these cells are the origin of Nrf2-dependent gene products. Syncytiotrophoblast is transcriptionally inactive; therefore in times of oxidative stress essential cytoprotective enzymes must be derived from the cytotrophoblast. Excessive cytotrophoblastic turnover causes disproportionate release of toxic placental factors, manifesting as PE and endangering maternal health. Increased cytotrophoblastic proliferation/fusion could thus be interpreted as a fetal defence mechanism, initiated in response to the requirements of vulnerable syncytiotrophoblast. We therefore propose a direct relationship between fetal defence against oxidative stress and consequent placental toxicity as part of the aetiology of this complex maternal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2559.2009.03339.xDOI Listing
July 2009

Proliferative responses in the placenta after endotoxin exposure in preterm fetal sheep.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008 Jun 17;138(2):152-7. Epub 2007 Oct 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Objectives: Antenatal infections are associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Systemic application of endotoxins to the fetus results in an increase in placental vascular resistance and chronic reduction in umbilical blood flow. We studied morphological alterations of the placenta in response to fetal inflammation in the preterm sheep.

Study Design: Therefore, 14 fetal sheep were chronically instrumented at a mean gestational age of 107+/-1 days (term is 147 days). Four days after surgery fetuses received 100 ng lipopolysaccharide (LPS; n=8) or saline (control; n=6) intravenously. Fetal heart rate and arterial blood pressure were monitored continuously while blood gases and acid-base balance were measured at time points 0, +1, +3, +6, +12, +24, +48 and +72 h. Three days after LPS application placental cotyledons were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and morphometry. Different primary antibodies like AE 1 and AE 3 against cytokeratins were used. Secondary antibodies were visualized with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) or using the Vectastain kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Double staining was carried out first by utilizing Vectastain kit (black), followed by AEC staining (red). Counterstaining was performed with haematoxylin.

Results: Fetal tachycardia and hypertension were induced transiently during the first 12h after LPS application. Fetuses suffered from mild hypoxaemia while acidemia was absent. Morphometry revealed a non-significant shift in the relation of maternal and fetal placental compartments towards the maternal parts in response to LPS treatment. Endotoxin induced an increased proliferation in both compartments of the placenta with a 3.2-fold increase on the maternal and a 1.8-fold increase on the fetal side.

Conclusions: Systemic endotoxin exposure of the preterm fetal sheep leads to a change in the gross organization of the placenta and changes in the proliferation patterns in both placental compartments. These rearrangements inside the placenta may disturb its organ function and subsequently lead to fetal morbidity associated with the fetal inflammatory response syndrome and chronic placental dysfunction, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2007.08.016DOI Listing
June 2008

Expression of the actin stress fiber-associated protein CLP36 in the human placenta.

Histochem Cell Biol 2006 Oct 12;126(4):465-71. Epub 2006 Apr 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital RWTH, Aachen, Germany.

Differentiation processes in the trophoblast comprise polarization, cell fusion and migration. All these processes involve dramatic reorganizations of cytoskeletal proteins such as intermediate filaments or actin. Due to very restricted knowledge on cytoskeletal changes in trophoblast, we analyzed the protein expression of an actin stress fiber-associated protein, the carboxy-terminal LIM domain protein (CLP36). CLP36 belongs to the enigma family of proteins, binds to alpha-actinin and is involved in the cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction of a variety of cells. CLP36 protein was found to be exclusively expressed in the cytotrophoblast layer. Colocalization of CLP36 with Mib-1 revealed that CLP36 protein expression is restricted to proliferative and early post-proliferative trophoblast cells. Blockage of syncytial fusion by culture of villous explants in the presence of caspase 8 inhibitors further supported this notion since CLP36 was only found in the basal and proliferative layer of the multilayered cytotrophoblast. We present evidence for the exclusive protein expression of CLP36 in proliferative and early post-proliferative trophoblast cells. Pathological pregnancy syndromes such as preeclampsia are driven by alterations of trophoblast differentiation and turnover, where it needs to be elucidated whether CLP36 is involved in these alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-006-0182-5DOI Listing
October 2006

Apoptosis and its role in the trophoblast.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006 Jul 31;195(1):29-39. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

Department of Anatomy II, University Hospital RWTH, Aachen, Germany.

