Publications by authors named "Malin Sund"

147 Publications

Are Circulating Immune Cells a Determinant of Pancreatic Cancer Risk? A Prospective Study Using Epigenetic Cell Count Measures.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

Background: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer etiology but prospective investigations are missing.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sublineages: total CD3, CD8, CD4, and FOXP3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. ORs with 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modeling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale.

Results: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in subgroup analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8 were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up.

Conclusions: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8 cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease.

Impact: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T cells and lower relative counts of CD8, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0169DOI Listing
September 2021

Data Resource Profile: Breast Cancer Data Base Sweden (BCBaSe 2.0).

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab139DOI Listing
September 2021

Plasma concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and pancreatic cancer risk.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Cancer Registry and Histopathology Department, "Civic-M.P. Arezzo" Hospital, ASP Ragusa, Ragusa, Italy.

Background: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts.

Methods: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline.

Results: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, β-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk.

Conclusions: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab115DOI Listing
July 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Circulating Anti-Müllerian Hormone Concentration in Healthy Premenopausal Women.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct;106(11):e4542-e4553

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Context: We previously reported that anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of ovarian reserve, is positively associated with breast cancer risk, consistent with other studies.

Objective: This study assessed whether risk factors for breast cancer are correlates of AMH concentration.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 3831 healthy premenopausal women (aged 21-57, 87% aged 35-49) from 10 cohort studies among the general population.

Results: Adjusting for age and cohort, AMH positively associated with age at menarche (P < 0.0001) and parity (P = 0.0008) and inversely associated with hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy (P = 0.0008). Compared with women of normal weight, AMH was lower (relative geometric mean difference 27%, P < 0.0001) among women who were obese. Current oral contraceptive (OC) use and current/former smoking were associated with lower AMH concentration than never use (40% and 12% lower, respectively, P < 0.0001). We observed higher AMH concentrations among women who had had a benign breast biopsy (15% higher, P = 0.03), a surrogate for benign breast disease, an association that has not been reported. In analyses stratified by age (<40 vs ≥40), associations of AMH with body mass index and OCs were similar in younger and older women, while associations with the other factors (menarche, parity, hysterectomy/partial oophorectomy, smoking, and benign breast biopsy) were limited to women ≥40 (P-interaction < 0.05).

Conclusion: This is the largest study of AMH and breast cancer risk factors among women from the general population (not presenting with infertility), and it suggests that most associations are limited to women over 40, who are approaching menopause and whose AMH concentration is declining.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530718PMC
October 2021

Risk of primary lung cancer after adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer-a large population-based study.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 1;7(1):71. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) has been associated with an increased risk of later radiation-induced lung cancer (LC). We examined the risk of primary LC in a population-based cohort of 52300 women treated for BC during 1992 to 2012, and 253796 age-matched women without BC. Cumulative incidence of LC was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the risk of LC after BC treatment was estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Women with BC receiving RT had a higher cumulative incidence of LC compared to women with BC not receiving RT and women without BC. This became apparent 5 years after RT and increased with longer follow-up. Women with BC receiving RT had a Hazard ratio of 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.37-1.84) for LC compared to women without BC. RT techniques that lower the incidental lung doses, e.g breathing adaption techniques, may lower this risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00280-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169889PMC
June 2021

Hyperglycemia as a risk factor in pancreatic cancer: A nested case-control study using prediagnostic blood glucose levels.

Pancreatology 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objective: To determine the risk association between fasting glucose levels and pancreatic cancer using systematically collected prediagnostic blood glucose samples.

Methods: Prospective nested case-control study of participants from the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study, including 182 cases that developed pancreatic cancer and four matched controls per case. Blood glucose levels collected up to 24 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis were analyzed. The association between fasting glucose levels and pancreatic cancer risk was determined using unconditional and conditional logistic regression models. The association between fasting glucose and the time to pancreatic cancer diagnosis, tumor stage and survival was determined using likelihood-ratio test, t-test and log rank test.

Results: The unadjusted risk of developing pancreatic cancer increased with increasing fasting glucose levels (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.05-1.60, P = .015). Impaired fasting glucose (≥6.1 mmol/L) was associated with an adjusted risk of 1.77 for developing pancreatic cancer (95% CI 1.05-2.99, P = .032). In subgroup analysis, fasting glucose levels were associated with an increased risk in never-smokers (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.26-12.77, P = .018) and non-diabetics (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.08-8.79, P = .035) (non-significant for interaction). The ratio between fasting glucose and BMI was higher among future pancreatic cancer patients and an increased ratio was associated with elevated risk of pancreatic cancer (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.04-2.66, P = .034). Fasting glucose levels were not associated with TNM stage at diagnosis or survival.

Conclusions: High fasting glucose is associated with an increased risk of being diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.05.008DOI Listing
May 2021

An Aggregated Comorbidity Measure Based on History of Filled Drug Prescriptions: Development and Evaluation in Two Separate Cohorts.

Epidemiology 2021 07;32(4):607-615

From the Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: The ability to account for comorbidity when estimating survival in a population diagnosed with cancer could be improved by using a drug comorbidity index based on filled drug prescriptions.

Methods: We created a drug comorbidity index from age-stratified univariable associations between filled drug prescriptions and time to death in 326,450 control males randomly selected from the general population to men with prostate cancer. We also evaluated the index in 272,214 control females randomly selected from the general population to women with breast cancer.

Results: The new drug comorbidity index predicted survival better than the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and a previously published prescription index during 11 years of follow-up. The concordance (C)-index for the new index was 0.73 in male and 0.76 in the female population, as compared with a C-index of 0.67 in men and 0.69 in women for the CCI. In men of age 75-84 years with CCI = 0, the median survival time was 7.1 years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.0, 7.3) in the highest index quartile. Comparing the highest to the lowest drug comorbidity index quartile resulted in a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.2 among men (95% CI = 2.1, 2.3) and 2.4 among women (95% CI = 2.3, 2.6).

Conclusions: A new drug comorbidity index based on filled drug prescriptions improved prediction of survival beyond age and the CCI alone. The index will allow a more accurate baseline estimation of expected survival for comparing treatment outcomes and evaluating treatment guidelines in populations of people with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001358DOI Listing
July 2021

Long-term weight change and risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, UK.

Background: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status.

Methods: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer.

Results: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85).

Conclusion: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyab032DOI Listing
March 2021

The prognostic impact of the tumour stroma fraction: A machine learning-based analysis in 16 human solid tumour types.

EBioMedicine 2021 Mar 9;65:103269. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: The development of a reactive tumour stroma is a hallmark of tumour progression and pronounced tumour stroma is generally considered to be associated with clinical aggressiveness. The variability between tumour types regarding stroma fraction, and its prognosis associations, have not been systematically analysed.

Methods: Using an objective machine-learning method we quantified the tumour stroma in 16 solid cancer types from 2732 patients, representing retrospective tissue collections of surgically resected primary tumours. Image analysis performed tissue segmentation into stromal and epithelial compartment based on pan-cytokeratin staining and autofluorescence patterns.

Findings: The stroma fraction was highly variable within and across the tumour types, with kidney cancer showing the lowest and pancreato-biliary type periampullary cancer showing the highest stroma proportion (median 19% and 73% respectively). Adjusted Cox regression models revealed both positive (pancreato-biliary type periampullary cancer and oestrogen negative breast cancer, HR(95%CI)=0.56(0.34-0.92) and HR(95%CI)=0.41(0.17-0.98) respectively) and negative (intestinal type periampullary cancer, HR(95%CI)=3.59(1.49-8.62)) associations of the tumour stroma fraction with survival.

Interpretation: Our study provides an objective quantification of the tumour stroma fraction across major types of solid cancer. Findings strongly argue against the commonly promoted view of a general associations between high stroma abundance and poor prognosis. The results also suggest that full exploitation of the prognostic potential of tumour stroma requires analyses that go beyond determination of stroma abundance.

Funding: The Swedish Cancer Society, The Lions Cancer Foundation Uppsala, The Swedish Government Grant for Clinical Research, The Mrs Berta Kamprad Foundation, Sweden, Sellanders foundation, P.O.Zetterling Foundation, and The Sjöberg Foundation, Sweden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960932PMC
March 2021

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JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Feb 26;5(1):pkaa084. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Although small, node-negative breast cancer (ie, T1abN0) constitutes 20% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers, data on prognosis and prognostic factors are limited.

Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study including 20 114 Swedish women treated for T1abN0 breast cancer from 1977 onward. Patient and tumor data were collected from Swedish breast cancer registries. Cohort subjects were followed through linkage to the Cause of Death Register. We calculated the cumulative incidence of breast cancer-specific and overall death and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: During a median follow-up of 9.1 years (range = 0-38), 915 women died of breast cancer and 5416 of any cause. The 10-, 20-, and 30-year cumulative incidences of breast cancer death were 3.4% (95% CI = 3.1% to 3.7%), 7.6% (95% CI = 7.1% to 8.2%), and 10.5% (95% CI = 9.6% to 11.4%), respectively. The multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of breast cancer death were 0.92 (95% CI = 0.88 to 0.97) for each additional calendar year of diagnosis, 4.38 (95% CI = 2.79 to 6.87) for grade 3 vs grade 1 tumors, 0.43 (95% CI = 0.31 to 0.62) for progesterone receptor-positive vs progesterone receptor-negative disease, and 2.01 (95% CI = 0.99 to 4.07) for HER2-positive vs HER2-negative disease. Women with grade 3 vs grade 1 tumors had a 56% increased risk of death from any cause (HR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.88).

Conclusions: The risk of breast cancer death in T1abN0 disease continues to increase steadily beyond 10 years after diagnosis, has improved over time, and varies substantially by tumor characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791632PMC
February 2021

Mesoscopic 3D imaging of pancreatic cancer and Langerhans islets based on tissue autofluorescence.

Sci Rep 2020 10 26;10(1):18246. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine, Umeå University, Johan Bures väg 12, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.

The possibility to assess pancreatic anatomy with microscopic resolution in three dimensions (3D) would significantly add to pathological analyses of disease processes. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a bleak prognosis with over 90% of the patients dying within 5 years after diagnosis. Cure can be achieved by surgical resection, but the efficiency remains drearily low. Here we demonstrate a method that without prior immunohistochemical labelling provides insight into the 3D microenvironment and spread of PDAC and premalignant cysts in intact surgical biopsies. The method is based solely on the autofluorescent properties of the investigated tissues using optical projection tomography and/or light-sheet fluorescence microscopy. It does not interfere with subsequent histopathological analysis and may facilitate identification of tumor-free resection margins within hours. We further demonstrate how the developed approach can be used to assess individual volumes and numbers of the islets of Langerhans in unprecedently large biopsies of human pancreatic tissue, thus providing a new means by which remaining islet mass may be assessed in settings of diabetes. Generally, the method may provide a fast approach to provide new anatomical insight into pancreatic pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74616-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588461PMC
October 2020

Incorporating multiple sets of eQTL weights into gene-by-environment interaction analysis identifies novel susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.

Genet Epidemiol 2020 11 10;44(8):880-892. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

It is of great scientific interest to identify interactions between genetic variants and environmental exposures that may modify the risk of complex diseases. However, larger sample sizes are usually required to detect gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) than required to detect genetic main association effects. To boost the statistical power and improve the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, we incorporate functional genomics information, specifically, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), into a data-adaptive G × E test, called aGEw. This test adaptively chooses the best eQTL weights from multiple tissues and provides an extra layer of weighting at the genetic variant level. Extensive simulations show that the aGEw test can control the Type 1 error rate, and the power is resilient to the inclusion of neutral variants and noninformative external weights. We applied the proposed aGEw test to the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (discovery cohort of 3,585 cases and 3,482 controls) and the PanScan II genome-wide association study data (replication cohort of 2,021 cases and 2,105 controls) with smoking as the exposure of interest. Two novel putative smoking-related pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, TRIP10 and KDM3A, were identified. The aGEw test is implemented in an R package aGE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657998PMC
November 2020

Breast reconstruction patterns from a Swedish nation-wide survey.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2020 10 18;46(10 Pt A):1867-1873. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Plastic Surgery, Uppsala University, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

Objectives: The overall aim of the Swedish Breast Reconstruction Outcome Study was to investigate national long-term outcomes after mastectomy with or without breast reconstruction. The current report evaluates breast reconstruction (BR) patterns in Sweden over time.

Materials And Methods: This is a cross-sectional, registry-based study where all women operated with mastectomy 2000, 2005, 2010 were identified (N = 5853). Geographical differences in type of BR were investigated using heatmaps. Distribution of continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test, categorical variables were compared using the chi-square test.