During early placentation the trophoblast of the human placenta differentiates to the villous and extravillous types of trophoblast. Villous trophoblast provides the epithelial cover of the placental villous trees in direct contact to maternal blood. Extravillous trophoblast invades maternal uterine tissues thus directly contacting maternal stromal and immune cells. A subset of extravillous trophoblast, endovascular trophoblast initially occludes the lumen of spiral arteries and comes into direct contact with maternal blood. In recent years apoptosis has been described in both types of trophoblast and the importance of this cascade for the normal function of the trophoblast has become obvious. One feature of serious conditions such as preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction is changes in apoptosis regulation in villous and/or extravillous trophoblast resulting in altered trophoblast invasion and/or shedding into the maternal circulation. This review summarizes recent findings on trophoblast apoptosis in normal and pathologic pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.07.039DOI Listing
July 2006

Divergent trophoblast invasion and apoptosis in placental bed spiral arteries from pregnancies complicated by maternal anemia and early-onset preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006 Feb;194(2):557-63

Department of Anatomy II, University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Objective: Impaired trophoblast invasion into spiral arteries is associated with early-onset intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. We compared trophoblast invasion into spiral arteries in pregnancies with maternal anemia or early-onset preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction and related these findings to trophoblast apoptosis.

Study Design: Full-thickness uterine wall samples were obtained from women with early-onset preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction (n = 6), normal pregnancies (n = 5), and chronic anemia (n = 8). Trophoblast invasion into the walls of spiral arteries was quantified by morphometric analysis of paraffin sections stained with anticytokeratin 18, antiactin, and anticytokeratin 18 neoepitope (M30) antibodies.

Results: Trophoblast invasion into spiral arteries was increased in anemic pregnancies (mean [SD]: 206 [46] cell profiles/mm2) and severely impaired in preeclamptic/intrauterine growth restriction pregnancies (17 [6]), compared with normal subjects (149 [52]). Spiral artery lumen area was increased in anemia (0.07 [0.03] mm2) versus normal pregnancies (0.09 [0.04] mm2) and reduced in preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction (0.04 [0.02] mm2). Trophoblast apoptosis was similar in anemic (4.2% [3.4%]) and normal (5.0% [1.9%]) pregnancies but increased in preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction (12% [5.6%]).

Conclusion: Trophoblast invasion into the placental bed in early-onset preeclampsia/intrauterine growth restriction is limited by increased apoptosis, resulting in narrower spiral arteries, which is in contrast to findings in anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.07.035DOI Listing
February 2006

Concerted upregulation of CLP36 and smooth muscle actin protein expression in human endometrium during decidualization.

Cells Tissues Organs 2005 ;179(3):109-14

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

The human endometrium prepares for implantation of the blastocyst by reorganization of its whole cellular network. Endometrial stroma cells change their phenotype starting around the 23rd day of the menstrual cycle. These predecidual stroma cells first appear next to spiral arteries, and after implantation these cells further differentiate into decidual stroma cells. The phenotypical changes in these cells during decidualization are characterized by distinct changes in the actin filaments and filament-related proteins such as alpha-actinin. The carboxy-terminal LIM domain protein with a molecular weight of 36 kDa (CLP36) is a cytoskeletal component that has been shown to associate with contractile actin filaments and to bind to alpha-actinin supporting a role for CLP36 in cytoskeletal reorganization and signal transduction by binding to signaling proteins. The expression patterns of CLP36, alpha-actinin and actin were studied in endometrial stroma cells from different stages of the menstrual cycle and in decidual stroma cells from the 6th week of gestation until the end of pregnancy. During the menstrual cycle, CLP36 is only expressed in the luminal and glandular epithelium but not in endometrial stroma cells. During decidualization and throughout pregnancy, a parallel upregulation of CLP36 and smooth muscle actin, an early marker of decidualization in the baboon, was observed in endometrial decidual cells. Since both proteins maintain a high expression level throughout pregnancy, a role of both proteins is suggested in the stabilization of the cytoskeleton of these cells that come into close contact with invading trophoblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000085002DOI Listing
July 2006

Heparin and aspirin attenuate placental apoptosis in vitro: implications for early pregnancy failure.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 Jan;192(1):23-30

Department of Anatomy II, University Hospital RWTH, Aachen, Germany.