Results: Mean age at survey was 69 years (SD=±11.4) and response rate was 50%, responders were on average six years younger than the non-responders and had a more favourable tumor stage (both p < 0.01). Of the 2904 responders, 31% (895/2904) had received a BR: implant-based in 58% (516/895)autologous in 31% (281/895). BR was immediate in 20% (176/895) and delayed in 80% (719/895) women. Women with BR were on average one year older, more often had a normal BMI, reported to be married or had a partner, had a higher educational level and a higher annual income when compared to those without BR (all p < 0.001). The independent factors of not receiving BR were older age and given radiotherapy.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first national long-term follow-up study on women undergoing mastectomy with and without BR. Around 30% of the survey responders have had a BR with a significant geographical variation highlighting the importance of information, availability and standardisation of indications for BR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.04.030DOI Listing
October 2020

Preventing spread of SARS-CoV-2 and preparing for the COVID-19 outbreak in the surgical department: perspectives from two Scandinavian countries.

J Surg Case Rep 2020 May 6;2020(5):rjaa131. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway.

A COVID-19 pandemic was declared on March 11 by the World Health Organization (WHO). The first cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on January 31 in Sweden and on February 26 in Norway. Despite being similar countries with universal healthcare systems, the governmental approaches to mitigation of the epidemic have varied considerably. Norway initiated a societal lockdown effective from March 12, the same day as the first confirmed death. Sweden has initiated a more laxed and gradual strategy based on the appeal for a strong personal sense of responsibility to mitigate the viral spread. In both countries, the first weeks of preparation has seen a strong reduction in elective surgery, with several implemented principles to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 spread and prepare for surgical care for COVID-19 diseases as needed. This invited leading article gives a brief overview of some of the early experiences of the outbreak in two Scandinavian countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jscr/rjaa131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202331PMC
May 2020

Expression and Circulating Levels of Perlecan in Breast Cancer - Implications for Oestrogen Dependent Stromal Remodeling.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2020 03 2;25(1):69-77. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Surgery and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, 90185, Umeå, Sweden.

Localised breast cancer can be cured by surgery and adjuvant treatments, but mortality remains high as some tumours metastasize early. Perlecan is a basement membrane (BM) protein involved in tumour development and progression. Here, mRNA and protein expression of perlecan, and mRNA expression of matrix degrading enzymes were studied in normal breast and invasive breast cancer, and correlated to prognostic risk factors, in particular oestrogen status. Moreover, plasma levels of perlecan were measured in patients with breast cancer and compared with controls. mRNA data was extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Perlecan protein expression was visualized using immunofluorescence and plasma levels measured by ELISA assay. Perlecan mRNA levels were twice as high in normal breast compared with breast cancer tissue. A strong correlation was found between mRNA expression of perlecan and several matrix-degrading enzymes in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumours. Perlecan protein was localized to both epithelial and vascular BMs, but absent in the stroma in normal breast. In breast cancer, the expression of perlecan in epithelial BM was fragmented or completely lost, with a marked upregulation of perlecan expression in the stroma. Significantly higher levels of perlecan were found in plasma of ER+ patients when compared with ER- patients. This study shows that perlecan expression and degradation in breast cancer may be linked to the ER status of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10911-020-09447-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Surgical treatment of breast cancer liver metastases - A nationwide registry-based case control study.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2020 06 15;46(6):1006-1012. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, Sweden. Electronic address:

Introduction: The benefit of liver resection or ablation for breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) remains unclear. The aim of the study was to determine survival after isolated BCLM in nationwide cohorts and compare surgical versus systemic treatment regimens.

Materials And Methods: The Swedish register for cancer in the liver and the bile ducts (SweLiv) and the National register for breast cancer (NBCR) was studied to identify patients with 1-5 BCLM without extrahepatic spread diagnosed 2009-2016. Data from the registers were validated and completed by review of medical records. A Kaplan-Meier plot and log rank test were used to analyse survival. Prognostic and predictive factors were evaluated by Cox regression analysis.

Results: A surgical cohort (n = 29) was identified and compared to a control cohort (n = 33) receiving systemic treatment only. There was no 90-day mortality after surgery. Median survival from BCLM diagnosis was 77 months (95% CI 41-113) in the surgical cohort and 28 months (95% CI 13-43) in the control cohort, (p = 0.004). There was a longer disease-free interval and more oestrogen receptor positive tumours in the surgical cohort. Surgery was a significant positive predictive factor in univariate analysis while a multivariable analysis resulted in HR 0.478 (CI 0.193-1.181, p = 0.110) for surgical treatment.

Conclusion: Surgery for BCLM is safe and might provide a survival benefit in selected patients but prospective trials are warranted to avoid selection bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.02.008DOI Listing
June 2020

Adult weight change and premenopausal breast cancer risk: A prospective pooled analysis of data from 628,463 women.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 15;147(5):1306-1314. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

Early-adulthood body size is strongly inversely associated with risk of premenopausal breast cancer. It is unclear whether subsequent changes in weight affect risk. We pooled individual-level data from 17 prospective studies to investigate the association of weight change with premenopausal breast cancer risk, considering strata of initial weight, timing of weight change, other breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer subtype. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained using Cox regression. Among 628,463 women, 10,886 were diagnosed with breast cancer before menopause. Models adjusted for initial weight at ages 18-24 years and other breast cancer risk factors showed that weight gain from ages 18-24 to 35-44 or to 45-54 years was inversely associated with breast cancer overall (e.g., HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.98) and with oestrogen-receptor(ER)-positive breast cancer (HR per 5 kg to ages 45-54: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98). Weight gain from ages 25-34 was inversely associated with ER-positive breast cancer only and weight gain from ages 35-44 was not associated with risk. None of these weight gains were associated with ER-negative breast cancer. Weight loss was not consistently associated with overall or ER-specific risk after adjusting for initial weight. Weight increase from early-adulthood to ages 45-54 years is associated with a reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk independently of early-adulthood weight. Biological explanations are needed to account for these two separate factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365745PMC
September 2020

Bleeding risk in breast cancer patients during concomitant administration of warfarin and tamoxifen: A population-based nested case-control study.

Breast J 2020 05 28;26(5):981-987. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR), School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.

We aimed to investigate whether the concomitant use of tamoxifen with warfarin is associated with higher risk for bleeding among patients with early estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast in a population-based nested case-control study. We identified 1787 patients taking warfarin and 92 cases hospitalized for bleeding and found an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84-2.40) for the risk of bleeding in patients treated with warfarin that initiated tamoxifen within the previous 30 days. As a result, we could not definitively rule out a potential association between tamoxifen use during warfarin and bleeding risk in patients with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbj.13759DOI Listing
May 2020

The generalisability of randomised clinical trials: an interim external validity analysis of the ongoing SENOMAC trial in sentinel lymph node-positive breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Feb 27;180(1):167-176. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Surgery Center, Norrland University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.

Purpose: None of the key randomised trials on the omission of axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in sentinel lymph-positive breast cancer have reported external validity, even though results indicate selection bias. Our aim was to assess the external validity of the ongoing randomised SENOMAC trial by comparing characteristics of Swedish SENOMAC trial participants with non-included eligible patients registered in the Swedish National Breast Cancer Register (NKBC).

Methods: In the ongoing non-inferiority European SENOMAC trial, clinically node-negative cT1-T3 breast cancer patients with up to two sentinel lymph node macrometastases are randomised to undergo completion ALND or not. Both breast-conserving surgery and mastectomy are eligible interventions. Data from NKBC were extracted for the years 2016 and 2017, and patient and tumour characteristics compared with Swedish trial participants from the same years.

Results: Overall, 306 NKBC cases from non-participating and 847 NKBC cases from participating sites (excluding SENOMAC participants) were compared with 463 SENOMAC trial participants. Patients belonging to the middle age groups (p = 0.015), with smaller tumours (p = 0.013) treated by breast-conserving therapy (50.3 versus 47.1 versus 65.2%, p < 0.001) and less nodal tumour burden (only 1 macrometastasis in 78.8 versus 79.9 versus 87.3%, p = 0.001) were over-represented in the trial population. Time trends indicated, however, that differences may be mitigated over time.

Conclusions: This interim external validity analysis specifically addresses selection mechanisms during an ongoing trial, potentially increasing generalisability by the time full accrual is reached. Similar validity checks should be an integral part of prospective clinical trials.

Trial Registration: NCT02240472, retrospective registration date September 14, 2015 after trial initiation on January 31, 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05537-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031168PMC
February 2020

Long-term risk of ischemic heart disease after adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: results from a large population-based cohort.

Breast Cancer Res 2020 01 22;22(1):10. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer (BC) has been associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the incidence of IHD in a large population-based cohort of women with BC.