Objective: Live birth rates are increased by treatment with heparin and aspirin in cases of poor pregnancy outcome such as antiphospholipid syndrome. Both drugs may attenuate miscarriage by inhibiting aberrant coagulation or by modulating trophoblast apoptosis. Here we assessed their roles in trophoblast apoptosis in vitro.

Study Design: BeWo cells and placental villi were cultured in sera from women with successful or failing in vitro fertilization, with and without heparin or aspirin. Apoptosis was assessed by using DNA laddering, cytokeratin 18 neoepitope formation, Bcl-2, and caspase 7 expression.

Results: In BeWo cells, sera from in vitro fertilization failure increased trophoblast apoptosis, whereas heparin and aspirin reversed these effects. In villous trophoblast, heparin increased Bcl-2 and cytokeratin 18 protein expression. Heparin and aspirin inhibited DNA laddering.

Conclusion: Heparin and aspirin modulate trophoblast apoptosis suggesting a direct impact on trophoblast biology, thus providing an additional mechanism to explain the clinical benefits of heparin and aspirin on recurrent pregnancy loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2004.09.029DOI Listing
January 2005

Adverse effects of lupus anticoagulant positive blood sera on placental viability can be prevented by heparin in vitro.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004 Dec;191(6):2125-31

Department of Anatomy, University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Objective: Lupus anticoagulant poses a significant risk factor for obstetric complications, whereas heparin improves live birth rates in those pregnancies. Pathophysiology of antiphospholipid antibodies on placental function involves coagulopathies and thrombosis but also dysregulated trophoblast turnover.

Study Design: With the use of placental explant cultures, we assessed the effect of lupus anticoagulant positive sera (LA + sera) on apoptosis, mitosis, and invasion of trophoblast and determined the role of unfractionated heparin in regulating these functions.

Results: LA + sera were associated with increased placental apoptosis (TUNEL, M30 formation, DNA laddering). LA + sera decreased villous trophoblast proliferation and reduced extravillous trophoblast invasion through matrigel. Heparin attenuated LA + sera-induced apoptosis and facilitated trophoblast invasion.

Conclusion: Lupus anticoagulant may impair placentation by increasing apoptosis, attenuating mitosis and reducing invasion of the trophoblast. The direct effects on trophoblast viability by heparin demonstrate an alternative biologic function for this anticoagulant and raise the possibility that anomalous trophoblast development may be therapeutically regulated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2004.05.014DOI Listing
December 2004

Invasive depth of extravillous trophoblast correlates with cellular phenotype: a comparison of intra- and extrauterine implantation sites.

Histochem Cell Biol 2002 May 20;117(5):401-14. Epub 2002 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany.

During intrauterine human placentation, extravillous trophoblast invades uterine tissues starting with proliferating stem cells at the basement membrane of anchoring villi. Transition to the postproliferative invasive phenotype takes place several cell layers distant. Here we show that in intrauterine pregnancies invasive trophoblast comprises three cellular phenotypes: a. Small spindle-shaped trophoblast cells are found along the whole invasive pathway throughout pregnancy. They are embedded in little heterogeneous extracellular matrix but expose only fibronectin receptors (integrins alpha5beta1, alphavbeta3/5), resulting in a partial integrin-matrix mismatch. b. Large polygonal trophoblast cells are rare in early pregnancy but increase in number towards term. They secrete ample heterogeneous extracellular matrix and expose integrins specifically matching the opposing matrix molecules (integrins alpha6beta4, alpha5beta1). c. Multinucleated giant cells in all stages of pregnancy form a kind of peripheral shell of trophoblast. In contrast to intrauterine pregnancies, in viable tubal pregnancies, Mib-1 expression indicating proliferation, extends deeply into the invasive pathway. Trophoblast cells of the invasive pathway mostly belong to the small spindle-shaped phenotype and secrete little extracellular matrix, mainly fibronectins. At the transition to the second cellular layer of cell columns expression of integrin alpha6beta4 switches to expression of alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3/5. Viable tubal pregnancies are characterised by a broad overlap of proliferative with invasive phenotype as well as a general integrin-matrix mismatch. The differences in proliferation patterns, cellular phenotype and matrix-integrin co-localisation may well explain the increase of invasiveness of normal extravillous trophoblast from term intrauterine via early intrauterine to viable tubal pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-002-0396-0DOI Listing
May 2002
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