Methods: The Breast Cancer DataBase Sweden (BCBaSe) includes all women diagnosed with BC from 1992 to 2012 (n = 60,217) and age-matched women without a history of BC (n = 300,791) in three Swedish health care regions. Information on comorbidity, educational level, and incidence of IHD was obtained through linkage with population-based registries. The risk of IHD was estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression analyses and cumulative incidence by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Women with BC had a lower risk of IHD compared to women without BC with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.95). When women with left-sided BC were compared to right-sided BC, an increased HR for IHD of 1.09 (95% CI 1.01-1.17) was seen. In women receiving RT, a HR of 1.18 (95% CI 1.06-1.31) was seen in left-sided compared to right-sided BC, and the HRs increased with more extensive lymph node involvement and with the addition of systemic therapy. The cumulative IHD incidence was increased in women receiving left-sided RT compared to right-sided RT, starting from the first years after RT and sustained with longer follow-up.

Conclusions: Women given RT for left-sided BC during 1992 to 2012 had an increased risk of IHD compared to women treated for right-sided BC. These women were treated in the era of three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT), and the results emphasize the importance of further developing and implementing RT techniques that lower the cardiac doses, without compromising the beneficial effects of RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-1249-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977272PMC
January 2020

Mitochondrial DNA Copy-Number Variation and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Prospective EPIC Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 03 13;29(3):681-686. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood has been found to be associated with risk of developing several cancers. However, data on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are very limited.

Methods: To further our knowledge on this topic, we measured relative mtDNA copy number by a quantitative real-time PCR assay in peripheral leukocyte samples of 476 PDAC cases and 357 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Results: We observed lower mtDNA copy number with advancing age ( = 6.54 × 10) and with a high body mass index (BMI) level ( = 0.004) and no association with sex, smoking behavior, and alcohol consumption. We found an association between increased mtDNA copy number and decreased risk of developing PDAC with an odds ratios (OR) of 0.35 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.79; = 0.01] when comparing the fifth quintile with the first using an unconditional logistic regression and an OR of 0.19 (95% CI, 0.07-0.52; = 0.001) with a conditional analysis. Analyses stratified by BMI showed an association between high mtDNA copy number and decreased risk in the stratum of normal weight, consistent with the main analyses.

Conclusions: Our results suggest a protective effect of a higher number of mitochondria, measured in peripheral blood leukocytes, on PDAC risk.

Impact: Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the mitochondrial biology in pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611119PMC
March 2020

A Transcriptome-Wide Association Study Identifies Novel Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Pancreatic Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 10;112(10):1003-1012

Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Although 20 pancreatic cancer susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry, much of its heritability remains unexplained and the genes responsible largely unknown.

Methods: To discover novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and possible causal genes, we performed a pancreatic cancer transcriptome-wide association study in Europeans using three approaches: FUSION, MetaXcan, and Summary-MulTiXcan. We integrated genome-wide association studies summary statistics from 9040 pancreatic cancer cases and 12 496 controls, with gene expression prediction models built using transcriptome data from histologically normal pancreatic tissue samples (NCI Laboratory of Translational Genomics [n = 95] and Genotype-Tissue Expression v7 [n = 174] datasets) and data from 48 different tissues (Genotype-Tissue Expression v7, n = 74-421 samples).

Results: We identified 25 genes whose genetically predicted expression was statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk (false discovery rate < .05), including 14 candidate genes at 11 novel loci (1p36.12: CELA3B; 9q31.1: SMC2, SMC2-AS1; 10q23.31: RP11-80H5.9; 12q13.13: SMUG1; 14q32.33: BTBD6; 15q23: HEXA; 15q26.1: RCCD1; 17q12: PNMT, CDK12, PGAP3; 17q22: SUPT4H1; 18q11.22: RP11-888D10.3; and 19p13.11: PGPEP1) and 11 at six known risk loci (5p15.33: TERT, CLPTM1L, ZDHHC11B; 7p14.1: INHBA; 9q34.2: ABO; 13q12.2: PDX1; 13q22.1: KLF5; and 16q23.1: WDR59, CFDP1, BCAR1, TMEM170A). The association for 12 of these genes (CELA3B, SMC2, and PNMT at novel risk loci and TERT, CLPTM1L, INHBA, ABO, PDX1, KLF5, WDR59, CFDP1, and BCAR1 at known loci) remained statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.

Conclusions: By integrating gene expression and genotype data, we identified novel pancreatic cancer risk loci and candidate functional genes that warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566474PMC
October 2020

Prophylactic Mastectomy: Postoperative Skin Flap Thickness Evaluated by MRT, Ultrasound and Clinical Examination.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Jul 6;27(7):2221-2228. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Plastic Surgery and Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Women with an increased hereditary risk of breast cancer can undergo prophylactic mastectomy (PM), which provides a significant, but not total, risk reduction. There is an ongoing discussion about how much skin and subcutaneous tissue should be resected to perform an adequate PM while leaving viable skin flaps.

Methods: Forty-five women who had undergone PM were examined with magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), ultrasound (US) and clinical examination (CE) by a plastic surgeon and a general surgeon to estimate skin flap thickness.

Results: The estimated mean skin flap thickness after PM was 13.3 (± 9.6), 7.0 (± 3.3), 6.9 (± 2.8) and 7.4 (± 2.8) mm following MRT, US, and CE performed by a plastic surgeon and a general surgeon, respectively. The mean difference in estimated skin flap thickness was significant between MRT and the other measuring methods, while there was no significant difference between US and CE, nor between CE performed by the surgeons. The mean skin flap thickness was significantly affected by the age at PM. Following PM, necrosis was detected in 7/23 (30.4%) of the breasts in skin flaps ≤ 5 mm and in 5/46 (10.9%) of the breasts in skin flaps > 5 mm (OR 6.29; CI 1.20-32.94; p = 0.03).

Conclusion: The odds of getting postoperative necrosis was > 6 times higher in skin flaps ≤ 5 mm. Thus, if the degree of remaining glandular tissue is acceptably low, it is desirable to create skin flaps thicker than 5 mm to prevent wound healing problems after the PM procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-08157-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311506PMC
July 2020

Invasiveness and Metastatic Aggressiveness in Small Differentiated Thyroid Cancers: Demography of Small Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in the Swedish Population.

World J Surg 2020 02;44(2):461-468

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University, 901 85, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: The western world is seeing a rising incidence of thyroid cancer. Improved diagnostic methods do not entirely explain this increase. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common subtype of thyroid cancer. Small PTC (≤20 mm) and especially papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC ≤10 mm) are considered to be low-risk tumors but some cases are considerably more aggressive. Sufficient understanding of these mechanisms is a long-term goal for more efficient and safer treatment of these tumors.

Methods: We identified 959 cases of small PTCs in the validated Scandinavian Quality Register for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery, grouped according to lymph node metastasis. These were analyzed according to age, gender, tumor size and geographic region.

Results: Patients with N1b disease (lateral lymph nodes metastases) had a smaller tumor size compared to patients with N1a disease (8.6 mm vs 10.1 mm respectively, p < 0.05). Patients and specifically females with N1b disease were younger than those with N0 or N1a disease. Patients with N1b disease had a lower proportion of females (60%) compared to N0 and N1a groups (81% and 78%, respectively). The incidence of operated small PTCs and of lymph node engagement differs between geographic regions in Sweden.

Conclusions: Small PTC and especially PTMC seem to show different patterns of aggressiveness and demography regarding lateral lymph node metastases and 7% had N1b disease and tumor <1 cm, underscoring the importance of lymph node evaluation in PTMC patients. More understanding of predictive factors, mechanisms for metastatic disease and causes of regional differences, is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-019-05312-4DOI Listing
February 2020

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the EPIC study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Oct 28;35(10):975-986. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLI), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLI and HLI were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; p = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; p = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLI resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; p = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-019-00559-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116136PMC
October 2020

Reappraisal of a 2-Cm Cut-off Size for the Management of Cystic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A Multicenter International Study.

Ann Surg 2021 05;273(5):973-981

Department of Digestive, Pancreatic and Endocrine Surgery, Cochin Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize an international cohort of resected cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (cPanNENs) and identify preoperative predictors of aggressive behavior.

Background: The characteristics of cPanNENs are unknown and their clinical management remains unclear. An observational strategy for asymptomatic cPanNENs ≤2 cm has been proposed by recent guidelines, but evidence is scarce and limited to single-institutional series.

Methods: Resected cPanNENs (1995-2017) from 16 institutions worldwide were included. Solid lesions (>50% solid component), functional tumors, and MEN-1 patients were excluded. Aggressiveness was defined as lymph node (LN) involvement, G3 grading, distant metastases, and/or recurrence.

Results: Overall, 263 resected cPanNENs were included, among which 177 (63.5%) were >2 cm preoperatively. A preoperative diagnosis of cPanNEN was established in 162 cases (61.6%) and was more frequent when patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound [EUS, odds ratio (OR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.52-4.77] and somatostatin-receptor imaging (OR 3.681, 95% CI 1.809-7.490), and for those managed in specialized institutions (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.57-6.21). Forty-one cPanNENs (15.6%) were considered aggressive. In the whole cohort, LN involvement on imaging, age >65 years, preoperative size >2 cm, and pancreatic duct dilation were independently associated with aggressive behavior. In asymptomatic patients, older age and a preoperative size >2 cm remained independently associated with aggressiveness. Only 1 of 61 asymptomatic cPanNENs ≤2 cm displayed an aggressive behavior.

Conclusions: The diagnostic accuracy of cPanNENs is increased by the use of EUS and somatostatin-receptor imaging and is higher in specialized institutions. Preoperative size >2 cm is independently associated with aggressive behavior. Consequently, a watch-and-wait policy for sporadic asymptomatic cPanNENs ≤2 cm seems justified and safe for most patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003508DOI Listing
May 2021

miRFA: an automated pipeline for microRNA functional analysis with correlation support from TCGA and TCPA expression data in pancreatic cancer.

BMC Bioinformatics 2019 Jul 16;20(1):393. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level and are emerging as potentially important biomarkers for various disease states, including pancreatic cancer. In silico-based functional analysis of miRNAs usually consists of miRNA target prediction and functional enrichment analysis of miRNA targets. Since miRNA target prediction methods generate a large number of false positive target genes, further validation to narrow down interesting candidate miRNA targets is needed. One commonly used method correlates miRNA and mRNA expression to assess the regulatory effect of a particular miRNA. The aim of this study was to build a bioinformatics pipeline in R for miRNA functional analysis including correlation analyses between miRNA expression levels and its targets on mRNA and protein expression levels available from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and the cancer proteome atlas (TCPA). TCGA-derived expression data of specific mature miRNA isoforms from pancreatic cancer tissue was used.

Results: Fifteen circulating miRNAs with significantly altered expression levels detected in pancreatic cancer patients were queried separately in the pipeline. The pipeline generated predicted miRNA target genes, enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Predicted miRNA targets were evaluated by correlation analyses between each miRNA and its predicted targets. MiRNA functional analysis in combination with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggest that hsa-miR-885-5p could act as a tumor suppressor and should be validated as a potential prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

Conclusions: Our miRNA functional analysis (miRFA) pipeline can serve as a valuable tool in biomarker discovery involving mature miRNAs associated with pancreatic cancer and could be developed to cover additional cancer types. Results for all mature miRNAs in TCGA pancreatic adenocarcinoma dataset can be studied and downloaded through a shiny web application at https://emmbor.shinyapps.io/mirfa/ .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-2974-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636046PMC
July 2019

Socioeconomic Effect of Education on Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Western Europe: An Update on the EPIC Cohorts Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 06;28(6):1089-1092

Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up.

Methods: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors.

Results: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance.

Conclusions: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems.

Impact: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-1153DOI Listing
June 2019

Consumption of nuts and seeds and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Int J Cancer 2020 01 6;146(1):76-84. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases (DCD), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340534PMC
January 2020

Prediabetes and diabetes in relation to risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2019 06 7;120(12):1147-1152. Epub 2019 May 7.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Whether prediabetes or diabetes increases the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma is not clear.

Methods: This cohort study included 111,198 participants in the Northern Swedish Health and Disease Study. The participants were followed up from November 1985 to April 2017. The exposure to prediabetes or diabetes was assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests and self-reports. The incidence of the outcome gastric adenocarcinoma was identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox regressions were used to analyse the associations between prediabetes or diabetes and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, providing hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), with adjustment for sex, age, calendar year, body mass index, tobacco smoking and education level.

Results: Compared with normoglycaemic participants, the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma was not increased among participants with prediabetes (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.79-1.44), diabetes (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.46-1.29) or any of these exposures (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.73-1.27). No associations were identified between prediabetes or diabetes and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in stratified analyses or in analyses separating cardia and non-cardia gastric adenocarcinoma.

Conclusions: This study does not support the hypothesis that prediabetes or diabetes increases the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0470-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738058PMC
June 2019
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